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Upslanted palpebral fissure

MedGen UID:
98390
Concept ID:
C0423109
Finding
Synonyms: Upslanted palpebral fissures; Upslanting palpebral fissure; Upslanting palpebral fissures; Upward slanted palpebral fissures; Upward slanting of palpebral fissures; Upward slanting palpebral fissures; Upward-slanted palpebral fissures; Upward-slanting palpebral fissures
SNOMED CT: Upward slant of palpebral fissure (246799009)
 
HPO: HP:0000582

Definition

The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, the inclination of the palpebral fissure is greater than typical for age. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Complete trisomy 21 syndrome
MedGen UID:
4385
Concept ID:
C0013080
Disease or Syndrome
Down syndrome, the most frequent form of mental retardation caused by a microscopically demonstrable chromosomal aberration, is characterized by well-defined and distinctive phenotypic features and natural history. It is caused by triplicate state (trisomy) of all or a critical portion of chromosome 21.
Prader-Willi syndrome
MedGen UID:
46057
Concept ID:
C0032897
Disease or Syndrome
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed in later infancy or early childhood by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity (unless eating is externally controlled). Motor milestones and language development are delayed. All individuals have some degree of cognitive impairment. A distinctive behavioral phenotype (with temper tantrums, stubbornness, manipulative behavior, and obsessive-compulsive characteristics) is common. Hypogonadism is present in both males and females and manifests as genital hypoplasia, incomplete pubertal development, and, in most, infertility. Short stature is common (if not treated with growth hormone); characteristic facial features, strabismus, and scoliosis are often present.
Johanson-Blizzard syndrome
MedGen UID:
59798
Concept ID:
C0175692
Disease or Syndrome
Johanson-Blizzard syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by poor growth, mental retardation, and variable dysmorphic features, including aplasia or hypoplasia of the nasal alae, abnormal hair patterns or scalp defects, and oligodontia. Other features include hypothyroidism, sensorineural hearing loss, imperforate anus, and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (summary by Al-Dosari et al., 2008).
Miller Dieker syndrome
MedGen UID:
78538
Concept ID:
C0265219
Disease or Syndrome
PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) comprises a spectrum of severity. Affected newborns typically have mild-to-moderate hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and poor head control. During the first years, neurologic examination typically demonstrates poor visual tracking and response to sounds, axial hypotonia, and mild distal spasticity that can transition over time to more severe spasticity. Seizures occur in more than 90% of individuals with lissencephaly and often include infantile spasms. Seizures are often drug resistant, but even with good seizure control, the best developmental level achieved (excluding the few individuals with partial lissencephaly) is the equivalent of about age three to five months. In individuals with PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH, developmental delay ranges from mild to severe. Other findings in PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH include feeding issues and aspiration (which may result in need for gastrostomy tube placement), progressive microcephaly, and occasional developmental regression.
Femoral hypoplasia - unusual facies syndrome
MedGen UID:
120523
Concept ID:
C0265263
Disease or Syndrome
Femoral-facial syndrome (FFS), also known as femoral hypoplasia-unusual facies syndrome (FHUFS), is a rare and sporadic multiple congenital anomaly syndrome comprising bilateral femoral hypoplasia and characteristic facial features, such as long philtrum, thin upper lip, micrognathia with or without cleft palate, upward-slanting palpebral fissures, and a short nose with broad tip. Other features, such as renal anomalies, are more variable (summary by Nowaczyk et al., 2010).
Pallister-Killian syndrome
MedGen UID:
120540
Concept ID:
C0265449
Disease or Syndrome
Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a dysmorphic condition involving most organ systems, but is also characterized by a tissue-limited mosaicism; most fibroblasts have 47 chromosomes with an extra small metacentric chromosome, whereas the karyotype of lymphocytes is normal. The extra metacentric chromosome is an isochromosome for part of the short arm of chromosome 12: i(12)(p10) (Peltomaki et al., 1987; Warburton et al., 1987).
Symphalangism-brachydactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
90977
Concept ID:
C0342282
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple synostoses syndrome is characterized by multiple joint fusions, usually commencing in the hands, conductive deafness, and characteristic facial features, including a broad, tubular-shaped nose and a thin upper vermilion. Other features include brachydactyly, hypoplastic or absent middle phalanges, radial head dislocation, and pectus carinatum (summary by Takahashi et al., 2001). Genetic Heterogeneity of Multiple Synostoses Syndrome Other forms of multiple synostoses syndrome include SYNS2 (610017), caused by mutation in the GDF5 gene (601146) on chromosome 20q11; SYNS3 (612961), caused by mutation in the FGF9 gene (600921) on chromosome 13q12; and SYNS4 (617898), caused by mutation in the GDF6 gene (601147) on chromosome 8q22.
Bifunctional peroxisomal enzyme deficiency
MedGen UID:
137982
Concept ID:
C0342870
Pathologic Function
D-bifunctional protein deficiency is a disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. See also peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency (264470), caused by mutation in the ACOX1 gene (609751) on chromosome 17q25. The clinical manifestations of these 2 deficiencies are similar to those of disorders of peroxisomal assembly, including X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD; 300100), Zellweger cerebrohepatorenal syndrome (see 214100) and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD; see 601539) (Watkins et al., 1995). DBP deficiency has been classified into 3 subtypes depending upon the deficient enzyme activity. Type I is a deficiency of both 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase; type II is a deficiency of hydratase activity alone; and type III is a deficiency of dehydrogenase activity alone. Virtually all patients with types I, II, and III have a severe phenotype characterized by infantile-onset of hypotonia, seizures, and abnormal facial features, and most die before age 2 years. McMillan et al. (2012) proposed a type IV deficiency on the basis of less severe features; these patients have a phenotype reminiscent of Perrault syndrome (PRLTS1; 233400). Pierce et al. (2010) noted that Perrault syndrome and DBP deficiency overlap clinically and suggested that DBP deficiency may be underdiagnosed.
Branchiooculofacial syndrome
MedGen UID:
91261
Concept ID:
C0376524
Disease or Syndrome
The branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS) is characterized by: branchial (cervical or infra- or supra-auricular) skin defects that range from barely perceptible thin skin or hair patch to erythematous "hemangiomatous" lesions to large weeping erosions; ocular anomalies that can include microphthalmia, anophthalmia, coloboma, and nasolacrimal duct stenosis/atresia; and facial anomalies that can include ocular hypertelorism or telecanthus, broad nasal tip, upslanted palpebral fissures, cleft lip or prominent philtral pillars that give the appearance of a repaired cleft lip (formerly called "pseudocleft lip") with or without cleft palate, upper lip pits, and lower facial weakness (asymmetric crying face or partial 7th cranial nerve weakness). Malformed and prominent pinnae and hearing loss from inner ear and/or petrous bone anomalies are common. Intellect is usually normal.
Microcephaly, normal intelligence and immunodeficiency
MedGen UID:
140771
Concept ID:
C0398791
Disease or Syndrome
Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is characterized by progressive microcephaly, early growth deficiency that improves with age, recurrent respiratory infections, an increased risk for malignancy (primarily lymphoma), and premature ovarian failure in females. Developmental milestones are attained at the usual time during the first year; however, borderline delays in development and hyperactivity may be observed in early childhood. Intellectual abilities tend to decline over time. Recurrent pneumonia and bronchitis may result in respiratory failure and early death. Other reported malignancies include solid tumors (e.g., medulloblastoma, glioma, rhabdomyosarcoma).
Neonatal pseudo-hydrocephalic progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
140806
Concept ID:
C0406586
Disease or Syndrome
Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (WDRTS) is a rare autosomal recessive neonatal progeroid disorder characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, failure to thrive, short stature, a progeroid appearance, hypotonia, and variable mental impairment (summary by Toriello, 1990). Average survival in WDRTS is 7 months, although survival into the third decade of life has been reported (Akawi et al., 2013).
Trigonocephaly 1
MedGen UID:
98473
Concept ID:
C0432122
Congenital Abnormality
Individuals with trigonocephaly have a keel-shaped forehead with wide biparietal diameter, resulting in a triangular shape of the head. Trigonocephaly results from premature closure of the metopic sutures and usually occurs sporadically (summary by Frydman et al., 1984). Genetic Heterogeneity of Isolated Trigonocephaly Also see trigonocephaly-2 (TRIGNO2; 614485), caused by mutation in the FREM1 gene (608944) on chromosome 9p22.
Wolcott-Rallison dysplasia
MedGen UID:
140926
Concept ID:
C0432217
Disease or Syndrome
Wolcott-Rallison syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by permanent neonatal or early infancy insulin-dependent diabetes. Epiphyseal dysplasia, osteoporosis, and growth retardation develop at a later age. Other frequent multisystem manifestations include hepatic and renal dysfunction, mental retardation, and cardiovascular abnormalities (summary by Delepine et al., 2000).
Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II
MedGen UID:
96587
Concept ID:
C0432246
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPDII), the most common form of microcephalic primordial dwarfism, is characterized by extreme short stature and microcephaly along with distinctive facial features. Associated features that differentiate it from other forms of primordial dwarfism and that may necessitate treatment include: abnormal dentition, a slender bone skeletal dysplasia with hip deformity and/or scoliosis, insulin resistance / diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, cardiac malformations, and global vascular disease. The latter includes neurovascular disease such as moyamoya vasculopathy and intracranial aneurysms (which can lead to strokes), coronary artery disease (which can lead to premature myocardial infarctions), and renal vascular disease. Hypertension, which is also common, can have multiple underlying causes given the complex comorbidities.
Chromosome 9p deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
167073
Concept ID:
C0795830
Disease or Syndrome
A rare chromosomal anomaly with characteristics of psychomotor developmental delay, facial dysmorphism (trigonocephaly, midface hypoplasia, upslanting palpebral fissures, dysplastic small ears, flat nasal bridge with anteverted nostrils and long philtrum, micrognathia, choanal atresia, short neck), single umbilical artery, omphalocele, inguinal or umbilical hernia, genital abnormalities (hypospadia, cryptorchidism), muscular hypotonia and scoliosis.
Kleefstra syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
208639
Concept ID:
C0795833
Disease or Syndrome
Kleefstra syndrome is characterized by intellectual disability, autistic-like features, childhood hypotonia, and distinctive facial features. The majority of individuals function in the moderate-to-severe spectrum of intellectual disability although a few individuals have mild delay and total IQ within low-normal range. While most have severe expressive speech delay with little speech development, general language development is usually at a higher level, making nonverbal communication possible. A complex pattern of other findings can also be observed; these include heart defects, renal/urologic defects, genital defects in males, severe respiratory infections, epilepsy / febrile seizures, psychiatric disorders, and extreme apathy or catatonic-like features after puberty.
Peters plus syndrome
MedGen UID:
163204
Concept ID:
C0796012
Disease or Syndrome
Peters plus syndrome is characterized by anterior chamber eye anomalies, short limbs with broad distal extremities, characteristic facial features, cleft lip/palate, and variable developmental delay / intellectual disability. The most common anterior chamber defect is Peters' anomaly, consisting of central corneal clouding, thinning of the posterior cornea, and iridocorneal adhesions. Cataracts and glaucoma are common. Developmental delay is observed in about 80% of children; intellectual disability can range from mild to severe.
C syndrome
MedGen UID:
167105
Concept ID:
C0796095
Disease or Syndrome
The C syndrome, also known as Opitz trigonocephaly syndrome, is a malformation syndrome characterized by trigonocephaly, severe mental retardation, hypotonia, variable cardiac defects, redundant skin, and dysmorphic facial features, including upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, depressed nasal bridge, and low-set, posteriorly rotated ears (summary by Kaname et al., 2007). C syndrome shows phenotypic overlap with Bohring-Opitz syndrome, or C-like syndrome (605039), a disorder with more severe features than C syndrome, caused by heterozygous mutation in the ASXL1 gene (612990) on chromosome 20q11.
Renpenning syndrome
MedGen UID:
208670
Concept ID:
C0796135
Disease or Syndrome
Renpenning syndrome is an X-linked mental retardation syndrome with clinically recognizable features. Affected individuals have microcephaly, short stature, small testes, and dysmorphic facies, including tall narrow face, upslanting palpebral fissures, abnormal nasal configuration, cupped ears, and short philtrum. The nose may appear long or bulbous, with overhanging columella. Less consistent manifestations include ocular colobomas, cardiac malformations, cleft palate, and anal anomalies. Stevenson et al. (2005) proposed that the various X-linked mental retardation syndromes due to PQBP1 mutations be combined under the name of Renpenning syndrome.
Wieacker-Wolff syndrome
MedGen UID:
163227
Concept ID:
C0796200
Disease or Syndrome
Wieacker-Wolff syndrome (WRWF) is a severe X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is characterized by onset of muscle weakness in utero (fetal akinesia), which results in arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) apparent at birth. Affected boys are born with severe contractures, show delayed motor development, facial and bulbar weakness, characteristic dysmorphic facial features, and skeletal abnormalities, such as hip dislocation, scoliosis, and foot deformities. Additional features include global developmental delay with poor or absent speech and impaired intellectual development, feeding difficulties and poor growth, hypotonia, hypogenitalism, and spasticity. Carrier females may be unaffected or have mild features of the disorder (summary by Hirata et al., 2013 and Frints et al., 2019).
Bohring-Opitz syndrome
MedGen UID:
208678
Concept ID:
C0796232
Disease or Syndrome
Bohring-Opitz syndrome (BOS) is characterized by distinctive facial features and posture, growth failure, variable but usually severe intellectual disability, and variable anomalies. The facial features may include microcephaly or trigonocephaly / prominent (but not fused) metopic ridge, hypotonic facies with full cheeks, synophrys, glabellar and eyelid nevus flammeus (simplex), prominent globes, widely set eyes, palate anomalies, and micrognathia. The BOS posture, which is most striking in early childhood and often becomes less apparent with age, is characterized by flexion at the elbows with ulnar deviation and flexion of the wrists and metacarpophalangeal joints. Feeding difficulties in early childhood, including cyclic vomiting, have a significant impact on overall health; feeding tends to improve with age. Seizures are common and typically responsive to standard epileptic medications. Minor cardiac anomalies and transient bradycardia and apnea may be present. Affected individuals may experience recurrent infections, which also tend to improve with age. Isolated case reports suggest that individuals with BOS are at greater risk for Wilms tumor than the general population, but large-scale epidemiologic studies have not been conducted.
Intellectual disability, X-linked 30
MedGen UID:
163235
Concept ID:
C0796237
Disease or Syndrome
Any non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PAK3 gene.
