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Ocular albinism

MedGen UID:
38147
Concept ID:
C0078917
Congenital Abnormality
Synonyms: Albinism, Ocular; Ocular Albinism
SNOMED CT: Ocular albinism (26399002); OA - Ocular albinism (26399002)
 
HPO: HP:0001107
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0017304
Orphanet: ORPHA284804

Definition

An abnormal reduction in the amount of pigmentation (reduced or absent) of the iris and retina. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Chédiak-Higashi syndrome
MedGen UID:
3347
Concept ID:
C0007965
Disease or Syndrome
Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is characterized by partial oculocutaneous albinism, immunodeficiency, and a mild bleeding tendency. Approximately 85% of affected individuals develop the accelerated phase, or hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, a life-threatening, hyperinflammatory condition. All affected individuals including adolescents and adults with atypical CHS and children with classic CHS who have successfully undergone allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) develop neurologic findings during early adulthood.
Ocular albinism, type I
MedGen UID:
90991
Concept ID:
C0342684
Disease or Syndrome
Ocular albinism type I (OA1) is the most common form of ocular albinism. Clinical presentation of OA1 in Caucasians is characterized by nystagmus, impaired visual acuity, iris hypopigmentation with translucency, albinotic fundus, macular hypoplasia, and normally pigmented skin and hair. Carrier females usually have punctate iris translucency and a mottled pattern of fundus pigmentation. In contrast to Caucasian patients, black or Japanese patients with OA1 often have brown irides with little or no translucency and varying degrees of fundus hypopigmentation, the so-called 'nonalbinotic fundus' (summary by Xiao and Zhang, 2009).
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
374912
Concept ID:
C1842362
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.
Albinism-hearing loss syndrome
MedGen UID:
375573
Concept ID:
C1845068
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with characteristics of congenital nerve deafness and piebaldness without ocular albinism. Transmission is X-linked with affected males presenting with profound sensorineural deafness and severe pigmentary abnormalities of the skin and carrier females presenting with variable hearing impairment without any pigmentary changes. The causative gene has been mapped to Xq26.3-q27.1.
Vici syndrome
MedGen UID:
340962
Concept ID:
C1855772
Disease or Syndrome
With the current widespread use of multigene panels and comprehensive genomic testing, it has become apparent that the phenotypic spectrum of EPG5-related disorder represents a continuum. At the most severe end of the spectrum is classic Vici syndrome (defined as a neurodevelopmental disorder with multisystem involvement characterized by the combination of agenesis of the corpus callosum, cataracts, hypopigmentation, cardiomyopathy, combined immunodeficiency, microcephaly, and failure to thrive); at the milder end of the spectrum are attenuated neurodevelopmental phenotypes with variable multisystem involvement. Median survival in classic Vici syndrome appears to be 24 months, with only 10% of children surviving longer than age five years; the most common causes of death are respiratory infections as a result of primary immunodeficiency and/or cardiac insufficiency resulting from progressive cardiac failure. No data are available on life span in individuals at the milder end of the spectrum.
Waardenburg syndrome type 2E
MedGen UID:
398476
Concept ID:
C2700405
Disease or Syndrome
Waardenburg syndrome type 2 (WS2) is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, skin, and eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; and the absence of 'dystopia canthorum,' the lateral displacement of the inner canthus of each eye, which is seen in some other forms of WS (review by Read and Newton, 1997). Individuals with WS type 2E (WS2E) may have neurologic abnormalities, including mental impairment, myelination defects, and ataxia. Waardenburg syndrome type 2 is genetically heterogeneous (see WS2A, 193510). For a description of other clinical variants of Waardenburg syndrome, see WS1 (193500), WS3 (148820), and WS4 (277580).
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
419514
Concept ID:
C2931875
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
481386
Concept ID:
C3279756
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
481656
Concept ID:
C3280026
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
483344
Concept ID:
C3484357
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
854711
Concept ID:
C3888004
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
854714
Concept ID:
C3888007
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 8
MedGen UID:
854728
Concept ID:
C3888026
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 10
MedGen UID:
934713
Concept ID:
C4310746
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.
Tyrosinase-negative oculocutaneous albinism
MedGen UID:
1643910
Concept ID:
C4551504
Disease or Syndrome
Researchers have identified multiple types of oculocutaneous albinism, which are distinguished by their specific skin, hair, and eye color changes and by their genetic cause. Oculocutaneous albinism type 1 is characterized by white hair, very pale skin, and light-colored irises. Type 2 is typically less severe than type 1; the skin is usually a creamy white color and hair may be light yellow, blond, or light brown. Type 3 includes a form of albinism called rufous oculocutaneous albinism, which usually affects dark-skinned people. Affected individuals have reddish-brown skin, ginger or red hair, and hazel or brown irises. Type 3 is often associated with milder vision abnormalities than the other forms of oculocutaneous albinism. Type 4 has signs and symptoms similar to those seen with type 2.\n\nOculocutaneous albinism is a group of conditions that affect coloring (pigmentation) of the skin, hair, and eyes. Affected individuals typically have very fair skin and white or light-colored hair. Long-term sun exposure greatly increases the risk of skin damage and skin cancers, including an aggressive form of skin cancer called melanoma, in people with this condition. Oculocutaneous albinism also reduces pigmentation of the colored part of the eye (the iris) and the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (the retina). People with this condition usually have vision problems such as reduced sharpness; rapid, involuntary eye movements (nystagmus); and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia).\n\nSeveral additional types of this disorder have been proposed, each affecting one or a few families.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 11
MedGen UID:
1727728
Concept ID:
C5436936
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Kessel L, Kjer B, Lei U, Duno M, Grønskov K
Ophthalmic Genet 2021 Jun;42(3):230-238. Epub 2021 Feb 22 doi: 10.1080/13816810.2021.1881979. PMID: 33612058
Zou X, Li H, Yang L, Sun Z, Yuan Z, Li H, Sui R
Sci Rep 2017 Feb 17;7:33713. doi: 10.1038/srep33713. PMID: 28211458Free PMC Article
White D, Rabago-Smith M
J Hum Genet 2011 Jan;56(1):5-7. Epub 2010 Oct 14 doi: 10.1038/jhg.2010.126. PMID: 20944644

