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Intellectual disability-balding-patella luxation-acromicria syndrome(SHLTS)

MedGen UID:
401129
Concept ID:
C1866985
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Early balding, patella luxation, acromicria and hypogonadism; Scholte syndrome
SNOMED CT: Intellectual disability, balding, patella luxation, acromicria syndrome (722002002); Scholte Begeer-van Essen syndrome (722002002); Scholte syndrome (722002002)
Modes of inheritance:
X-linked recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
375779
Concept ID:
C1845977
Finding
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for recessive traits related to a gene encoded on the X chromosome. In the context of medical genetics, X-linked recessive disorders manifest in males (who have one copy of the X chromosome and are thus hemizygotes), but generally not in female heterozygotes who have one mutant and one normal allele.
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0010505
OMIM®: 300977
Orphanet: ORPHA3041

Definition

This syndrome has characteristics of severe intellectual deficit, patella luxations, acromicria, hypogonadism, facial dysmorphism (including midface hypoplasia and premature frontotemporal balding). It has been described in three unrelated males. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

Clinical features

From HPO
Decreased testicular size
MedGen UID:
66027
Concept ID:
C0241355
Finding
Reduced volume of the testicle (the male gonad).
Micropenis
MedGen UID:
1633603
Concept ID:
C4551492
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally small penis. At birth, the normal penis is about 3 cm (stretched length from pubic tubercle to tip of penis) with micropenis less than 2.0-2.5 cm.
Small hand
MedGen UID:
108279
Concept ID:
C0575802
Finding
Disproportionately small hand.
Acromicria
MedGen UID:
923182
Concept ID:
C1386091
Congenital Abnormality
Small hands and feet in proportion to the rest of the body.
Patellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
327021
Concept ID:
C1840068
Finding
Underdevelopment of the patella.
Short foot
MedGen UID:
376415
Concept ID:
C1848673
Finding
A measured foot length that is more than 2 SD below the mean for a newborn of 27 - 41 weeks gestation, or foot that is less than the 3rd centile for individuals from birth to 16 years of age (objective). Alternatively, a foot that appears disproportionately short (subjective).
Intellectual disability, severe
MedGen UID:
48638
Concept ID:
C0036857
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Severe mental retardation is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 20-34.
Abnormal pyramidal sign
MedGen UID:
68582
Concept ID:
C0234132
Sign or Symptom
Functional neurological abnormalities related to dysfunction of the pyramidal tract.
Cerebellar atrophy
MedGen UID:
196624
Concept ID:
C0740279
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar atrophy is defined as a cerebellum with initially normal structures, in a posterior fossa with normal size, which displays enlarged fissures (interfolial spaces) in comparison to the foliae secondary to loss of tissue. Cerebellar atrophy implies irreversible loss of tissue and result from an ongoing progressive disease until a final stage is reached or a single injury, e.g. an intoxication or infectious event.
Dolichocephaly
MedGen UID:
65142
Concept ID:
C0221358
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a increased anterior-posterior diameter, i.e., an increased antero-posterior dimension of the skull. Cephalic index less than 76%. Alternatively, an apparently increased antero-posterior length of the head compared to width. Often due to premature closure of the sagittal suture.