Ayme-Gripp syndrome
MedGen UID:
371416
Concept ID:
C1832812
Disease or Syndrome
Aymé-Gripp syndrome is classically defined as the triad of bilateral early cataracts, sensorineural hearing loss, and characteristic facial features in combination with neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The facial features are often described as "Down syndrome-like" and include brachycephaly, flat facial appearance, short nose, long philtrum, narrow mouth, and low-set and posteriorly rotated ears. Hearing loss is often congenital. Other features may include postnatal short stature, seizure disorder, nonspecific brain abnormalities on head imaging, skeletal abnormalities, and joint limitations. A subset of individuals have been found to have pericarditis or pericardial effusion during the neonatal or infantile period. All affected individuals have had developmental delay, but the degree of cognitive impairment is extremely variable. Other features including gastrointestinal and endocrine abnormalities, ectodermal dysplasia (i.e., nail dystrophy and mammary gland hypoplasia), dental anomalies, and chronic glomerulopathy with proteinuria have been reported in rare affected individuals.
Cardiac malformation, cleft lip/palate, microcephaly, and digital anomalies
MedGen UID:
318752
Concept ID:
C1832950
Disease or Syndrome
Schilbach-Rott syndrome
MedGen UID:
371716
Concept ID:
C1834038
Disease or Syndrome
Schilbach-Rott syndrome (SBRS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypotelorism, epicanthal folds, cleft palate, dysmorphic facies, and hypospadias in males. The phenotype is variable; mild mental retardation has been reported (summary by Shkalim et al., 2009).
Amyotrophic neuralgia
MedGen UID:
320318
Concept ID:
C1834304
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA) is an autosomal dominant form of recurrent focal neuropathy characterized clinically by acute, recurrent episodes of brachial plexus neuropathy with muscle weakness and atrophy preceded by severe pain in the affected arm.
Microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphedema, or intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
320559
Concept ID:
C1835265
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphedema, or impaired intellectual development (MCLMR) is an autosomal dominant disorder that involves an overlapping but variable spectrum of central nervous system and ocular developmental anomalies. Microcephaly ranges from mild to severe and is often associated with mild to moderate developmental delay and a characteristic facial phenotype with upslanting palpebral fissures, broad nose with rounded tip, long philtrum with thin upper lip, prominent chin, and prominent ears. Chorioretinopathy is the most common eye abnormality, but retinal folds, microphthalmia, and myopic and hypermetropic astigmatism have also been reported, and some individuals have no overt ocular phenotype. Congenital lymphedema, when present, is typically confined to the dorsa of the feet, and lymphoscintigraphy reveals the absence of radioactive isotope uptake from the webspaces between the toes (summary by Ostergaard et al., 2012). Robitaille et al. (2014) found that MCLMR includes a broader spectrum of ocular disease, including retinal detachment with avascularity of the peripheral retina, and noted phenotypic overlap with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR; see EVR1, 133780). Birtel et al. (2017) observed intrafamilial and intraindividual variability in retinal phenotype, and noted that syndromic manifestations in some patients are too subtle to be detected during a routine ophthalmologic evaluation. Variable expressivity and reduced penetrance have also been observed in some families (Jones et al., 2014; Li et al., 2016). Autosomal recessive forms of microcephaly with chorioretinopathy have been reported (see 251270). See also Mirhosseini-Holmes-Walton syndrome (autosomal recessive microcephaly with pigmentary retinopathy and impaired intellectual development; 268050), which has been mapped to chromosome 8q21.3-q22.1.
Leri pleonosteosis
MedGen UID:
331978
Concept ID:
C1835450
Disease or Syndrome
Leri pleonosteosis is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder characterized by flexion contractures of the interphalangeal joints, limited movement of multiple joints, and short, broad metacarpals, metatarsals, and phalanges. Additional features may include chronic joint pain, short stature, bony overgrowths, spinal cord compression, scleroderma-like skin changes, and blepharophimosis. The clinical features overlap with several other musculoskeletal conditions, including Myhre syndrome (MYHRS; 139210) and geleophysic dysplasia (GPHYSD1; 231050) (summary by Banka et al., 2015).
Holoprosencephaly 7
MedGen UID:
372134
Concept ID:
C1835820
Disease or Syndrome
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most commonly occurring congenital structural forebrain anomaly in humans. HPE is associated with mental retardation and craniofacial malformations. Considerable heterogeneity in the genetic causes of HPE has been demonstrated (Ming et al., 2002). For general phenotypic information and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100).
MEDNIK syndrome
MedGen UID:
322893
Concept ID:
C1836330
Disease or Syndrome
MEDNIK syndrome is a severe multisystem disorder characterized by impaired intellectual development, enteropathy, deafness, peripheral neuropathy, ichthyosis, and keratoderma (summary by Montpetit et al., 2008). Patients with MEDNIK exhibit distinct dysmorphic features, including high forehead, upslanting palpebral fissures, depressed nasal bridge, and low-set ears, as well as growth retardation and moderate to severe intellectual disability, with brain atrophy on imaging. Other features include sensorineural deafness, enteropathy with congenital diarrhea, abnormalities of copper metabolism associated with liver disease, and ichthyosis, hyperkeratosis, and erythroderma. Peripheral neuropathy has also been observed in adult patients (Martinelli et al., 2013). MEDNIK syndrome shows phenotypic similarities to CEDNIK syndrome (609528).
Emanuel syndrome
MedGen UID:
323030
Concept ID:
C1836929
Disease or Syndrome
Emanuel syndrome is characterized by pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, microcephaly, hypotonia, severe developmental delays, ear anomalies, preauricular tags or pits, cleft or high-arched palate, congenital heart defects, kidney abnormalities, and genital abnormalities in males.
Chondrodysplasia-pseudohermaphroditism syndrome
MedGen UID:
333149
Concept ID:
C1838654
Disease or Syndrome
Nivelon-Nivelon-Mabille syndrome (NNMS) is characterized by progressive microcephaly, vermis hypoplasia, and skeletal dysplasia. Variable features include infantile-onset seizures, dwarfism, generalized chondrodysplasia, and micromelia (Abdel-Salam et al., 2019).
Mitochondrial complex I deficiency
MedGen UID:
374101
Concept ID:
C1838979
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated complex I deficiency is a rare inborn error of metabolism due to mutations in nuclear or mitochondrial genes encoding subunits or assembly factors of the human mitochondrial complex I (NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase) and is characterized by a wide range of manifestations including marked and often fatal lactic acidosis, cardiomyopathy, leukoencephalopathy, pure myopathy and hepatopathy with tubulopathy. Among the numerous clinical phenotypes observed are Leigh syndrome, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and MELAS syndrome (see these terms).
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
374912
Concept ID:
C1842362
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.
ALG2-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
334618
Concept ID:
C1842836
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ii (CDG1I) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neurologic involvement, including a convulsive syndrome of unknown origin, axial hypotonia, and mental and motor regression (summary by Papazoglu et al., 2021). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
334629
Concept ID:
C1842870
Disease or Syndrome
The constitutional deletion of chromosome 1p36 results in a syndrome with multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation (Shapira et al., 1997). Monosomy 1p36 is the most common terminal deletion syndrome in humans, occurring in 1 in 5,000 births (Shaffer and Lupski, 2000; Heilstedt et al., 2003). See also neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart (NEDBEH; 616975), which shows overlapping features and is caused by heterozygous mutation in the RERE gene (605226) on proximal chromosome 1p36. See also Radio-Tartaglia syndrome (RATARS; 619312), caused by mutation in the SPEN gene (613484) on chromosome 1p36, which shows overlapping features.
Catel-Manzke syndrome
MedGen UID:
375536
Concept ID:
C1844887
Disease or Syndrome
Catel-Manzke syndrome is characterized by the Pierre Robin anomaly, which comprises cleft palate, glossoptosis, and micrognathia, and a unique form of bilateral hyperphalangy in which there is an accessory bone inserted between the second metacarpal and its corresponding proximal phalanx, resulting in radial deviation of the index finger (summary by Manzke et al., 2008).
FG syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
336854
Concept ID:
C1845119
Disease or Syndrome
Additional features seen in some people with FG syndrome include widely set eyes (hypertelorism), an upswept frontal hairline, and a large head compared to body size (relative macrocephaly). Other health problems have also been reported, including heart defects, seizures, undescended testes (cryptorchidism) in males, and a soft out-pouching in the lower abdomen (an inguinal hernia).\n\nThe physical features of FG syndrome include weak muscle tone (hypotonia), broad thumbs, and wide first (big) toes. Abnormalities of the tissue connecting the left and right halves of the brain (the corpus callosum) are also common. Most affected individuals have constipation, and many have abnormalities of the anus such as an obstruction of the anal opening (imperforate anus). People with FG syndrome also tend to have a distinctive facial appearance including small, underdeveloped ears; a tall, prominent forehead; and outside corners of the eyes that point downward (down-slanting palpebral fissures).\n\nFG syndrome affects intelligence and behavior. Almost everyone with the condition has intellectual disability, which ranges from mild to severe. Affected individuals tend to be friendly, inquisitive, and hyperactive, with a short attention span. Compared to people with other forms of intellectual disability, their socialization and daily living skills are strong, while verbal communication and language skills tend to be weaker.\n\nFG syndrome is a genetic condition that affects many parts of the body and occurs almost exclusively in males. "FG" represents the surname initials of the first family diagnosed with the disorder.
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Claes-Jensen type
MedGen UID:
335139
Concept ID:
C1845243
Disease or Syndrome
Claes-Jensen type of X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXSCJ) is characterized by impaired intellectual development with substantial clinical heterogeneity in affected males. However, males are usually reported to have short stature, microcephaly, hyperreflexia, and aggressive behavior. In rare cases, female carriers exhibit mildly impaired intellectual development or learning difficulties (summary by Guerra et al., 2020).
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Siderius type
MedGen UID:
337375
Concept ID:
C1846055
Disease or Syndrome
Siderius-type syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXSSD) is an X-linked disorder in which affected males have mildly impaired intellectual development, mild dysmorphic features, and bilateral or unilateral cleft lip/palate (summary by Koivisto et al., 2007).
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Lubs type
MedGen UID:
337496
Concept ID:
C1846058
Disease or Syndrome
MECP2 duplication syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by early-onset hypotonia, feeding difficulty, gastrointestinal manifestations including gastroesophageal reflux and constipation, delayed psychomotor development leading to severe intellectual disability, poor speech development, progressive spasticity, recurrent respiratory infections (in ~75% of affected individuals), and seizures (in ~50%). MECP2 duplication syndrome is 100% penetrant in males. Occasionally females have been described with a MECP2 duplication and a range of findings from mild intellectual disability to a phenotype similar to that seen in males. In addition to the core features, autistic behaviors, nonspecific neuroradiologic findings on brain MRI, mottled skin, and urogenital anomalies have been observed in several affected boys.
Terminal osseous dysplasia-pigmentary defects syndrome
MedGen UID:
335344
Concept ID:
C1846129
Disease or Syndrome
Terminal osseous dysplasia is an X-linked dominant male-lethal disease characterized by skeletal dysplasia of the limbs, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibroma during infancy (Sun et al., 2010).
DNA ligase IV deficiency
MedGen UID:
339855
Concept ID:
C1847827
Disease or Syndrome
LIG4 syndrome is an autosomal recessive severe combined immunodeficiency with features of radiosensitivity, chromosomal instability, pancytopenia, and developmental and growth delay. Leukemia and dysmorphic facial features have been reported in some patients (summary by van der Burg et al., 2006).
Growth delay due to insulin-like growth factor I resistance
MedGen UID:
338622
Concept ID:
C1849157
Disease or Syndrome
Patients with mutations in the receptor for insulin-like growth factor I show intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal growth failure, resulting in short stature and microcephaly. Other features may include delayed bone age, developmental delay, and dysmorphic features.
Saldino-Mainzer syndrome
MedGen UID:
341455
Concept ID:
C1849437
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Holoprosencephaly-postaxial polydactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
340382
Concept ID:
C1849649
Disease or Syndrome
Holoprosencephaly-postaxial polydactyly syndrome associates, in chromosomally normal neonates, holoprosencephaly, severe facial dysmorphism, postaxial polydactyly and other congenital abnormalities, suggestive of trisomy 13. Incidence is unknown. Dysmorphic features include hypotelorism, severe eye anomalies such as microphthalmia or anophthalmia, premaxillary region aplasia and cleft lip and palate. Congenital cardiac anomalies are common. The condition seems to be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Prognosis is poor.
Bartsocas-Papas syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
337894
Concept ID:
C1849718
Disease or Syndrome
Bartsocas-Papas syndrome-1 (BPS1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple popliteal pterygia, ankyloblepharon, filiform bands between the jaws, cleft lip and palate, and syndactyly. Early lethality is common, although survival into childhood and beyond has been reported (summary by Mitchell et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bartsocas-Papas Syndrome Bartsocas-Papas syndrome-2 (BPS2) is caused by mutation in the CHUK gene (600664). A less severe form of popliteal pterygium syndrome (PPS; 119500) is caused by mutation in the IRF6 gene (607199).
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
338026
Concept ID:
C1850343
Disease or Syndrome
Mosaic variegated aneuploidy (MVA) syndrome is a rare disorder in which some cells in the body have an abnormal number of chromosomes instead of the usual 46 chromosomes, a situation known as aneuploidy. Most commonly, cells have an extra chromosome, which is called trisomy, or are missing a chromosome, which is known as monosomy. In MVA syndrome, some cells are aneuploid and others have the normal number of chromosomes, which is a phenomenon known as mosaicism. Typically, at least one-quarter of cells in affected individuals have an abnormal number of chromosomes. Because the additional or missing chromosomes vary among the abnormal cells, the aneuploidy is described as variegated.\n\nIn MVA syndrome, growth before birth is slow (intrauterine growth restriction). After birth, affected individuals continue to grow at a slow rate and are shorter than average. In addition, they typically have an unusually small head size (microcephaly). Another common feature of MVA syndrome is an increased risk of developing cancer in childhood. Cancers that occur most frequently in affected individuals include a cancer of muscle tissue called rhabdomyosarcoma, a form of kidney cancer known as Wilms tumor, and a cancer of the blood-forming tissue known as leukemia.\n\nThere are at least three types of MVA syndrome, each with a different genetic cause. Type 1 is the most common and displays the classic signs and symptoms described above. Type 2 appears to have slightly different signs and symptoms than type 1, although the small number of affected individuals makes it difficult to define its characteristic features. Individuals with MVA syndrome type 2 grow slowly before and after birth; however, their head size is typically normal. Some people with MVA syndrome type 2 have unusually short arms. Individuals with MVA syndrome type 2 do not seem to have an increased risk of cancer. Another form of MVA syndrome is characterized by a high risk of developing Wilms tumor. Individuals with this form may also have other signs and symptoms typical of MVA syndrome type 1.\n\nLess commonly, people with MVA syndrome have eye abnormalities or distinctive facial features, such as a broad nasal bridge and low-set ears. Some affected individuals have brain abnormalities, the most common of which is called Dandy-Walker malformation. Intellectual disability, seizures, and other health problems can also occur in people with MVA syndrome.