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Venkatesh R, Agrawal S, Reddy NG, Sridharan A, Ong J, Yadav NK, Chhablani J
Indian J Ophthalmol 2022 Jul;70(7):2506-2510. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_2907_21. PMID: 35791146Free PMC Article
Verkicharla P, Thakur S, Kammari P, Dhakal R, Das AV
Int Ophthalmol 2022 Jul;42(7):2007-2015. Epub 2022 May 19 doi: 10.1007/s10792-021-02165-6. PMID: 35587842
McKay BS
J Neurosci Res 2019 Jan;97(1):77-87. Epub 2018 May 14 doi: 10.1002/jnr.24246. PMID: 29761529Free PMC Article
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Kinnear PE, Jay B, Witkop CJ Jr
Surv Ophthalmol 1985 Sep-Oct;30(2):75-101. doi: 10.1016/0039-6257(85)90077-3. PMID: 3934778

Diagnosis

De Silva SR, Arno G, Robson AG, Fakin A, Pontikos N, Mohamed MD, Bird AC, Moore AT, Michaelides M, Webster AR, Mahroo OA
Prog Retin Eye Res 2021 May;82:100898. Epub 2020 Aug 26 doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2020.100898. PMID: 32860923
Wuthisiri W, Lingao MD, Capasso JE, Levin AV
Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2013 Sep;24(5):389-97. doi: 10.1097/ICU.0b013e3283641f91. PMID: 23892913
Grønskov K, Ek J, Brondum-Nielsen K
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Nov 2;2:43. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-43. PMID: 17980020Free PMC Article
King RA, Summers CG
Dermatol Clin 1988 Apr;6(2):217-28. PMID: 3288382
Kinnear PE, Jay B, Witkop CJ Jr
Surv Ophthalmol 1985 Sep-Oct;30(2):75-101. doi: 10.1016/0039-6257(85)90077-3. PMID: 3934778