Kyphoscoliosis
MedGen UID:
154361
Concept ID:
C0575158
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormal curvature of the spine in both a coronal (lateral) and sagittal (back-to-front) plane.
Reduced subcutaneous adipose tissue
MedGen UID:
387876
Concept ID:
C1857657
Finding
A reduced amount of fat tissue in the lowest layer of the integument. This feature can be appreciated by a reduced skinfold thickness.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
High forehead
MedGen UID:
65991
Concept ID:
C0239676
Finding
An abnormally increased height of the forehead.
Upslanted palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98390
Concept ID:
C0423109
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, the inclination of the palpebral fissure is greater than typical for age.
Bifid nasal tip
MedGen UID:
140870
Concept ID:
C0426428
Finding
A splitting of the nasal tip. Visually assessable vertical indentation, cleft, or depression of the nasal tip.
Broad nasal tip
MedGen UID:
98424
Concept ID:
C0426429
Finding
Increase in width of the nasal tip.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Everted lower lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
344003
Concept ID:
C1853246
Finding
An abnormal configuration of the lower lip such that it is turned outward i.e., everted, with the Inner aspect of the lower lip vermilion (normally opposing the teeth) being visible in a frontal view.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVIntellectual disability-balding-patella luxation-acromicria syndrome
Follow this link to review classifications for Intellectual disability-balding-patella luxation-acromicria syndrome in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Knight JS, Branch DW, Ortel TL
BMJ 2023 Feb 27;380:e069717. doi: 10.1136/bmj-2021-069717. PMID: 36849186
Salcedo-Arellano MJ, Hagerman RJ, Martínez-Cerdeño V
Gac Med Mex 2020;156(1):60-66. doi: 10.24875/GMM.19005275. PMID: 32026885
Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, Beam C, Birtcher KK, Blumenthal RS, Braun LT, de Ferranti S, Faiella-Tommasino J, Forman DE, Goldberg R, Heidenreich PA, Hlatky MA, Jones DW, Lloyd-Jones D, Lopez-Pajares N, Ndumele CE, Orringer CE, Peralta CA, Saseen JJ, Smith SC Jr, Sperling L, Virani SS, Yeboah J
Circulation 2019 Jun 18;139(25):e1082-e1143. Epub 2018 Nov 10 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000625. PMID: 30586774Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Lui JC, Baron J
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2024 Jan 18;109(2):312-320. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgad420. PMID: 37450557
Miroševič Š, Khandelwal S, Sušjan P, Žakelj N, Gosar D, Forstnerič V, Lainšček D, Jerala R, Osredkar D
Int J Mol Sci 2022 Oct 19;23(20) doi: 10.3390/ijms232012564. PMID: 36293418Free PMC Article
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Van Dijck A, Vulto-van Silfhout AT, Cappuyns E, van der Werf IM, Mancini GM, Tzschach A, Bernier R, Gozes I, Eichler EE, Romano C, Lindstrand A, Nordgren A; ADNP Consortium, Kvarnung M, Kleefstra T, de Vries BBA, Küry S, Rosenfeld JA, Meuwissen ME, Vandeweyer G, Kooy RF
Biol Psychiatry 2019 Feb 15;85(4):287-297. Epub 2018 Mar 15 doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2018.02.1173. PMID: 29724491Free PMC Article
Renier D, Lajeunie E, Arnaud E, Marchac D
Childs Nerv Syst 2000 Nov;16(10-11):645-58. doi: 10.1007/s003810000320. PMID: 11151714