Frontoocular syndrome
MedGen UID:
344278
Concept ID:
C1854405
Disease or Syndrome
Oculocerebrofacial syndrome, Kaufman type
MedGen UID:
343403
Concept ID:
C1855663
Disease or Syndrome
Kaufman oculocerebrofacial syndrome (KOS) is characterized by developmental delay, severe intellectual disability, and distinctive craniofacial features. Most affected children have prenatal-onset microcephaly, hypotonia, and growth deficiency. Feeding issues, ocular abnormalities, hearing impairment, and respiratory tract abnormalities are common. Ocular abnormalities can include structural abnormalities (microcornea or microphthalmia, coloboma, optic nerve hypoplasia), refractive errors (myopia ± astigmatism, hyperopia), strabismus, and entropion. Both conductive and sensorineural hearing loss have been reported as well as mixed conductive-sensorineural hearing loss of variable severity. Breathing problems can lead to prolonged hospitalization after birth in more than half of individuals. Less common findings include ectodermal abnormalities, cardiac manifestations, urogenital abnormalities, seizures, and skeletal abnormalities.
Yunis-Varon syndrome
MedGen UID:
341818
Concept ID:
C1857663
Disease or Syndrome
Yunis-Varon syndrome (YVS) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal defects, including cleidocranial dysplasia and digital anomalies, and severe neurologic involvement with neuronal loss. Enlarged cytoplasmic vacuoles are found in neurons, muscle, and cartilage. The disorder is usually lethal in infancy (summary by Campeau et al., 2013).
Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 1
MedGen UID:
347072
Concept ID:
C1859133
Disease or Syndrome
Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 1 (RCDP1), a peroxisome biogenesis disorder (PBD) has a classic (severe) form and a nonclassic (mild) form. Classic (severe) RCDP1 is characterized by proximal shortening of the humerus (rhizomelia) and to a lesser degree the femur, punctate calcifications in cartilage with epiphyseal and metaphyseal abnormalities (chondrodysplasia punctata, or CDP), coronal clefts of the vertebral bodies, and cataracts that are usually present at birth or appear in the first few months of life. Birth weight, length, and head circumference are often at the lower range of normal; postnatal growth deficiency is profound. Intellectual disability is severe, and the majority of children develop seizures. Most affected children do not survive the first decade of life; a proportion die in the neonatal period. Nonclassic (mild) RCDP1 is characterized by congenital or childhood cataracts, CDP or infrequently, chondrodysplasia manifesting only as mild epiphyseal changes, variable rhizomelia, and milder intellectual disability and growth restriction than classic RCDP1.
Mandibulofacial dysostosis-microcephaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
355264
Concept ID:
C1864652
Disease or Syndrome
Mandibulofacial dysostosis with microcephaly (MFDM) is characterized by malar and mandibular hypoplasia, microcephaly (congenital or postnatal onset), intellectual disability (mild, moderate, or severe), malformations of the external ear, and hearing loss that is typically conductive. Associated craniofacial malformations may include cleft palate, choanal atresia, zygomatic arch cleft (identified on cranial CT scan), and facial asymmetry. Other relatively common findings (present in 25%-35% of individuals) can include cardiac anomalies, thumb anomalies, esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula, short stature, spine anomalies, and epilepsy.
Holoprosencephaly 5
MedGen UID:
355304
Concept ID:
C1864827
Disease or Syndrome
Holoprosencephaly associated with mutations in the ZIC2 gene.
Koolen-de Vries syndrome
MedGen UID:
355853
Concept ID:
C1864871
Disease or Syndrome
Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KdVS) is characterized by developmental delay / intellectual disability, neonatal/childhood hypotonia, dysmorphisms, congenital malformations, and behavioral features. Psychomotor developmental delay is noted in all individuals from an early age. The majority of individuals with KdVS function in the mild-to-moderate range of intellectual disability. Other findings include speech and language delay (100%), epilepsy (~33%), congenital heart defects (25%-50%), renal and urologic anomalies (25%-50%), and cryptorchidism (71% of males). Behavior in most is described as friendly, amiable, and cooperative.
Intellectual disability-balding-patella luxation-acromicria syndrome
MedGen UID:
401129
Concept ID:
C1866985
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome has characteristics of severe intellectual deficit, patella luxations, acromicria, hypogonadism, facial dysmorphism (including midface hypoplasia and premature frontotemporal balding). It has been described in three unrelated males.
Alagille syndrome due to a JAG1 point mutation
MedGen UID:
365434
Concept ID:
C1956125
Disease or Syndrome
Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is a multisystem disorder with a wide spectrum of clinical variability; this variability is seen even among individuals from the same family. The major clinical manifestations of ALGS are bile duct paucity on liver biopsy, cholestasis, congenital cardiac defects (primarily involving the pulmonary arteries), butterfly vertebrae, ophthalmologic abnormalities (most commonly posterior embryotoxon), and characteristic facial features. Renal abnormalities, growth failure, developmental delays, splenomegaly, and vascular abnormalities may also occur.
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 4
MedGen UID:
370844
Concept ID:
C1970179
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Pitt-Hopkins syndrome
MedGen UID:
370910
Concept ID:
C1970431
Disease or Syndrome
Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is characterized by significant developmental delays with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability and behavioral differences, characteristic facial features, and episodic hyperventilation and/or breath-holding while awake. Speech is significantly delayed and most individuals are nonverbal with receptive language often stronger than expressive language. Other common findings are autism spectrum disorder symptoms, sleep disturbance, stereotypic hand movements, seizures, constipation, and severe myopia.
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Cantu type
MedGen UID:
435975
Concept ID:
C2673649
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare type of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia described in about 5 patients to date with clinical signs including short stature, peculiar facies with blepharophimosis, upward slanted eyes, abundant eyebrows and eyelashes, coarse voice, and short hands and feet.
Distal 10q deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
436306
Concept ID:
C2674937
Disease or Syndrome
10q26 deletion syndrome is a condition that results from the loss (deletion) of a small piece of chromosome 10 in each cell. The deletion occurs on the long (q) arm of the chromosome at a position designated 10q26.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of 10q26 deletion syndrome vary widely, even among affected members of the same family. Among the more common features associated with this chromosomal change are distinctive facial features, mild to moderate intellectual disability, growth problems, and developmental delay. People with 10q26 deletion syndrome often have delayed development of speech and of motor skills such as sitting, crawling, and walking. Some have limited speech throughout life. Affected individuals may experience seizures, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), poor impulse control (impulsivity), or exhibit autistic behaviors that affect communication and social interaction.\n\nA range of facial features is seen in people with 10q26 deletion syndrome, but not all affected individuals have these features. Facial features of people with 10q26 deletion syndrome may include a prominent or beaked nose, a broad nasal bridge, a small jaw (micrognathia), malformed ears that are low set, a thin upper lip, and an unusually small head size (microcephaly). Many affected individuals have widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism) that do not look in the same direction (strabismus). Some people with this condition have a short neck with extra folds of skin (webbed neck).\n\nLess common signs and symptoms can occur in 10q26 deletion syndrome. Skeletal problems include a spine that curves to the side (scoliosis), limited movement in the elbows or other joints, or curved fifth fingers and toes (clinodactyly). Slow growth before and after birth can also occur in affected individuals. Males with this condition may have genital abnormalities, such as a small penis (micropenis), undescended testes (cryptorchidism), or the urethra opening on the underside of the penis (hypospadias). Some people with 10q26 deletion syndrome have kidney abnormalities, heart defects, breathing problems, recurrent infections, or hearing or vision problems.
Chromosome 1q41-q42 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
382704
Concept ID:
C2675857
Disease or Syndrome
1q41q42 microdeletion syndrome is a chromosomal anomaly characterized by a severe developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, typical facial dysmorphic features, brain anomalies, seizures, cleft palate, clubfeet, nail hypoplasia and congenital heart disease.
Chromosome 1q21.1 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
393913
Concept ID:
C2675897
Congenital Abnormality
The 1q21.1 recurrent microdeletion itself does not appear to lead to a clinically recognizable syndrome as some persons with the deletion have no obvious clinical findings and others have variable findings that most commonly include microcephaly (50%), mild intellectual disability (30%), mildly dysmorphic facial features, and eye abnormalities (26%). Other findings can include cardiac defects, genitourinary anomalies, skeletal malformations, and seizures (~15%). Psychiatric and behavioral abnormalities can include autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autistic features, and sleep disturbances.
Lymphedema-atrial septal defects-facial changes syndrome
MedGen UID:
383042
Concept ID:
C2677167
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome is characterized by congenital lymphedema of the lower limbs, atrial septal defect and a characteristic facies (a round face with a prominent forehead, a flat nasal bridge with a broad nasal tip, epicanthal folds, a thin upper lip and a cleft chin). It has been described in two brothers and a sister. Transmission appears to be autosomal recessive.
Hunter-Macdonald syndrome
MedGen UID:
383181
Concept ID:
C2677745
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual disability, X-linked syndromic, Turner type
MedGen UID:
394425
Concept ID:
C2678046
Disease or Syndrome
Turner-type X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXST) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some affected families show X-linked recessive inheritance, with only males being affected and carrier females having no abnormal findings. In other affected families, males are severely affected, and female mutation carriers show milder cognitive abnormalities or dysmorphic features. In addition, there are female patients with de novo mutations who show the full phenotype, despite skewed X-chromosome inactivation. Affected individuals show global developmental delay from infancy, with variably impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, often with delayed walking. Dysmorphic features are common and can include macrocephaly, microcephaly, deep-set eyes, hypotelorism, small palpebral fissures, dysplastic, large, or low-set ears, long face, bitemporal narrowing, high-arched palate, thin upper lip, and scoliosis or mild distal skeletal anomalies, such as brachydactyly or tapered fingers. Males tend to have cryptorchidism. Other features, such as hypotonia, seizures, and delayed bone age, are more variable (summary by Moortgat et al., 2018).
Chromosome 5p13 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
416385
Concept ID:
C2750805
Disease or Syndrome
A rare partial autosomal trisomy/tetrasomy characterized by global developmental delay, intellectual disability, autistic behavior, muscular hypotonia, macrocephaly and facial dysmorphism (frontal bossing, short palpebral fissures, low set, dysplastic ears, short or shallow philtrum, high arched or narrow palate, micrognathia). Other associated clinical features include sleep disturbances, seizures, aplasia/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, skeletal abnormalities (large hands and feet, long fingers and toes, talipes).
46,XY sex reversal 4
MedGen UID:
416704
Concept ID:
C2752149
Congenital Abnormality
Sex reversal in an individual associated with a 9p24.3 deletion.
Ramos-Arroyo syndrome
MedGen UID:
418932
Concept ID:
C2930866
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare genetic disorder characterized by corneal anesthesia, retinal abnormalities, bilateral hearing loss, distinct facies, patent ductus arteriosus, Hirschsprung disease, short stature and intellectual disability. The phenotype is variable. Some affected individuals have only mild disease manifestations. The etiology of this syndrome is not yet known. Mutations in an as of yet unidentified gene, involved in autonomic nervous system function, are suspected. Follows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, probably with variable expressivity.
COG7 congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
419311
Concept ID:
C2931010
Disease or Syndrome
CDG IIe is caused by a mutation that impairs the integrity of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex and alters Golgi trafficking, resulting in the disruption of multiple glycosylation pathways. For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
COG1 congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
443957
Concept ID:
C2931011
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare form of carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome with, in the few cases reported to date, variable signs including microcephaly, growth retardation, psychomotor retardation and facial dysmorphism.
Clark-Baraitser syndrome
MedGen UID:
443983
Concept ID:
C2931130
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, obesity, macrocephaly, behavioral abnormalities (such as aggressive tantrums and autistic-like behavior), and delayed speech development. Dysmorphic facial features include large, square forehead, prominent supraorbital ridges, broad nasal tip, large ears, prominent lower lip, and minor dental anomalies such as small upper lateral incisors and central incisor gap.
Tetraamelia with ectodermal dysplasia and lacrimal duct abnormalities
MedGen UID:
444003
Concept ID:
C2931214
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiospondylocarpofacial syndrome
MedGen UID:
444060
Concept ID:
C2931461
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiospondylocarpofacial syndrome (CSCF) is characterized by growth retardation, dysmorphic facial features, brachydactyly with carpal-tarsal fusion, extensive posterior cervical vertebral synostosis, cardiac septal defects with valve dysplasia, and deafness with inner ear malformations (summary by Le Goff et al., 2016).
Chromosome 2q37 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
419169
Concept ID:
C2931817
Disease or Syndrome
Patients with chromosome 2q37 deletion syndrome show highly variable clinical manifestations likely resulting from different deletion sizes and deletions of different genes. Variable clinical features included brachydactyly type E (BDE), affecting the metacarpals and metatarsals (in about 50% of patients), short stature, mild to moderate intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic facial features. However, many individuals with deletions do not show cognitive deficits (summary by Villavicencio-Lorini et al., 2013, Wheeler et al., 2014, Jean-Marcais et al., 2015).
Chromosome 6q24-q25 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
461565
Concept ID:
C3150215
Disease or Syndrome
6q25 microdeletion syndrome is a recently described syndrome characterized by developmental delay, facial dysmorphism and hearing loss.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 20
MedGen UID:
462050
Concept ID:
C3150700
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, stereotypic hand movements, and impaired language (NEDHSIL) is characterized by global developmental delay with hypotonia, poor motor development with limited walking, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech, and behavioral abnormalities. Almost all affected individuals demonstrate repetitive stereotypic hand movements that can be categorized as hyperkinetic and resembling those of Rett syndrome (RTT; 312750). About 80% of patients develop various types of seizures that may be refractory to treatment. Additional features may include dysmorphic facial features, particularly dysplastic ears, poor eye contact, episodic hyperventilation, tendency to infection, and abnormalities on brain imaging, such as enlarged ventricles, thin corpus callosum, and delayed myelination (summary by Vrecar et al., 2017, Paciorkowski et al., 2013).
Frontonasal dysplasia with alopecia and genital anomaly
MedGen UID:
462053
Concept ID:
C3150703
Disease or Syndrome
Frontonasal dysplasia-2 (FND2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by variable degrees of alopecia, skull defects, hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge and ridge with notched alae nasi, and abnormal central nervous system findings (summary by Kariminejad et al., 2014).