Therapy

Gao X, Liu T, Cheng X, Dai A, Liu W, Li R, Zhang M
Mol Med Rep 2020 Jan;21(1):240-248. Epub 2019 Nov 12 doi: 10.3892/mmr.2019.10813. PMID: 31746431Free PMC Article
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Eye (Lond) 2016 Mar;30(3):422-5. Epub 2015 Nov 27 doi: 10.1038/eye.2015.245. PMID: 26611845Free PMC Article
Goshima Y, Nakamura F, Masukawa D, Chen S, Koga M
J Pharmacol Sci 2014;126(1):14-20. Epub 2014 Sep 4 doi: 10.1254/jphs.14r03cr. PMID: 25185585
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Prognosis

Zi F, Li Z, Cheng W, Huang X, Sheng X, Rong W
BMC Med Genomics 2023 Sep 25;16(1):223. doi: 10.1186/s12920-023-01665-x. PMID: 37749571Free PMC Article
Kuht HJ, Maconachie GDE, Han J, Kessel L, van Genderen MM, McLean RJ, Hisaund M, Tu Z, Hertle RW, Gronskov K, Bai D, Wei A, Li W, Jiao Y, Smirnov V, Choi JH, Tobin MD, Sheth V, Purohit R, Dawar B, Girach A, Strul S, May L, Chen FK, Heath Jeffery RC, Aamir A, Sano R, Jin J, Brooks BP, Kohl S, Arveiler B, Montoliu L, Engle EC, Proudlock FA, Nishad G, Pani P, Varma G, Gottlob I, Thomas MG
Ophthalmology 2022 Jun;129(6):708-718. Epub 2022 Feb 11 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2022.02.010. PMID: 35157951Free PMC Article
Murphy DC, Katta M, Egan CA, Michaelides M, Wickham L
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2022 Jul;260(7):2165-2173. Epub 2022 Jan 24 doi: 10.1007/s00417-021-05313-x. PMID: 35072785
Kruijt CC, Gradstein L, Bergen AA, Florijn RJ, Arveiler B, Lasseaux E, Zanlonghi X, Bagdonaite-Bejarano L, Fulton AB, Yahalom C, Blumenfeld A, Perez Y, Birk OS, de Wit GC, Schalij-Delfos NE, van Genderen MM
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2022 Jan 3;63(1):19. doi: 10.1167/iovs.63.1.19. PMID: 35029636Free PMC Article
Kirkwood BJ
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Clinical prediction guides

Venkatesh R, Agrawal S, Reddy NG, Sridharan A, Ong J, Yadav NK, Chhablani J
Indian J Ophthalmol 2022 Jul;70(7):2506-2510. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_2907_21. PMID: 35791146Free PMC Article
Kuht HJ, Maconachie GDE, Han J, Kessel L, van Genderen MM, McLean RJ, Hisaund M, Tu Z, Hertle RW, Gronskov K, Bai D, Wei A, Li W, Jiao Y, Smirnov V, Choi JH, Tobin MD, Sheth V, Purohit R, Dawar B, Girach A, Strul S, May L, Chen FK, Heath Jeffery RC, Aamir A, Sano R, Jin J, Brooks BP, Kohl S, Arveiler B, Montoliu L, Engle EC, Proudlock FA, Nishad G, Pani P, Varma G, Gottlob I, Thomas MG
Ophthalmology 2022 Jun;129(6):708-718. Epub 2022 Feb 11 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2022.02.010. PMID: 35157951Free PMC Article
Galli J, Loi E, Morandi A, Scaglioni V, Rossi A, Molinaro A, Pasini N, Semeraro F, Ruberto G, Fazzi E
Neuropediatrics 2022 Feb;53(1):7-14. Epub 2021 Jul 29 doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1732430. PMID: 34327695
Alsakran WA, Almadhi NH, Alshamrani AA, Alzahrani YA
Am J Case Rep 2020 Sep 8;21:e925926. doi: 10.12659/AJCR.925926. PMID: 32895362Free PMC Article
White D, Rabago-Smith M
J Hum Genet 2011 Jan;56(1):5-7. Epub 2010 Oct 14 doi: 10.1038/jhg.2010.126. PMID: 20944644

Recent systematic reviews

Kromberg JGR, Flynn KA, Kerr RA
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2023 Jul 3;64(10):14. doi: 10.1167/iovs.64.10.14. PMID: 37440261Free PMC Article

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