Diagnosis

Carvalho LML, Pinto CF, de Oliveira Scliar M, Otto PA, Krepischi ACV, Rosenberg C
Am J Med Genet A 2023 Feb;191(2):570-574. Epub 2022 Nov 5 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.63032. PMID: 36333968
Wilson KD, Porter EG, Garcia BA
Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2022 Feb;57(1):73-112. Epub 2021 Oct 2 doi: 10.1080/10409238.2021.1979457. PMID: 34601997Free PMC Article
Aref-Eshghi E, Kerkhof J, Pedro VP; Groupe DI France, Barat-Houari M, Ruiz-Pallares N, Andrau JC, Lacombe D, Van-Gils J, Fergelot P, Dubourg C, Cormier-Daire V, Rondeau S, Lecoquierre F, Saugier-Veber P, Nicolas G, Lesca G, Chatron N, Sanlaville D, Vitobello A, Faivre L, Thauvin-Robinet C, Laumonnier F, Raynaud M, Alders M, Mannens M, Henneman P, Hennekam RC, Velasco G, Francastel C, Ulveling D, Ciolfi A, Pizzi S, Tartaglia M, Heide S, Héron D, Mignot C, Keren B, Whalen S, Afenjar A, Bienvenu T, Campeau PM, Rousseau J, Levy MA, Brick L, Kozenko M, Balci TB, Siu VM, Stuart A, Kadour M, Masters J, Takano K, Kleefstra T, de Leeuw N, Field M, Shaw M, Gecz J, Ainsworth PJ, Lin H, Rodenhiser DI, Friez MJ, Tedder M, Lee JA, DuPont BR, Stevenson RE, Skinner SA, Schwartz CE, Genevieve D, Sadikovic B
Am J Hum Genet 2020 Mar 5;106(3):356-370. Epub 2020 Feb 27 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.01.019. PMID: 32109418Free PMC Article
Yates TM, Drucker M, Barnicoat A, Low K, Gerkes EH, Fry AE, Parker MJ, O'Driscoll M, Charles P, Cox H, Marey I, Keren B, Rinne T, McEntagart M, Ramachandran V, Drury S, Vansenne F, Sival DA, Herkert JC, Callewaert B, Tan WH, Balasubramanian M
Hum Mutat 2020 May;41(5):1042-1050. Epub 2020 Mar 5 doi: 10.1002/humu.24001. PMID: 32097528
Renier D, Lajeunie E, Arnaud E, Marchac D
Childs Nerv Syst 2000 Nov;16(10-11):645-58. doi: 10.1007/s003810000320. PMID: 11151714