Chromosome 16p13.3 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
462058
Concept ID:
C3150708
Disease or Syndrome
16p13.3 microduplication syndrome is a rare chromosomal anomaly syndrome resulting from a partial duplication of the short arm of chromosome 16 and manifesting with a variable phenotype which is mostly characterized by: mild to moderate intellectual deficit and developmental delay (particularly speech), normal growth, short, proximally implanted thumbs and other hand and feet malformations (such as camptodactyly, syndactyly, club feet), mild arthrogryposis and characteristic facies (upslanting, narrow palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, mid face hypoplasia, bulbous nasal tip and low set ears). Other reported manifestations include cryptorchidism, inguinal hernia and behavioral problems.
Chromosome 6q11-q14 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
462140
Concept ID:
C3150790
Disease or Syndrome
The cardinal features of chromosome 6q11-q14 interstitial deletions include hypotonia, short stature, skeletal/limb anomalies, umbilical hernia, and urinary tract anomalies, as well as characteristic facial features including upslanting palpebral fissures, low-set and/or dysplastic ears, and high-arched palate (summary by Wang et al., 2009).
Cranioectodermal dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
462224
Concept ID:
C3150874
Disease or Syndrome
Cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is a ciliopathy with skeletal involvement (narrow thorax, shortened proximal limbs, syndactyly, polydactyly, brachydactyly), ectodermal features (widely spaced hypoplastic teeth, hypodontia, sparse hair, skin laxity, abnormal nails), joint laxity, growth deficiency, and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, low-set simple ears, high forehead, telecanthus, epicanthal folds, full cheeks, everted lower lip). Most affected children develop nephronophthisis that often leads to end-stage kidney disease in infancy or childhood, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hepatic fibrosis and retinal dystrophy are also observed. Dolichocephaly, often secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis, is a primary manifestation that distinguishes CED from most other ciliopathies. Brain malformations and developmental delay may also occur.
THOC6-related developmental delay-microcephaly-facial dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
462289
Concept ID:
C3150939
Disease or Syndrome
THOC6 intellectual disability syndrome is associated with moderate-to-severe developmental delay or intellectual disability; nonspecific dysmorphic facial features (tall forehead, deep-set eyes, short and upslanted palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, and long nose with low-hanging columella); microcephaly (typically 2-3 SD below the mean); teeth anomalies (dental caries, malocclusion, and supernumerary teeth); cardiac anomalies (most typically atrial and/or ventricular septal defects); prenatal ventriculomegaly and hydrocephalus; cryptorchidism in males; and renal malformations (most commonly unilateral renal agenesis). More rarely, affected individuals may have hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (in females), seizures, poor growth, feeding difficulties, hearing loss, refractive errors and/or other eye abnormalities, vertebral anomalies, micro/retrognathia, and imperforate / anteriorly placed anus.
CHROMOSOME 1p32-p31 DELETION SYNDROME
MedGen UID:
462386
Concept ID:
C3151036
Disease or Syndrome
Hennekam-Beemer syndrome
MedGen UID:
462843
Concept ID:
C3151493
Disease or Syndrome
A rare multiple congenital anomalies syndrome characterized by cutaneous mastocytosis, microcephaly, microtia and/or hearing loss, hypotonia and skeletal anomalies (e.g. clinodactyly, camptodactyly, scoliosis). Additional common features are short stature, intellectual disability and difficulties. Facial dysmorphism may include upslanted palpebral fissures, highly arched palate and micrognathia. Rarely, seizures and asymmetrically small feet have been reported.
CK syndrome
MedGen UID:
463131
Concept ID:
C3151781
Disease or Syndrome
The NSDHL-related disorders include: CHILD (congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects) syndrome, an X-linked condition that is usually male lethal during gestation and thus predominantly affects females; and CK syndrome, an X-linked disorder that affects males. CHILD syndrome is characterized by unilateral distribution of ichthyosiform (yellow scaly) skin lesions and ipsilateral limb defects that range from shortening of the metacarpals and phalanges to absence of the entire limb. Intellect is usually normal. The ichthyosiform skin lesions are usually present at birth or in the first weeks of life; new lesions can develop in later life. Nail changes are also common. The heart, lung, and kidneys can also be involved. CK syndrome (named for the initials of the original proband) is characterized by mild to severe cognitive impairment and behavior problems (aggression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and irritability). All affected males reported have developed seizures in infancy and have cerebral cortical malformations and microcephaly. All have distinctive facial features, a thin habitus, and relatively long, thin fingers and toes. Some have scoliosis and kyphosis. Strabismus is common. Optic atrophy is also reported.
Intellectual disability, X-linked 90
MedGen UID:
477074
Concept ID:
C3275443
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the DLG3 gene.
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Nascimento type
MedGen UID:
477095
Concept ID:
C3275464
Disease or Syndrome
The Nascimento type of X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXSN) is characterized by dysmorphic features, including large head, synophrys, prominent supraorbital ridges, almond-shaped and deep-set eyes, large ears, wide mouth, myxedematous appearance, hirsutism, abnormal hair whorls, micropenis, and onychodystrophy. Female carriers have normal cognition, but may show subtle facial features (summary by Budny et al., 2010).
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
477139
Concept ID:
C3275508
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome-2 (MCAHS2) is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, neonatal hypotonia, early-onset myoclonic seizures, and variable congenital anomalies involving the central nervous, cardiac, and urinary systems. Some affected individuals die in infancy (summary by Johnston et al., 2012). The phenotype shows clinical variability with regard to severity and extraneurologic features. However, most patients present in infancy with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy associated with developmental arrest and subsequent severe neurologic disability; these features are consistent with a form of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) (summary by Belet et al., 2014, Kato et al., 2014). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MCAHS, see MCAHS1 (614080). For a discussion of nomenclature and genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Geleophysic dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
479777
Concept ID:
C3278147
Disease or Syndrome
Geleophysic dysplasia, a progressive condition resembling a lysosomal storage disorder, is characterized by short stature, short hands and feet, progressive joint limitation and contractures, distinctive facial features, progressive cardiac valvular disease, and thickened skin. Intellect is normal. Major findings are likely to be present in the first year of life. Cardiac, respiratory, and lung involvement result in death before age five years in approximately 33% of individuals with ADAMTSL2-related geleophysic dysplasia.
Chromosome 16q22 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
482782
Concept ID:
C3281152
Disease or Syndrome
The interstitial 16q22 deletion syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder associated with failure to thrive in infancy, poor growth, delayed psychomotor development, hypotonia, and dysmorphic features, including large anterior fontanel, high forehead, diastasis of the cranial sutures, broad nasal bridge, hypertelorism, low-set abnormal ears, and short neck. The phenotypic features and deletion sizes are variable, but deletion of 16q22 appears to be critical for manifestations of the syndrome (summary by Fujiwara et al., 1992).
Fanconi anemia complementation group L
MedGen UID:
854018
Concept ID:
C3469528
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Acrocephalopolydactyly
MedGen UID:
501209
Concept ID:
C3495588
Disease or Syndrome
Acrocephalopolydactylous dysplasia, or Elejalde syndrome, is a lethal multiple congenital disorder characterized by increased birth weight, globular body with thick skin, organomegaly, and fibrosis in multiple tissues (summary by Phadke et al., 2011).
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 2A (Zellweger)
MedGen UID:
763187
Concept ID:
C3550273
Disease or Syndrome
The peroxisome biogenesis disorder (PBD) Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group 2 (CG2) have mutations in the PEX5 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
Hypertelorism and other facial dysmorphism, brachydactyly, genital abnormalities, intellectual disability, and recurrent inflammatory episodes
MedGen UID:
766379
Concept ID:
C3553465
Disease or Syndrome
Cornelia de Lange syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
766431
Concept ID:
C3553517
Disease or Syndrome
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia.
Hyperphosphatasia with intellectual disability syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
766551
Concept ID:
C3553637
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperphosphatasia with impaired intellectual development syndrome-2 (HPMRS2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by moderately to severely delayed psychomotor development, facial dysmorphism, brachytelephalangy, and increased serum alkaline phosphatase (hyperphosphatasia). Some patients may have additional features, such as cardiac septal defects or seizures (summary by Krawitz et al., 2012). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hyperphosphatasia with impaired intellectual development syndrome, see HPMRS1 (239300). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 4A (Zellweger)
MedGen UID:
766850
Concept ID:
C3553936
Disease or Syndrome
The peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (PBD) Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group 4 (CG4, equivalent to CG6 and CGC) have mutations in the PEX6 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100.
MEGF8-related Carpenter syndrome
MedGen UID:
767161
Concept ID:
C3554247
Disease or Syndrome
Carpenter syndrome-2 (CRPT2) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital malformation disorder characterized by multisuture craniosynostosis and polysyndactyly of the hands and feet, in association with abnormal left-right patterning and other features, most commonly obesity, umbilical hernia, cryptorchidism, and congenital heart disease (summary by Twigg et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Carpenter syndrome, see 201000.
Chromosome 22q13 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
816174
Concept ID:
C3809844
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperphosphatasia with intellectual disability syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
816684
Concept ID:
C3810354
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperphosphatasia with impaired intellectual development syndrome-4 (HPMRS4) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development, impaired intellectual development, lack of speech acquisition, seizures, and dysmorphic facial features. Laboratory studies show increased serum alkaline phosphatase (summary by Howard et al., 2014). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HPMRS, see HPMRS1 (239300). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Bosch-Boonstra-Schaaf optic atrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
816693
Concept ID:
C3810363
Disease or Syndrome
Bosch-Boonstra-Schaaf optic atrophy syndrome (BBSOAS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by delayed development, moderately impaired intellectual development, and optic atrophy. Most patients also have evidence of cerebral visual impairment. Dysmorphic facial features are variable and nonspecific (summary by Bosch et al., 2014).
Intellectual disability-facial dysmorphism syndrome due to SETD5 haploinsufficiency
MedGen UID:
816736
Concept ID:
C3810406
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability-facial dysmorphism syndrome due to SETD5 haploinsufficiency is a rare, syndromic intellectual disability characterized by intellectual disability of various severity, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, dysmorphic features, autism and behavioral issues. Growth retardation, congenital heart anomalies, gastrointestinal and genitourinary defects have been rarely associated.
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 42
MedGen UID:
862780
Concept ID:
C4014343
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic features, spasticity, and brain abnormalities (NEDDSBA) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely delayed global development, with hypotonia, impaired intellectual development, and poor or absent speech. Most patients have spasticity with limb hypertonia and brisk tendon reflexes. Additional features include nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, structural brain abnormalities, and cortical visual impairment (summary by Bosch et al., 2015). Novarino et al. (2014) labeled the disorder 'spastic paraplegia-67' (SPG67). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 7
MedGen UID:
862845
Concept ID:
C4014408
Disease or Syndrome
Any mitochondrial complex III deficiency in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the UQCC2 gene.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 24
MedGen UID:
862851
Concept ID:
C4014414
Disease or Syndrome
Vulto-van Silfout-de Vries syndrome (VSVS) is an intellectual developmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, poor expressive speech, and behavioral abnormalities, including autistic features and poor eye contact. Most patients have additional nonspecific features, including hypotonia and gait abnormalities, seizures, which may be refractory, high pain threshold, and sleep disturbances (summary by Nabais Sa et al., 2019).
AHDC1-related intellectual disability - obstructive sleep apnea - mild dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
862856
Concept ID:
C4014419
Disease or Syndrome
The main features of Xia-Gibbs syndrome (XGS), present in a majority of affected individuals, include delayed motor milestones, speech delay with severely limited or absent speech, moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment, hypotonia, structural brain anomalies, and nonspecific dysmorphic features. Other features may include sleep apnea, movement disorders (ataxia, tremors, and bradykinesias) that often become apparent in childhood or adolescence, short stature, seizures, eye anomalies, behavioral concerns, autism spectrum disorder, scoliosis, and laryngomalacia.
Autism spectrum disorder due to AUTS2 deficiency
MedGen UID:
862872
Concept ID:
C4014435
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A rare genetic syndromic intellectual disability characterized by global developmental delay and borderline to severe intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder with obsessive behavior, stereotypies, hyperactivity but frequently friendly and affable personality, feeding difficulties, short stature, muscular hypotonia, microcephaly, characteristic dysmorphic features (hypertelorism, high arched eyebrows, ptosis, deep and/or broad nasal bridge, broad/prominent nasal tip, short and/or upturned philtrum, narrow mouth, and micrognathia), and skeletal anomalies (kyphosis and/or scoliosis, arthrogryposis, slender habitus and extremities). Other clinical features may include hernias, congenital heart defects, cryptorchidism and seizures.
ADNP-related multiple congenital anomalies - intellectual disability - autism spectrum disorder
MedGen UID:
862975
Concept ID:
C4014538
Disease or Syndrome
ADNP-related disorder is characterized by hypotonia, severe speech and motor delay, mild-to-severe intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features (prominent forehead, high anterior hairline, wide and depressed nasal bridge, and short nose with full, upturned nasal tip) based on a cohort of 78 individuals. Features of autism spectrum disorder are common (stereotypic behavior, impaired social interaction). Other common findings include additional behavioral problems, sleep disturbance, brain abnormalities, seizures, feeding issues, gastrointestinal problems, visual dysfunction (hypermetropia, strabismus, cortical visual impairment), musculoskeletal anomalies, endocrine issues including short stature and hormonal deficiencies, cardiac and urinary tract anomalies, and hearing loss.
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 45
MedGen UID:
863301
Concept ID:
C4014864
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the FBXO31 gene.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 30
MedGen UID:
863604
Concept ID:
C4015167
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-30 with speech delay and behavioral abnormalities (MRD30) is characterized by developmental delay apparent from early infancy. Cognitive impairment is variable; many patients are able to attend special schools. Behavioral abnormalities, including ADHD, autistic features, and aggression are commonly observed. Additional features may include various types of seizures, hypotonia, mild skeletal defects, feeding difficulties, and dysmorphic features (Yates et al., 2020; Oates et al., 2021).
Retinitis pigmentosa-juvenile cataract-short stature-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
863679
Concept ID:
C4015242
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic syndromic rod-cone dystrophy disorder with characteristics of psychomotor developmental delay from early childhood, intellectual disability, short stature, mild facial dysmorphism (e.g. upslanted palpebral fissures, hypoplastic alae nasi, malar hypoplasia, attached earlobes), excessive dental spacing and malocclusion, juvenile cataract and ophthalmologic findings of atypical retinitis pigmentosa (i.e. salt-and-pepper retinopathy, attenuated retinal arterioles, generalised rod-cone dysfunction, mottled macula, peripapillary sparing of retinal pigment epithelium).
MEND syndrome
MedGen UID:
905986
Concept ID:
C4085243
Disease or Syndrome
Male EBP disorder with neurologic defects (MEND) is an X-linked recessive disorder representing a continuous phenotypic spectrum with variable manifestations associated with a defect in sterol biosynthesis. Features include intellectual disability, short stature, scoliosis, digital abnormalities, cataracts, and dermatologic abnormalities. Not all patients show all features, and the severity is highly variable. Molecular studies indicate that affected males are hemizygous for a nonmosaic hypomorphic EBP allele. Carrier females are generally clinically asymptomatic, but may show biochemical abnormalities (summary by Arnold et al., 2012 and Barboza-Cerda et al., 2014).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 34
MedGen UID:
907277
Concept ID:
C4225156
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any autosomal dominant non-syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the COL4A3BP gene.
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
907878
Concept ID:
C4225164
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) is characterized by skeletal findings (short stature, mesomelic limb shortening predominantly of the upper limbs, and brachydactyly), genital abnormalities (in males: micropenis / webbed penis, hypoplastic scrotum, cryptorchidism; in females: hypoplastic clitoris and labia majora), dysmorphic facial features (widely spaced and prominent eyes, frontal bossing, anteverted nares, midface retrusion), dental abnormalities (including malocclusion, crowding, hypodontia, late eruption of permanent teeth), bilobed tongue, and occasional prenatal macrocephaly that persists postnatally. Less common findings include renal anomalies, radial head dislocation, vertebral abnormalities such as hemivertebrae and scoliosis, nail dysplasia, cardiac defects, cleft lip/palate, and (rarely) cognitive delay. When present, cardiac defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A variant of Robinow syndrome, associated with osteosclerosis and caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DVL1, is characterized by normal stature, persistent macrocephaly, increased bone mineral density with skull osteosclerosis, and hearing loss, in addition to the typical features described above.
Cardiac anomalies - developmental delay - facial dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
900924
Concept ID:
C4225208
Disease or Syndrome
Impaired intellectual development and distinctive facial features with or without cardiac defects (MRFACD) is an autosomal dominant, complex syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, poor speech acquisition, distinctive dysmorphic facial features, including frontal bossing, upslanting palpebral fissures, depressed nasal bridge with bulbous tip, and macrostomia. There is variable penetrance of cardiac malformations, ranging from no malformations to patent foramen ovale to septal defects and/or transposition of the great arteries (summary by Adegbola et al., 2015).
Orofacial cleft 15
MedGen UID:
909661
Concept ID:
C4225209
Congenital Abnormality
Any cleft lip/palate in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the DLX4 gene.
Macrothrombocytopenia-lymphedema-developmental delay-facial dysmorphism-camptodactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
906646
Concept ID:
C4225222
Disease or Syndrome
Takenouchi-Kosaki syndrome is a highly heterogeneous autosomal dominant complex congenital developmental disorder affecting multiple organ systems. The core phenotype includes delayed psychomotor development with variable intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, and cardiac, genitourinary, and hematologic or lymphatic defects, including thrombocytopenia and lymphedema. Additional features may include abnormalities on brain imaging, skeletal anomalies, and recurrent infections. Some patients have a milder disease course reminiscent of Noonan syndrome (see, e.g., NS1, 163950) (summary by Martinelli et al., 2018).
Skin creases, congenital symmetric circumferential, 2
MedGen UID:
902880
Concept ID:
C4225225
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital symmetric circumferential skin creases is characterized by the folding of excess skin, which leads to ringed creases, primarily of the limbs. Affected individuals also exhibit intellectual disability, cleft palate, and dysmorphic features (summary by Isrie et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital symmetric circumferential skin creases, see CSCSC1 (156610).
PMP22-RAI1 contiguous gene duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
894862
Concept ID:
C4225255
Disease or Syndrome
Yuan-Harel-Lupski syndrome is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and early-onset peripheral neuropathy. The disorder comprises features of both demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A; 118220), which results from duplication of the PMP22 gene on 17p12, and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS; 610883), which results from duplication of a slightly proximal region on 17p11.2 that includes the RAI1 gene. These 2 loci are about 2.5 Mb apart. The resultant YUHAL phenotype may be more severe in comparison to the individual contributions of each gene, with particularly early onset of peripheral neuropathy and features of both central and peripheral nervous system involvement (summary by Yuan et al., 2015).
Microcephaly 15, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
895496
Concept ID:
C4225310
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive microcephaly, spasticity, and brain imaging abnormalities (NEDMISBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a spectrum of neurologic abnormalities apparent from early infancy. Affected individuals have impaired intellectual development with poor speech, progressive microcephaly, and appendicular spasticity. Brain imaging usually shows abnormalities, including enlarged ventricles, white matter defects, and atrophy or hypoplasia of brain tissue. Some patients have a more severe phenotype with seizures, lack of developmental milestones, and early death (summary by Harel et al., 2018).
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 10
MedGen UID:
904191
Concept ID:
C4225332
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-10 is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by postnatal progressive microcephaly, severely delayed psychomotor development, and hypomyelination on brain imaging (summary by Nakayama et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see 312080.
Intellectual disability-microcephaly-strabismus-behavioral abnormalities syndrome
MedGen UID:
897984
Concept ID:
C4225351
Disease or Syndrome
White-Sutton syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of cognitive dysfunction, developmental delays (particularly in speech and language acquisition), hypotonia, autism spectrum disorder, and other behavioral problems. Additional features commonly reported include seizures, refractive errors and strabismus, hearing loss, sleep disturbance (particularly sleep apnea), feeding and gastrointestinal problems, mild genital abnormalities in males, and urinary tract involvement in both males and females.
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
897039
Concept ID:
C4225363
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) is characterized by skeletal findings (short stature, mesomelic limb shortening predominantly of the upper limbs, and brachydactyly), genital abnormalities (in males: micropenis / webbed penis, hypoplastic scrotum, cryptorchidism; in females: hypoplastic clitoris and labia majora), dysmorphic facial features (widely spaced and prominent eyes, frontal bossing, anteverted nares, midface retrusion), dental abnormalities (including malocclusion, crowding, hypodontia, late eruption of permanent teeth), bilobed tongue, and occasional prenatal macrocephaly that persists postnatally. Less common findings include renal anomalies, radial head dislocation, vertebral abnormalities such as hemivertebrae and scoliosis, nail dysplasia, cardiac defects, cleft lip/palate, and (rarely) cognitive delay. When present, cardiac defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A variant of Robinow syndrome, associated with osteosclerosis and caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DVL1, is characterized by normal stature, persistent macrocephaly, increased bone mineral density with skull osteosclerosis, and hearing loss, in addition to the typical features described above.
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability 34
MedGen UID:
902184
Concept ID:
C4225417
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder-34 (MRXS34) is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability with poor speech, dysmorphic facial features, and mild structural brain abnormalities, including thickening of the corpus callosum (summary by Mircsof et al., 2015).
Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
897005
Concept ID:
C4225419
Disease or Syndrome
Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome (RSS) is a clinically recognizable condition that includes the cardinal findings of craniofacial features, cerebellar defects, and cardiovascular malformations resulting in the alternate diagnostic name of 3C syndrome. Dysmorphic facial features may include brachycephaly, hypotonic face with protruding tongue, flat appearance of the face on profile view, short midface, widely spaced eyes, downslanted palpebral fissures, low-set ears with overfolding of the upper helix, smooth or short philtrum, and high or cleft palate. Affected individuals also typically have a characteristic metacarpal phalangeal profile showing a consistent wavy pattern on hand radiographs. RSS is associated with variable degrees of developmental delay and intellectual disability. Eye anomalies and hypercholesterolemia may be variably present.
Chromosome 10q23 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
906099
Concept ID:
C4225669
Disease or Syndrome
The 10q22.3-q23.2 region is characterized by a complex set of low-copy repeats (LCRs), which can give rise to various genomic changes mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR). Recurrent deletions of chromosome 10q22.3-q23.2, including the BMPR1A gene (601299) have been associated with dysmorphic facies, developmental delay, and multiple congenital anomalies. Some patients with deletions that extend distally to include the PTEN gene (601728) have a more severe phenotype with infantile/juvenile polyposis, macrocephaly, dysmorphic facial features, and developmental delay (summary by van Bon et al., 2011).
X-linked intellectual disability, van Esch type
MedGen UID:
930741
Concept ID:
C4305072
Disease or Syndrome
Van Esch-O'Driscoll syndrome (VEODS) is characterized by varying degrees of intellectual disability, moderate to severe short stature, microcephaly, hypogonadism, and variable congenital malformations (Van Esch et al., 2019).
Hypotonia, ataxia, and delayed development syndrome
MedGen UID:
934585
Concept ID:
C4310618
Disease or Syndrome
EBF3 neurodevelopmental disorder (EBF3-NDD) is associated with developmental delay (DD) / intellectual disability (ID), speech delay, gait or truncal ataxia, hypotonia, behavioral problems, and facial dysmorphism. Variability between individuals with EBF3-NDD is significant. Although all affected children have DD noted in early infancy, intellect generally ranges from mild to severe ID, with two individuals functioning in the low normal range. Less common issues can include genitourinary abnormalities and gastrointestinal and/or musculoskeletal involvement. To date, 42 symptomatic individuals from 39 families have been reported.
Epilepsy, early-onset, vitamin B6-dependent
MedGen UID:
934599
Concept ID:
C4310632
Disease or Syndrome
Early-onset vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy-1 (EPEO1) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of seizures in the neonatal period or first months of life. The seizures show favorable response to treatment with activated vitamin B6 (pyridoxal 5-prime-phosphate; PLP) and/or pyridoxine. However, most patients show delayed psychomotor development (Darin et al., 2016). Genetic Heterogeneity of Early-Onset Epilepsy EPEO2 (618832) is caused by mutation in the SETD1A gene (611052) on chromosome 16p11. EPEO3 (620465) is caused by mutation in the ATP6V0C gene (108745) on chromosome 16p13. EPEO4 (266100) is caused by mutation in the ALDH7A1 gene (107323) on chromosome 5q23.
Global developmental delay, absent or hypoplastic corpus callosum, and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
934611
Concept ID:
C4310644
Disease or Syndrome
GDACCF is an intellectual disability syndrome apparent soon after birth with neonatal hypotonia, poor feeding, and respiratory insufficiency followed by delayed psychomotor development and intellectual disability with poor speech. Brain imaging shows aplasia or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Affected individuals have variable dysmorphic facial features, and some may have dysplastic, cystic kidneys or mild cardiac defects (summary by Stevens et al., 2016).
Immunodeficiency 49
MedGen UID:
934623
Concept ID:
C4310656
Disease or Syndrome
Any primary immunodeficiency disease in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the BCL11B gene.
Early-onset progressive diffuse brain atrophy-microcephaly-muscle weakness-optic atrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
934638
Concept ID:
C4310671
Disease or Syndrome
PEBAT is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development apparent soon after birth or in infancy, profound intellectual disability, poor or absent speech, and seizures. Most patients are never able to walk due to hypotonia or spasticity. Brain imaging shows cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, thin corpus callosum, and secondary hypomyelination. The disorder shows progressive features, including microcephaly, consistent with a neurodegenerative process (summary by Miyake et al., 2016; Flex et al., 2016).
Harel-Yoon syndrome
MedGen UID:
934644
Concept ID:
C4310677
Disease or Syndrome
Harel-Yoon syndrome is a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, truncal hypotonia, spasticity, and peripheral neuropathy. Other more variable features such as optic atrophy may also occur. Laboratory studies in some patients show evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction (summary by Harel et al., 2016).
Sifrim-Hitz-Weiss syndrome
MedGen UID:
934655
Concept ID:
C4310688
Disease or Syndrome
CHD4 neurodevelopmental disorder (CHD4-NDD) is associated with developmental delay, speech delay, and usually mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. Variability between individuals with CHD4-NDD is significant, and a few have normal intelligence. Other manifestations can include brain anomalies, heart defects, and skeletal abnormalities; less common features are hypogonadism in males, hearing impairment, and ophthalmic abnormalities. Most affected individuals have mild nonspecific dysmorphic facial features with or without macrocephaly.
Micrognathia-recurrent infections-behavioral abnormalities-mild intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
934707
Concept ID:
C4310740
Disease or Syndrome
TRIO-related intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by delay in acquisition of motor and language skills, mild to borderline intellectual disability, and neurobehavioral problems (including autistic traits or autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and/or aggression). Neonatal or infantile feeding difficulties including poor suck, impaired bottle feeding, and failure to thrive are common and are often the presenting finding. Other findings can include microcephaly, variable hand and dental abnormalities, and suggestive facial features. Only ten of the 20 individuals with a TRIO pathogenic variant reported to date had sufficient information to make preliminary generalizations about clinical manifestations; it is anticipated that the phenotype of this newly described disorder will continue to evolve.
Macrocephaly, dysmorphic facies, and psychomotor retardation
MedGen UID:
934733
Concept ID:
C4310766
Disease or Syndrome
Macrocephaly, dysmorphic facies, and psychomotor retardation (MDFPMR) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by large head and somatic overgrowth apparent at birth followed by global developmental delay. Affected individuals have characteristic dysmorphic facial features and persistently large head, but increased birth weight normalizes with age. Additional neurologic features, including seizures, hypotonia, and gait ataxia, may also occur. Patients show severe intellectual impairment (summary by Ortega-Recalde et al., 2015).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 43
MedGen UID:
934738
Concept ID:
C4310771
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
HIVEP2-related intellectual disability is a neurological disorder characterized by moderate to severe developmental delay and intellectual disability and mild physical abnormalities (dysmorphic features). Early symptoms of the condition include weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and delayed development of motor skills, such as sitting, standing, and walking. After learning to walk, many affected individuals continue to have difficulty with this activity; their walking style (gait) is often unbalanced and wide-based. Speech is also delayed, and some people with this condition never learn to talk. Most people with HIVEP2-related intellectual disability also have unusual physical features, such as widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism), a broad nasal bridge, or fingers with tapered ends, although there is no characteristic pattern of such features among affected individuals. Many people with the condition exhibit neurodevelopmental disorders, such as hyperactivity, attention deficit disorder, aggression, anxiety, and autism spectrum disorder, which is a group of developmental disorders characterized by impaired communication and social interaction.\n\nOther features of HIVEP2-related intellectual disability include mild abnormalities in the structure of the brain and an abnormally small brain and head size (microcephaly). Less common health problems include seizures; recurrent ear infections; and eye disorders, such as eyes that do not look in the same direction (strabismus), "lazy eye" (amblyopia), and farsightedness (hyperopia). Some people with HIVEP2-related intellectual disability have gastrointestinal problems, which can include backflow of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus (gastroesophageal reflux) and constipation.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart
MedGen UID:
934739
Concept ID:
C4310772
Disease or Syndrome
RERE-related disorders are characterized by neurodevelopmental problems with or without structural anomalies of the eyes, heart, kidneys, and genitourinary tract and mild sensorineural hearing loss. Hypotonia and feeding problems are common among affected individuals. Developmental delay and intellectual disability range from mild to profound. Behavior problems may include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, self-injurious behavior, and autism spectrum disorder. A variety of eye anomalies (coloboma, optic nerve anomalies, microphthalmia, and/or Peter's anomaly) and vision issues (myopia, anisometropia, astigmatism, exotropia, esotropia) have been reported. Congenital heart defects, most commonly septal defects, have also been described. Genitourinary abnormalities include vesicoureteral reflux, and cryptorchidism and hypospadias in males. Sensorineural hearing loss can be unilateral or bilateral.