Therapy

Liu SH, Saldanha IJ, Abraham AG, Rittiphairoj T, Hauswirth S, Gregory D, Ifantides C, Li T
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Oct 21;10(10):CD015070. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD015070.pub2. PMID: 36269562Free PMC Article
Bruno LP, Doddato G, Valentino F, Baldassarri M, Tita R, Fallerini C, Bruttini M, Lo Rizzo C, Mencarelli MA, Mari F, Pinto AM, Fava F, Fabbiani A, Lamacchia V, Carrer A, Caputo V, Granata S, Benetti E, Zguro K, Furini S, Renieri A, Ariani F
Int J Mol Sci 2021 Dec 14;22(24) doi: 10.3390/ijms222413439. PMID: 34948243Free PMC Article
Montouris G, Aboumatar S, Burdette D, Kothare S, Kuzniecky R, Rosenfeld W, Chung S
Epilepsy Behav 2020 Sep;110:107146. Epub 2020 Jun 18 doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107146. PMID: 32563898
Samanta D
Pediatr Neurol 2020 Apr;105:3-9. Epub 2019 Nov 30 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2019.10.009. PMID: 32057594
Devinsky O, Cilio MR, Cross H, Fernandez-Ruiz J, French J, Hill C, Katz R, Di Marzo V, Jutras-Aswad D, Notcutt WG, Martinez-Orgado J, Robson PJ, Rohrback BG, Thiele E, Whalley B, Friedman D
Epilepsia 2014 Jun;55(6):791-802. Epub 2014 May 22 doi: 10.1111/epi.12631. PMID: 24854329Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Nazha A, Komrokji R, Meggendorfer M, Jia X, Radakovich N, Shreve J, Hilton CB, Nagata Y, Hamilton BK, Mukherjee S, Al Ali N, Walter W, Hutter S, Padron E, Sallman D, Kuzmanovic T, Kerr C, Adema V, Steensma DP, Dezern A, Roboz G, Garcia-Manero G, Erba H, Haferlach C, Maciejewski JP, Haferlach T, Sekeres MA
J Clin Oncol 2021 Nov 20;39(33):3737-3746. Epub 2021 Aug 18 doi: 10.1200/JCO.20.02810. PMID: 34406850Free PMC Article
Yates TM, Drucker M, Barnicoat A, Low K, Gerkes EH, Fry AE, Parker MJ, O'Driscoll M, Charles P, Cox H, Marey I, Keren B, Rinne T, McEntagart M, Ramachandran V, Drury S, Vansenne F, Sival DA, Herkert JC, Callewaert B, Tan WH, Balasubramanian M
Hum Mutat 2020 May;41(5):1042-1050. Epub 2020 Mar 5 doi: 10.1002/humu.24001. PMID: 32097528
Cogné B, Ehresmann S, Beauregard-Lacroix E, Rousseau J, Besnard T, Garcia T, Petrovski S, Avni S, McWalter K, Blackburn PR, Sanders SJ, Uguen K, Harris J, Cohen JS, Blyth M, Lehman A, Berg J, Li MH, Kini U, Joss S, von der Lippe C, Gordon CT, Humberson JB, Robak L, Scott DA, Sutton VR, Skraban CM, Johnston JJ, Poduri A, Nordenskjöld M, Shashi V, Gerkes EH, Bongers EMHF, Gilissen C, Zarate YA, Kvarnung M, Lally KP, Kulch PA, Daniels B, Hernandez-Garcia A, Stong N, McGaughran J, Retterer K, Tveten K, Sullivan J, Geisheker MR, Stray-Pedersen A, Tarpinian JM, Klee EW, Sapp JC, Zyskind J, Holla ØL, Bedoukian E, Filippini F, Guimier A, Picard A, Busk ØL, Punetha J, Pfundt R, Lindstrand A, Nordgren A, Kalb F, Desai M, Ebanks AH, Jhangiani SN, Dewan T, Coban Akdemir ZH, Telegrafi A, Zackai EH, Begtrup A, Song X, Toutain A, Wentzensen IM, Odent S, Bonneau D, Latypova X, Deb W; CAUSES Study, Redon S, Bilan F, Legendre M, Troyer C, Whitlock K, Caluseriu O, Murphree MI, Pichurin PN, Agre K, Gavrilova R, Rinne T, Park M, Shain C, Heinzen EL, Xiao R, Amiel J, Lyonnet S, Isidor B, Biesecker LG, Lowenstein D, Posey JE, Denommé-Pichon AS; Deciphering Developmental Disorders study, Férec C, Yang XJ, Rosenfeld JA, Gilbert-Dussardier B, Audebert-Bellanger S, Redon R, Stessman HAF, Nellaker C, Yang Y, Lupski JR, Goldstein DB, Eichler EE, Bolduc F, Bézieau S, Küry S, Campeau PM
Am J Hum Genet 2019 Mar 7;104(3):530-541. Epub 2019 Feb 28 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.01.010. PMID: 30827496Free PMC Article
Marshall JD, Beck S, Maffei P, Naggert JK
Eur J Hum Genet 2007 Dec;15(12):1193-202. Epub 2007 Oct 17 doi: 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201933. PMID: 17940554
Renier D, Lajeunie E, Arnaud E, Marchac D
Childs Nerv Syst 2000 Nov;16(10-11):645-58. doi: 10.1007/s003810000320. PMID: 11151714