Congenital heart defects, dysmorphic facial features, and intellectual developmental disorder
MedGen UID:
1385307
Concept ID:
C4479246
Disease or Syndrome
CDK13-related disorder, reported in 43 individuals to date, is characterized in all individuals by developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID); nearly all individuals older than age one year display impaired verbal language skills (either absent or restricted speech). Other common findings are recognizable facial features in some individuals, behavioral problems (autism spectrum disorder or autistic traits/stereotypies, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), feeding difficulties in infancy, structural cardiac defects, and seizures.
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair 2
MedGen UID:
1376945
Concept ID:
C4479577
Disease or Syndrome
An inherited condition caused by autosomal dominant mutation(s) in the PPP1CB gene, encoding serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-beta catalytic subunit. The condition is characterized by facial features similar to those seen in Noonan syndrome but may also include short stature, cognitive deficits, relative macrocephaly, small posterior fossa resulting in Chiari I malformation, hypernasal voice, cardiac defects, and ectodermal abnormalities, which typically presents as slow-growing, sparse, and/or unruly hair.
Psychomotor regression-oculomotor apraxia-movement disorder-nephropathy syndrome
MedGen UID:
1621949
Concept ID:
C4539828
Disease or Syndrome
Birk-Landau-Perez syndrome (BILAPES) is an autosomal recessive syndromic developmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. Some patients have developmental regression with loss of speech and motor skills, whereas other patients never achieve these milestones. More variable features may include hypotonia, poor overall growth, ataxia, dystonia, abnormal eye movements, and renal insufficiency (Perez et al., 2017; Kleyner et al., 2022).
Congenital heart defects and skeletal malformations syndrome
MedGen UID:
1618340
Concept ID:
C4539857
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital heart defects and skeletal malformations syndrome (CHDSKM) is characterized by atrial and ventricular septal defects, with aortic root dilation in adulthood. Skeletal defects are variable and include pectus excavatum, scoliosis, and finger contractures, and some patients exhibit joint laxity. Failure to thrive is observed during infancy and early childhood (Wang et al., 2017).
Microcephaly, short stature, and limb abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1613834
Concept ID:
C4539873
Disease or Syndrome
MISSLA is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly, variable short stature, and limb abnormalities mainly affecting the upper limb and radial ray. Affected individuals typically have mild intellectual disability, but may have normal development (summary by Reynolds et al., 2017).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and distal limb anomalies
MedGen UID:
1627464
Concept ID:
C4540327
Disease or Syndrome
NEDDFL is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development and impaired intellectual development, poor growth with small head size, dysmorphic facial features, and mild abnormalities of the hands and feet (summary by Stankiewicz et al., 2017).
Retinitis pigmentosa-hearing loss-premature aging-short stature-facial dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
1615526
Concept ID:
C4540367
Disease or Syndrome
SHRF is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short stature, brachydactyly, dysmorphic facial features, hearing loss, and visual impairment. Onset of the hearing and visual abnormalities, including retinitis pigmentosa, varies from birth to the second decade. Patients have mild intellectual disability and mild cerebellar atrophy with myelination defects on brain imaging (summary by Di Donato et al., 2016).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with ataxic gait, absent speech, and decreased cortical white matter
MedGen UID:
1621102
Concept ID:
C4540498
Disease or Syndrome
NDAGSCW is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development apparent from infancy. Affected individuals have delayed and difficulty walking, intellectual disability, absent speech, and variable additional features, including hip dysplasia, tapering fingers, and seizures. Brain imaging shows decreased cortical white matter, often with decreased cerebellar white matter, thin corpus callosum, and thin brainstem (summary by Lamers et al., 2017).
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1641736
Concept ID:
C4551475
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) is characterized by skeletal findings (short stature, mesomelic limb shortening predominantly of the upper limbs, and brachydactyly), genital abnormalities (in males: micropenis / webbed penis, hypoplastic scrotum, cryptorchidism; in females: hypoplastic clitoris and labia majora), dysmorphic facial features (widely spaced and prominent eyes, frontal bossing, anteverted nares, midface retrusion), dental abnormalities (including malocclusion, crowding, hypodontia, late eruption of permanent teeth), bilobed tongue, and occasional prenatal macrocephaly that persists postnatally. Less common findings include renal anomalies, radial head dislocation, vertebral abnormalities such as hemivertebrae and scoliosis, nail dysplasia, cardiac defects, cleft lip/palate, and (rarely) cognitive delay. When present, cardiac defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A variant of Robinow syndrome, associated with osteosclerosis and caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DVL1, is characterized by normal stature, persistent macrocephaly, increased bone mineral density with skull osteosclerosis, and hearing loss, in addition to the typical features described above.
Hyperphosphatasia with intellectual disability syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1647044
Concept ID:
C4551502
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperphosphatasia with impaired intellectual development syndrome-1 (HPMRS1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired intellectual development, various neurologic abnormalities such as seizures and hypotonia, and hyperphosphatasia. Other features include facial dysmorphism and variable degrees of brachytelephalangy (summary by Krawitz et al., 2010). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis; see GPIBD1 (610293). Genetic Heterogeneity of Hyperphosphatasia with Impaired Intellectual Development Syndrome See also HPMRS2 (614749), caused by mutation in the PIGO gene (614730) on chromosome 9p13; HPMRS3 (614207), caused by mutation in the PGAP2 gene (615187) on chromosome 11p15; HPMRS4 (615716), caused by mutation in the PGAP3 gene (611801) on chromosome 17q12; HPMRS5 (616025), caused by mutation in the PIGW gene (610275) on chromosome 17q12; and HPMRS6 (616809), caused by mutation in the PIGY gene (610662) on chromosome 4q22. Knaus et al. (2018) provided a review of the main clinical features of the different types of HPMRS, noting that some patients have a distinct pattern of facial anomalies that can be detected by computer-assisted comparison, particularly those with mutations in the PIGV and PGAP3 genes. Individuals with HPMRS have variable increased in alkaline phosphatase (AP) as well as variable decreases in GPI-linked proteins that can be detected by flow cytometry. However, there was no clear correlation between AP levels or GPI-linked protein abnormalities and degree of neurologic involvement, mutation class, or gene involved. Knaus et al. (2018) concluded that a distinction between HPMRS and MCAHS (see, e.g., 614080), which is also caused by mutation in genes involved in GPI biosynthesis, may be artificial and even inaccurate, and that all these disorders should be considered and classified under the more encompassing term of 'GPI biosynthesis defects' (GPIBD).
Multiple benign circumferential skin creases on limbs 1
MedGen UID:
1631916
Concept ID:
C4551592
Disease or Syndrome
Feingold syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
1637716
Concept ID:
C4551774
Disease or Syndrome
Feingold syndrome 1 (referred to as FS1 in this GeneReview) is characterized by digital anomalies (shortening of the 2nd and 5th middle phalanx of the hand, clinodactyly of the 5th finger, syndactyly of toes 2-3 and/or 4-5, thumb hypoplasia), microcephaly, facial dysmorphism (short palpebral fissures and micrognathia), gastrointestinal atresias (primarily esophageal and/or duodenal), and mild-to-moderate learning disability.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group S
MedGen UID:
1632414
Concept ID:
C4554406
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Intellectual disability, X-linked 107
MedGen UID:
1639885
Concept ID:
C4692652
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Alkuraya-Kucinskas syndrome
MedGen UID:
1634304
Concept ID:
C4693347
Disease or Syndrome
ALKKUCS is an autosomal recessive severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by arthrogryposis, brain abnormalities associated with cerebral parenchymal underdevelopment, and global developmental delay. Most affected individuals die in utero or soon after birth. Additional abnormalities may include hypotonia, dysmorphic facial features, and involvement of other organ systems, such as cardiac or renal. The few patients who survive have variable intellectual disability and may have seizures (summary by Gueneau et al., 2018).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 56
MedGen UID:
1638835
Concept ID:
C4693389
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 36
MedGen UID:
1644927
Concept ID:
C4693722
Disease or Syndrome
Ververi-Brady syndrome
MedGen UID:
1647785
Concept ID:
C4693824
Disease or Syndrome
Ververi-Brady syndrome (VEBRAS) is characterized by mild developmental delay, mildly impaired intellectual development and speech delay, and mild dysmorphic facial features. Affected individuals can usually attend mainstream schools with support, and may also show autistic features (summary by Ververi et al., 2018).
PHIP-related behavioral problems-intellectual disability-obesity-dysmorphic features syndrome
MedGen UID:
1641154
Concept ID:
C4693860
Disease or Syndrome
Chung-Jansen syndrome (CHUJANS) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, impaired intellectual development or learning difficulties, behavioral abnormalities, dysmorphic features, and obesity. The severity of the phenotype and additional features are variable (summary by Jansen et al., 2018).
3p- syndrome
MedGen UID:
1643555
Concept ID:
C4706503
Disease or Syndrome
Characteristic features of the distal 3p- syndrome include low birth weight, microcephaly, trigonocephaly, hypotonia, psychomotor and growth retardation, ptosis, telecanthus, downslanting palpebral fissures, and micrognathia. Postaxial polydactyly, renal anomalies, cleft palate, congenital heart defects (especially atrioventricular septal defects), preauricular pits, sacral dimple, and gastrointestinal anomalies are variable features. Although intellectual deficits are almost invariably associated with cytogenetically visible 3p deletions, rare patients with a 3p26-p25 deletion and normal intelligence or only mild abnormalities have been described (summary by Shuib et al., 2009).
Orofaciodigital syndrome type 14
MedGen UID:
1635470
Concept ID:
C4706604
Disease or Syndrome
A rare subtype of orofaciodigital syndrome, with autosomal recessive inheritance and C2CD3 mutations. The disease has characteristics of severe microcephaly, trigonocephaly, severe intellectual disability and micropenis, in addition to oral, facial and digital malformations (gingival frenulum, lingual hamartomas, cleft/lobulated tongue, cleft palate, telecanthus, up-slanting palpebral fissures, microretrognathia, postaxial polydactyly of hands and duplication of hallux). Corpus callosum agenesis and vermis hypoplasia with molar tooth sign on brain imaging are also associated.
Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 1A (Zellweger)
MedGen UID:
1648474
Concept ID:
C4721541
Disease or Syndrome
Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe to mild. While individual phenotypes (e.g., Zellweger syndrome [ZS], neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy [NALD], and infantile Refsum disease [IRD]) were described in the past before the biochemical and molecular bases of this spectrum were fully determined, the term "ZSD" is now used to refer to all individuals with a defect in one of the ZSD-PEX genes regardless of phenotype. Individuals with ZSD usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. Affected newborns are hypotonic and feed poorly. They have distinctive facies, congenital malformations (neuronal migration defects associated with neonatal-onset seizures, renal cysts, and bony stippling [chondrodysplasia punctata] of the patella[e] and the long bones), and liver disease that can be severe. Infants with severe ZSD are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Individuals with intermediate/milder ZSD do not have congenital malformations, but rather progressive peroxisome dysfunction variably manifest as sensory loss (secondary to retinal dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss), neurologic involvement (ataxia, polyneuropathy, and leukodystrophy), liver dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, and renal oxalate stones. While hypotonia and developmental delays are typical, intellect can be normal. Some have osteopenia; almost all have ameleogenesis imperfecta in the secondary teeth.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 57
MedGen UID:
1648280
Concept ID:
C4748003
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
MRD57 is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Most affected individuals have delayed psychomotor development apparent in infancy or early childhood, language delay, and behavioral abnormalities. Additional features may include hypotonia, feeding problems, gastrointestinal issues, and dysmorphic facial features (summary by Reijnders et al., 2018).
Spinocerebellar ataxia 42, early-onset, severe, with neurodevelopmental deficits
MedGen UID:
1648308
Concept ID:
C4748120
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, renal agenesis, and ambiguous genitalia syndrome
MedGen UID:
1648412
Concept ID:
C4748348
Disease or Syndrome
MFRG is an autosomal recessive syndrome in which microcephaly, unilateral renal agenesis, ambiguous genitalia, and facial dysmorphisms, including severe micrognathia, are observed in most patients. Variable brain, cardiac, and skeletal anomalies are present, including corpus callosum agenesis or dysgenesis, lissencephaly, atrial and ventricular septal defects, patent ductus arteriosus, hypoplastic right ventricle, and joint contractures (Shaheen et al., 2016).
Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1648368
Concept ID:
C4748408
Disease or Syndrome
Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome-3 (HKKLLS3) is characterized by widespread congenital edema that is more severe in more dependent areas of the body. Associated features include facial dysmorphism and protein-losing enteropathy of variable severity (Brouillard et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome, see HKLLS1 (235510).
Severe feeding difficulties-failure to thrive-microcephaly due to ASXL3 deficiency syndrome
MedGen UID:
1656239
Concept ID:
C4750837
Disease or Syndrome
ASXL3-related disorder is characterized by developmental delay or intellectual disability, typically in the moderate to severe range, with speech and language delay and/or absent speech. Affected individuals may also display autistic features. There may be issues with feeding. While dysmorphic facial features have been described, they are typically nonspecific. Affected individuals may also have hypotonia that can transition to spasticity resulting in unusual posture with flexion contractions of the elbows, wrists, and fingers. Other findings may include poor postnatal growth, strabismus, seizures, sleep disturbance, and dental anomalies.
Intellectual disability-strabismus syndrome
MedGen UID:
1665943
Concept ID:
C4750838
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with brain abnormalities, poor growth, and dysmorphic facies (NEDBGF) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay with delayed walking, impaired intellectual development, and speech delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. Most patients have dysmorphic facial features, often with microcephaly and strabismus, and white matter abnormalities on brain imaging. More variable features may include teeth anomalies, distal joint contractures, spasticity, peripheral neuropathy, and behavioral problems (summary by Sharkia et al., 2019).
Intellectual disability-hypotonic facies syndrome, X-linked, 1
MedGen UID:
1676827
Concept ID:
C4759781
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability (ATR-X) syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, genital anomalies, hypotonia, and mild-to-profound developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID). Craniofacial abnormalities include small head circumference, telecanthus or widely spaced eyes, short triangular nose, tented upper lip, and thick or everted lower lip with coarsening of the facial features over time. While all affected individuals have a normal 46,XY karyotype, genital anomalies comprise a range from hypospadias and undescended testicles, to severe hypospadias and ambiguous genitalia, to normal-appearing female external genitalia. Alpha-thalassemia, observed in about 75% of affected individuals, is mild and typically does not require treatment. Osteosarcoma has been reported in a few males with germline pathogenic variants.
Menke-Hennekam syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1675629
Concept ID:
C5193034
Disease or Syndrome
Menke-Hennekam syndrome-1 (MKHK1) is a congenital disorder characterized by variable impairment of intellectual development and facial dysmorphisms. Feeding difficulties, autistic behavior, recurrent upper airway infections, hearing impairment, short stature, and microcephaly are also frequently seen. Although mutations in the same gene cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome-1 (RSTS1; 180849), patients with MKHK1 do not resemble the striking phenotype of RSTS1. Genetic Heterogeneity of Menke-Hennekam Syndrome Menke-Hennekam syndrome-2 (MKHK2; 618333) is caused by heterozygous mutation in exons 30 or 31 of the EP300 gene (602700). Mutation elsewhere in that gene results in RSTS2 (613684).
Menke-Hennekam syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1676668
Concept ID:
C5193035
Disease or Syndrome
Menke-Hennekam syndrome-2 (MKHK2) is a congenital disorder characterized by variable impairment of intellectual development and facial dysmorphisms. Feeding difficulties, autistic behavior, recurrent upper airway infections, and hearing impairment are also frequently seen. Although mutations in the same gene cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome-2 (RSTS2; 613684), patients with MKHK1 do not resemble the striking phenotype of RSTS2. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Menke-Hennekam syndrome, see MKHK1 (618332).
Polymicrogyria with or without vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
MedGen UID:
1675672
Concept ID:
C5193040
Disease or Syndrome
Polymicrogyria with or without vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Although all patients have polymicrogyria and other variable structural brain anomalies on imaging, only some show developmental delay and/or seizures. Similarly, only some patients have connective tissue defects that particularly affect the vascular system and can result in early death (summary by Vandervore et al., 2017).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 75
MedGen UID:
1684253
Concept ID:
C5193099
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-75 (DEE75) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of severe refractory seizures in the first months of life. Patients often have global developmental delay before the onset of seizures, and thereafter achieve few milestones. EEG usually shows multifocal spikes and hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. They have severely impaired intellectual development with inability to walk, absent speech, and hypotonia with axial hyperreflexia. Brain imaging shows progressive cerebral atrophy, frontal lobe atrophy, white matter abnormalities, and delayed myelination. Since the disorder is due to mitochondrial dysfunction, some patients may develop other organ involvement, including cardiomyopathy or liver and renal dysfunction. Death may occur in childhood (summary by Yin et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without variable brain abnormalities; NEDBA
MedGen UID:
1675664
Concept ID:
C5193102
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without variable brain abnormalities (NEDBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood, resulting in mildly delayed walking, variably impaired intellectual development, and poor or absent speech. Additional features may include hypotonia, spasticity, or ataxia. About half of patients have abnormal findings on brain imaging, including cerebral or cerebellar atrophy, loss of white matter volume, thin corpus callosum, and perisylvian polymicrogyria. Seizures are not a prominent finding, and although some patients may have nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, there is no common or consistent gestalt (summary by Platzer et al., 2019).
Developmental delay with or without dysmorphic facies and autism
MedGen UID:
1679263
Concept ID:
C5193106
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with or without dysmorphic facies and autism (DEDDFA) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder apparent from infancy or early childhood and associated with variably impaired intellectual development. Some patients may be severely affected with no speech and inability to walk, whereas others may be able to attend special schools or have normal intellectual function associated with autism spectrum disorder and mild speech delay. Genetic analysis has suggested that the phenotype can be broadly categorized into 2 main groups. Patients with TRRAP mutations affecting residues 1031-1159 have a more severe disorder, often with multisystem involvement, including renal, cardiac, and genitourinary systems, as well as structural brain abnormalities. Patients with mutations outside of that region tend to have a less severe phenotype with a higher incidence of autism and usually no systemic involvement. Patients in both groups usually have somewhat similar dysmorphic facial features, such as upslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, low-set ears, and broad or depressed nasal bridge, although these features are highly variable (summary by Cogne et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly and structural brain anomalies
MedGen UID:
1677276
Concept ID:
C5193123
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 80
MedGen UID:
1684779
Concept ID:
C5231418
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-80 (DEE80) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory seizures in the first year of life. Patients have severe global developmental delay and may have additional variable features, including dysmorphic or coarse facial features, distal skeletal abnormalities, and impaired hearing or vision. At the cellular level, the disorder is caused by a defect in the synthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), and thus affects the expression of GPI-anchored proteins at the cell surface (summary by Murakami et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Intellectual developmental disorder with nasal speech, dysmorphic facies, and variable skeletal anomalies
MedGen UID:
1684881
Concept ID:
C5231426
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with nasal speech, dysmorphic facies, and variable skeletal anomalies (IDNADFS) is characterized by mildly impaired global development, speech delay with nasal speech, and dysmorphic facial features, including high forehead, midface hypoplasia, micrognathia or high-arched palate, hypo/hypertelorism, upslanting palpebral fissures, and thin upper lip. Some patients may have skeletal anomalies, such as brachydactyly, 2-3 toe syndactyly, and flat feet (summary by Alesi et al., 2019 and Uehara et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and distal skeletal anomalies
MedGen UID:
1684792
Concept ID:
C5231448
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and distal skeletal anomalies (NEDDFSA) is a global neurodevelopmental disorder with highly variable features. Patients often show poor feeding, poor overall growth, and hypotonia from early infancy, followed by mildly delayed motor development, poor language acquisition, and behavioral abnormalities. Intellectual development varies from severe with absent speech to mild with the ability to attend special schools. Common features include dysmorphic facial features with notable eye anomalies, joint hypermobility, and mild skeletal anomalies of the hands and feet (summary by Carapito et al., 2019).
Intellectual developmental disorder with speech delay, autism, and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1684848
Concept ID:
C5231456
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with absent language and variable seizures
MedGen UID:
1684803
Concept ID:
C5231469
Disease or Syndrome
Pachygyria, microcephaly, developmental delay, and dysmorphic facies, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1684879
Concept ID:
C5231486
Disease or Syndrome
Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations-15 (CDCBM15) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by progressive microcephaly associated with abnormal facial features, hypotonia, and variable global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development. Brain imaging shows variable malformation of cortical development on the lissencephaly spectrum, mainly pachygyria and thin corpus callosum (summary by Mitani et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDCBM, see CDCBM1 (614039).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 85, with or without midline brain defects
MedGen UID:
1708832
Concept ID:
C5393312
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-85 with or without midline brain defects (DEE85) is an X-linked neurologic disorder characterized by onset of severe refractory seizures in the first year of life, global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, and dysmorphic facial features. The seizures tend to show a cyclic pattern with clustering. Many patients have midline brain defects on brain imaging, including thin corpus callosum and/or variable forms of holoprosencephaly (HPE). The severity and clinical manifestations are variable. Almost all reported patients are females with de novo mutations predicted to result in a loss of function (LOF). However, some patients may show skewed X inactivation, and the pathogenic mechanism may be due to a dominant-negative effect. The SMC1A protein is part of the multiprotein cohesin complex involved in chromatid cohesion during DNA replication and transcriptional regulation; DEE85 can thus be classified as a 'cohesinopathy' (summary by Symonds et al., 2017 and Kruszka et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Genitourinary and/or brain malformation syndrome
MedGen UID:
1720440
Concept ID:
C5394158
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with PPP1R12A-related urogenital and/or brain malformation syndrome (UBMS) usually present with multiple congenital anomalies, commonly including brain and/or urogenital malformations. The brain abnormalities are variable, with the most severe belonging to the holoprosencephaly spectrum and associated with moderate-to-profound intellectual disability, seizures, and feeding difficulties. In individuals without brain involvement, variable degrees of developmental delay and/or intellectual disability may be present, although normal intelligence has been seen in a minority of affected individuals. Eye abnormalities and skeletal issues (kyphoscoliosis, joint contractures) can also be present in individuals of either sex. Regardless of the presence of a brain malformation, affected individuals with a 46,XY chromosome complement may have a disorder of sex development (DSD) with gonadal abnormalities (dysgenetic gonads or streak gonads). Individuals with a 46,XX chromosome complement may have varying degrees of virilization (clitoral hypertrophy, posterior labial fusion, urogenital sinus).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, microcephaly, and seizures
MedGen UID:
1710110
Concept ID:
C5394312
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, microcephaly, and seizures (NEDHYMS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay with axial hypotonia, inability to sit or walk, and severely impaired intellectual development with absent language. Most patients develop early-onset intractable seizures that prevent normal development. Additional features include feeding difficulties with poor overall growth and microcephaly. Some patients may have spastic quadriplegia, poor eye contact due to cortical blindness, variable dysmorphic features, and nonspecific abnormalities on brain imaging (summary by Tan et al., 2020).
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 5
MedGen UID:
1731112
Concept ID:
C5436453
Disease or Syndrome
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita-5 (AMC5) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe joint contractures apparent at birth. Affected individuals usually have hypertonia and abnormal movements suggestive of dystonia, as well as feeding and/or breathing difficulties. More variable features may include poor overall growth, strabismus, dysmorphic facies, and global developmental delay with impaired speech (summary by Kariminejad et al., 2017).
Li-Ghorbani-Weisz-Hubshman syndrome
MedGen UID:
1763263
Concept ID:
C5436525
Disease or Syndrome
Li-Ghorbani-Weisz-Hubshman syndrome (LIGOWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, mild to moderately impaired intellectual development with language delay, and mild dysmorphic features. Affected individuals may have behavioral abnormalities and difficulties with numbers and understanding certain concepts, such as money. Some patients have seizures. Brain imaging often shows enlarged ventricles, thin corpus callosum, and gray matter nodular heterotopia, suggesting abnormal cortical brain development. More variable additional features may be present (summary by Li et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, impaired language, epilepsy, and gait abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1764121
Concept ID:
C5436788
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, impaired language, epilepsy, and gait abnormalities (NEDMILEG) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent in infancy. Affected individuals have delayed walking with variable gait abnormalities, including ataxia and spasticity, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech and language, and progressive microcephaly. Dysmorphic facial features may also be observed. Most patients have early-onset seizures; some may develop a demyelinating peripheral neuropathy. The clinical features suggest involvement of both the central and peripheral nervous systems (Manole et al., 2020).
Cardiofacioneurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1721861
Concept ID:
C5436852
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiofacioneurodevelopmental syndrome (CFNDS) is characterized by microcephaly, midline facial defects, developmental delay, and cerebellar hypoplasia. Variable cardiac defects may be present, including atrioventricular canal and ventricular septal defects. Heterotaxy has also been reported (Harel et al., 2020).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 89
MedGen UID:
1761611
Concept ID:
C5436853
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-89 (DEE89) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by profound global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, absent speech, inability to sit or walk due to axial hypotonia and spastic quadriparesis, and onset of seizures in the first days or months of life. EEG shows suppression-burst pattern or hypsarrhythmia, consistent with DEE or a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. More variable features include joint contractures with foot deformities, dysmorphic facial features with cleft palate, and omphalocele. Affected individuals have poor motor skills, poor eye contact, and lack of language development; some die in infancy or early childhood. Brain imaging may be normal or show nonspecific abnormalities (summary by Chatron et al., 2020).
Lessel-Kreienkamp syndrome
MedGen UID:
1762595
Concept ID:
C5436892
Disease or Syndrome
Lessel-Kreienkamp syndrome (LESKRES) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with intellectual disability and speech and language delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. The severity of the disorder is highly variable: some patients have mildly delayed walking and mild cognitive deficits, whereas others are nonambulatory and nonverbal. Most have behavioral disorders. Additional features, including seizures, hypotonia, gait abnormalities, visual defects, cardiac defects, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, may also be present (summary by Lessel et al., 2020).
Coffin-Siris syndrome 12
MedGen UID:
1782096
Concept ID:
C5444111
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome-12 (CSS12) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development, speech and language delay, and behavioral abnormalities, such as autism or hyperactivity. Affected individuals may have hypotonia and poor feeding in infancy. There are variable dysmorphic facial features, although most patients do not have the classic hypoplastic fifth digit/nail abnormalities that are often observed in other forms of CSS (Barish et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Coffin-Siris syndrome, see CSS1 (135900).
Microcephaly 26, primary, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1779629
Concept ID:
C5543048
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant primary microcephaly-26 (MCPH26) is characterized by progressive microcephaly beginning at birth and associated with global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development. Some patients may have only mild learning difficulties or speech delay, whereas other are more severely affected with the inability to walk or speak. Additional features may include short stature, spasticity, feeding difficulties requiring tube feeding, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging in some patients shows a simplified gyral pattern or dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, suggesting abnormal neuronal migration (summary by Cristofoli et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly, see MCPH1 (251200).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 64
MedGen UID:
1784554
Concept ID:
C5543067
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-64 (MRD64) is characterized by mildly to severely impaired intellectual development (ID) with speech delays. Most patients also have autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Additional features are highly variable but may include motor delay, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and nonspecific dysmorphic features (summary by Mirzaa et al., 2020).
Neurofacioskeletal syndrome with or without renal agenesis
MedGen UID:
1778926
Concept ID:
C5543070
Disease or Syndrome
Neurofacioskeletal syndrome with or without renal agenesis (NFSRA) is characterized by developmental delay and/or intellectual disability; corpus callosum hypoplasia or agenesis; facial dysmorphism, including upslanting palpebral fissures, broad nasal tip, and wide mouth; and skeletal abnormalities, including short stature, scoliosis, and flexion contractures, with broad fingertips and/or toes. Renal agenesis, unilateral or bilateral, has also been observed in some patients (Schneeberger et al., 2020).