Clinical prediction guides

Dingemans AJM, Truijen KMG, Kim JH, Alaçam Z, Faivre L, Collins KM, Gerkes EH, van Haelst M, van de Laar IMBH, Lindstrom K, Nizon M, Pauling J, Heropolitańska-Pliszka E, Plomp AS, Racine C, Sachdev R, Sinnema M, Skranes J, Veenstra-Knol HE, Verberne EA, Vulto-van Silfhout AT, Wilsterman MEF, Ahn EE, de Vries BBA, Vissers LELM
Eur J Hum Genet 2022 Mar;30(3):271-281. Epub 2021 Sep 15 doi: 10.1038/s41431-021-00960-4. PMID: 34521999Free PMC Article
Sanchez-Jimeno C, Blanco-Kelly F, López-Grondona F, Losada-Del Pozo R, Moreno B, Rodrigo-Moreno M, Martinez-Cayuelas E, Riveiro-Alvarez R, Fenollar-Cortés M, Ayuso C, Rodríguez de Alba M, Lorda-Sanchez I, Almoguera B
Genes (Basel) 2021 Aug 30;12(9) doi: 10.3390/genes12091360. PMID: 34573342Free PMC Article
Yates TM, Drucker M, Barnicoat A, Low K, Gerkes EH, Fry AE, Parker MJ, O'Driscoll M, Charles P, Cox H, Marey I, Keren B, Rinne T, McEntagart M, Ramachandran V, Drury S, Vansenne F, Sival DA, Herkert JC, Callewaert B, Tan WH, Balasubramanian M
Hum Mutat 2020 May;41(5):1042-1050. Epub 2020 Mar 5 doi: 10.1002/humu.24001. PMID: 32097528
Moortgat S, Berland S, Aukrust I, Maystadt I, Baker L, Benoit V, Caro-Llopis A, Cooper NS, Debray FG, Faivre L, Gardeitchik T, Haukanes BI, Houge G, Kivuva E, Martinez F, Mehta SG, Nassogne MC, Powell-Hamilton N, Pfundt R, Rosello M, Prescott T, Vasudevan P, van Loon B, Verellen-Dumoulin C, Verloes A, Lippe CV, Wakeling E, Wilkie AOM, Wilson L, Yuen A, Study D, Low KJ, Newbury-Ecob RA
Eur J Hum Genet 2018 Jan;26(1):64-74. Epub 2017 Nov 27 doi: 10.1038/s41431-017-0038-6. PMID: 29180823Free PMC Article
Renier D, Lajeunie E, Arnaud E, Marchac D
Childs Nerv Syst 2000 Nov;16(10-11):645-58. doi: 10.1007/s003810000320. PMID: 11151714

Recent systematic reviews

Santomasso BD, Nastoupil LJ, Adkins S, Lacchetti C, Schneider BJ, Anadkat M, Atkins MB, Brassil KJ, Caterino JM, Chau I, Davies MJ, Ernstoff MS, Fecher L, Funchain P, Jaiyesimi I, Mammen JS, Naidoo J, Naing A, Phillips T, Porter LD, Reichner CA, Seigel C, Song JM, Spira A, Suarez-Almazor M, Swami U, Thompson JA, Vikas P, Wang Y, Weber JS, Bollin K, Ghosh M
J Clin Oncol 2021 Dec 10;39(35):3978-3992. Epub 2021 Nov 1 doi: 10.1200/JCO.21.01992. PMID: 34724386
Santoro JD, Pagarkar D, Chu DT, Rosso M, Paulsen KC, Levitt P, Rafii MS
J Neurol 2021 Dec;268(12):4495-4509. Epub 2020 Sep 12 doi: 10.1007/s00415-020-10179-w. PMID: 32920658
Ruiz-González L, Lucena-Antón D, Salazar A, Martín-Valero R, Moral-Munoz JA
J Intellect Disabil Res 2019 Aug;63(8):1041-1067. Epub 2019 Feb 20 doi: 10.1111/jir.12606. PMID: 30788876
Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, Beam C, Birtcher KK, Blumenthal RS, Braun LT, de Ferranti S, Faiella-Tommasino J, Forman DE, Goldberg R, Heidenreich PA, Hlatky MA, Jones DW, Lloyd-Jones D, Lopez-Pajares N, Ndumele CE, Orringer CE, Peralta CA, Saseen JJ, Smith SC Jr, Sperling L, Virani SS, Yeboah J
Circulation 2019 Jun 18;139(25):e1082-e1143. Epub 2018 Nov 10 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000625. PMID: 30586774Free PMC Article
Anders PL, Davis EL
Spec Care Dentist 2010 May-Jun;30(3):110-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1754-4505.2010.00136.x. PMID: 20500706

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