Short stature, oligodontia, dysmorphic facies, and motor delay
MedGen UID:
1787876
Concept ID:
C5543206
Disease or Syndrome
SOFM is characterized by marked short stature, oligodontia, mild facial dysmorphism, and motor delay. Endosteal hyperostosis has also been observed, and patients may exhibit some features of progeria (Terhal et al., 2020; Beauregard-Lacroix et al., 2020).
Baralle-Macken syndrome
MedGen UID:
1778777
Concept ID:
C5543241
Disease or Syndrome
Baralle-Macken syndrome (BARMACS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, difficulty walking or inability to walk, and impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech. Affected individuals develop early-onset cataracts; some may have microcephaly. Additional more variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, metabolic abnormalities, spasticity, and lymphopenia (summary by Macken et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
1786150
Concept ID:
C5543332
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and cerebellar hypoplasia (NEDFACH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay and intellectual disability. The phenotype is variable: more severely affected individuals have poor overall growth with microcephaly, delayed walking, spasticity, and poor or absent speech, whereas others may achieve more significant developmental milestones and even attend special schooling. Brain imaging shows abnormalities of the cerebellum, most commonly cerebellar hypoplasia, although other features, such as thin corpus callosum and delayed myelination, may also be present. Dysmorphic facial features include sloping forehead, upslanting palpebral fissures, and hypertelorism. Additional more variable manifestations may include cardiac ventricular septal defect, spasticity, cataracts, optic nerve hypoplasia, seizures, and joint contractures (summary by Van Bergen et al., 2020).
Radio-Tartaglia syndrome
MedGen UID:
1778557
Concept ID:
C5543339
Disease or Syndrome
Radio-Tartaglia syndrome (RATARS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, speech delay, and variable behavioral abnormalities. Affected individuals show hypotonia, mild motor difficulties, and craniofacial dysmorphism. Brain imaging may show nonspecific defects; rare patients have seizures or pyramidal signs. A subset of individuals may have congenital heart defects, precocious puberty, and obesity in females. Some of the features are similar to those observed in patients with chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome (607872) (summary by Radio et al., 2021).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 65
MedGen UID:
1787923
Concept ID:
C5543371
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-65 (MRD65) is characterized by delayed motor and speech acquisition, variably impaired intellectual development, and behavioral abnormalities. Affected individuals also have dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging may be normal or may show abnormalities, including cerebellar hypoplasia, poor development of the corpus callosum, dysmorphic hippocampus, and polymicrogyria. Feeding difficulties, hypotonia, and seizures may also be observed (Duncan et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, facial dysmorphism, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1780615
Concept ID:
C5543591
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, facial dysmorphism, and brain abnormalities (NEDHFBA) is an autosomal recessive neurologic syndrome characterized by global developmental delay with severely impaired intellectual development, hypotonia and muscle weakness, often resulting in the inability to walk or sit, and characteristic coarse facial features. Additional features include feeding difficulties, respiratory distress, scoliosis, poor visual function, and rotary nystagmus. Brain imaging shows variable abnormalities, including enlarged ventricles, decreased white matter volume, white matter changes, thin corpus callosum, and cerebellar hypoplasia (summary by Loddo et al., 2020).
White-Kernohan syndrome
MedGen UID:
1785087
Concept ID:
C5543635
Disease or Syndrome
White-Kernohan syndrome (WHIKERS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development, hypotonia, and characteristic facial features. Some patients may have abnormalities of other systems, including genitourinary and skeletal (summary by White et al., 2021).
Intellectual disability, X-linked 21
MedGen UID:
1790509
Concept ID:
C5551510
Disease or Syndrome
NR0B1-related adrenal hypoplasia congenita includes both X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (X-linked AHC) and Xp21 deletion (previously called complex glycerol kinase deficiency). X-linked AHC is characterized by primary adrenal insufficiency and/or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Adrenal insufficiency is acute infantile onset (average age 3 weeks) in approximately 60% of affected males and childhood onset (ages 1-9 years) in approximately 40%. HH typically manifests in a male with adrenal insufficiency as delayed puberty (i.e., onset age >14 years) and less commonly as arrested puberty at about Tanner Stage 3. Rarely, X-linked AHC manifests initially in early adulthood as delayed-onset adrenal insufficiency, partial HH, and/or infertility. Heterozygous females very occasionally have manifestations of adrenal insufficiency or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Xp21 deletion includes deletion of NR0B1 (causing X-linked AHC) and GK (causing glycerol kinase deficiency), and in some cases deletion of DMD (causing Duchenne muscular dystrophy). Developmental delay has been reported in males with Xp21 deletion when the deletion extends proximally to include DMD or when larger deletions extend distally to include IL1RAPL1 and DMD.
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794167
Concept ID:
C5561957
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (DDISBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. Additional variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, seizures, hypotonia, motor abnormalities such as Tourette syndrome or dystonia, and hearing loss (summary by Cousin et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1794184
Concept ID:
C5561974
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and dysmorphic facies (NEDHYDF) is characterized by global developmental delay and hypotonia apparent from birth. Affected individuals have variably impaired intellectual development, often with speech delay and delayed walking. Seizures are generally not observed, although some patients may have single seizures or late-onset epilepsy. Most patients have prominent dysmorphic facial features. Additional features may include congenital cardiac defects (without arrhythmia), nonspecific renal anomalies, joint contractures or joint hyperextensibility, dry skin, and cryptorchidism. There is significant phenotypic variability in both the neurologic and extraneurologic manifestations (summary by Tan et al., 2022).
Chopra-Amiel-Gordon syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794185
Concept ID:
C5561975
Disease or Syndrome
Chopra-Amiel-Gordon syndrome (CAGS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by developmental delay and/or impaired intellectual development, speech delay, facial dysmorphism, and variable other features, including recurrent bacterial infections, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and nonspecific brain abnormalities (Chopra et al., 2021).
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794200
Concept ID:
C5561990
Disease or Syndrome
Biliary, renal, neurologic, and skeletal syndrome (BRENS) is an autosomal recessive complex ciliopathy with multisystemic manifestations. The most common presentation is severe neonatal cholestasis that progresses to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Most patients have additional clinical features suggestive of a ciliopathy, including postaxial polydactyly, hydrocephalus, retinal abnormalities, and situs inversus. Additional features of the syndrome may include congenital cardiac defects, echogenic kidneys with renal failure, ocular abnormalities, joint hyperextensibility, and dysmorphic facial features. Some patients have global developmental delay. Brain imaging typically shows dilated ventricles, hypomyelination, and white matter abnormalities, although some patients have been described with abnormal pituitary development (summary by Shaheen et al., 2020 and David et al., 2020).
Marbach-Schaaf neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794260
Concept ID:
C5562050
Disease or Syndrome
Marbach-Schaaf neurodevelopmental syndrom (MASNS) is characterized by global developmental delay with speech delay and behavioral abnormalities, including autism spectrum disorder and ADHD. Affected individuals also show movement disorders, such as dyspraxia and apraxia. More variable features include high pain tolerance, sleep disturbances, and variable nonspecific dysmorphic features (summary by Marbach et al., 2021).
Developmental delay with variable neurologic and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794270
Concept ID:
C5562060
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with variable neurologic and brain abnormalities (DENBA) is characterized most often by motor and speech delay apparent from early childhood. Most patients have delayed walking and variably impaired intellectual development. Additional neurologic features may include seizures, spasticity, and ocular abnormalities. Brain imaging often shows thin corpus callosum and may show white matter atrophy, myelination abnormalities, or enlarged ventricles. The severity of the disorder and clinical manifestations are highly variable (summary by Malhotra et al., 2021).
Rauch-Steindl syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794271
Concept ID:
C5562061
Disease or Syndrome
Rauch-Steindl syndrome (RAUST) is characterized by poor pre- and postnatal growth, sometimes with short stature and small head circumference, characteristic dysmorphic facial features, and variable developmental delay with delayed motor and speech acquisition and impaired intellectual function that can be mild. Other features may include hypotonia and behavioral abnormalities. The phenotype represents a mild form of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS; 194190), which is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome caused by heterozygous deletion of several genes on chromosome 4p16. The clinical features of RAUST are similar to but milder than those of WHS, with less severe dysmorphic facial features, less severe developmental disabilities in general, and absence of a seizure disorder. The phenotype and expressivity of RAUST is highly variable (summary by Rauch et al., 2001; Zanoni et al., 2021).
Orofaciodigital syndrome 18
MedGen UID:
1799326
Concept ID:
C5567903
Disease or Syndrome
Orofaciodigital syndrome-18 is characterized by short stature, brachymesophalangy, pre- and postaxial polysyndactyly, and stocky femoral necks, as well as oral anomalies and dysmorphic facial features (Thevenon et al., 2016).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 40
MedGen UID:
1810363
Concept ID:
C5676894
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, impaired language, and dysmorphic features (NEDHILD) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder associated with impaired intellectual development, speech and language impairment, microcephaly, seizures, hypotonia, ophthalmologic issues, constipation/gastroesophageal reflux, and behavioral problems, including autism and sleep disturbances (summary by Garrity et al., 2021).
Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1801103
Concept ID:
C5676905
Disease or Syndrome
Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome-1 (BRYLIB1) is a highly variable phenotype characterized predominantly by moderate to severe global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, poor or absent speech, and delayed motor milestones. Most patients have hypotonia, although some have peripheral hypertonia. Common features include abnormal head shape, variable dysmorphic facial features, oculomotor abnormalities, feeding problems, and nonspecific brain imaging abnormalities. Additional features may include hearing loss, seizures, short stature, and mild skeletal defects (summary by Bryant et al., 2020). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bryant-Li-Bhoj Neurodevelopmental Syndrome See also BRYLIB2 (619721), caused by heterozygous mutation in the H3F3B gene (601058).
Tessadori-van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1810348
Concept ID:
C5676922
Disease or Syndrome
Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome-1 (TEBIVANED1) is characterized by poor overall growth with short stature, microcephaly, hypotonia, profound global developmental delay often with poor or absent speech, and characteristic dysmorphic facial features, including hypertelorism and abnormal nose. Other variable neurologic and systemic features may also occur (Tessadori et al., 2017). Genetic Heterogeneity of Tessadori-van Haaften Neurodevelopmental Syndrome See also TEBIVANED2 (619759), caused by mutation in the H4C11 gene (602826); TEBIVANED3 (619950), caused by mutation in the H4C5 gene (602830); and TEBIVANED4 (619951), caused by mutation in the H4C9 gene (602833).
Tessadori-van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1803228
Concept ID:
C5676923
Disease or Syndrome
Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome-2 (TEBIVANED2) is characterized by poor overall growth, profound global developmental delay with absent speech, and characteristic dysmorphic facial features, including hypertelorism, abnormal nose, and wide mouth (Tessadori et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome, see TEBIVANED1 (619758).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with neuromuscular and skeletal abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1803456
Concept ID:
C5676965
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with neuromuscular and skeletal abnormalities (NEDNMS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. The severity of the disorder is highly variable. Affected individuals show impaired intellectual development and motor delay associated with either severe hypotonia or hypertonia and spasticity. Most affected individuals have skeletal defects and dysmorphic facial features. Some may have ocular or auditory problems, peripheral neuropathy, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific findings on brain imaging (Kurolap et al., 2022).
Parenti-mignot neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1808333
Concept ID:
C5676984
Disease or Syndrome
Parenti-Mignot neurodevelopmental syndrome (PMNDS) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder frequently characterized by impaired intellectual development, speech delay, motor delay, behavioral problems, and epilepsy (Parenti et al., 2021).
Dentici-Novelli neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1810366
Concept ID:
C5676987
Disease or Syndrome
Dentici-Novelli neurodevelopmental syndrome (DENNED) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development apparent from infancy. The severity of the phenotype is highly variable: more severely affected individuals have axial hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, microcephaly, early-onset seizures, brain imaging abnormalities, and are unable to walk or speak. Those with a less severe phenotype may achieve some developmental goals and show less severe intellectual disability (Dentici et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with poor growth and skeletal anomalies
MedGen UID:
1804653
Concept ID:
C5676990
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with poor growth and skeletal anomalies (NEDGS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay and impaired intellectual development apparent from infancy. Affected individuals have hypotonia, delayed walking, poor or absent speech, and variable skeletal anomalies. More variable features include seizures, nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, oculomotor apraxia, and nonspecific brain imaging abnormalities (Iqbal et al., 2021).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, IIA 17
MedGen UID:
1809583
Concept ID:
C5676999
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 17 (PCH17) is a severe autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, severe feeding difficulties, and respiratory insufficiency. Brain imaging shows cerebellar and brainstem hypoplasia. Most affected individuals die in infancy. Those who survive show variable developmental delay. Other features of the disorder include distal hypertonia, poor overall growth, visual defects, autonomic problems, dysmorphic features, and seizures (Coolen et al., 2022). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Craniofacial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies, and impaired intellectual development 1
MedGen UID:
1808104
Concept ID:
C5677021
Disease or Syndrome
Craniofacial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies, and impaired intellectual development syndrome-1 (CFSMR1) is characterized by cranial involvement with macrocrania at birth, brachycephaly, anomalies of middle fossa structures including hypoplasia of corpus callosum, enlargement of septum pellucidum, and dilated lateral ventricles, as well as cortical atrophy and hypodensity of the gray matter. Facial dysmorphisms include flat face, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, synophrys, broad nasal bridge, cleft lip and cleft palate, and low-set posteriorly rotated ears. Patients also exhibit short neck and multiple costal and vertebral anomalies. The face is rather characteristic, and various authors have consistently reported affable/friendly personality, despite intellectual delay (summary by Alanay et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Craniofacial Dysmorphism, Skeletal Anomalies, and Impaired Intellectual Development Syndrome CFSMR2 (616994) is caused by mutation in the RAB5IF gene (619960) on chromosome 20q11.
Chilton-Okur-Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1803276
Concept ID:
C5677022
Disease or Syndrome
Chilton-Okur-Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome (CHOCNS) is characterized mainly by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development and occasional speech delay. Most patients have behavioral abnormalities, including autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, and aggression. About half of patients have dysmorphic facial features, and about half have nonspecific brain abnormalities, including thin corpus callosum. Rare involvement of other organ systems may be present. At least 1 child with normal development at age 2.5 years has been reported (Chilton et al., 2020).
Chromosome Xq13 duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
1809227
Concept ID:
C5677057
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, short stature, and speech delay
MedGen UID:
1823984
Concept ID:
C5774211
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, short stature, and speech delay (NEDMISS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay with severely impaired intellectual development usually accompanied by behavioral abnormalities. Other features may include hypotonia, abnormal gait, mild dysmorphism, and seizures (Rawlins et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with short stature, prominent forehead, and feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
1824001
Concept ID:
C5774228
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with short stature, prominent forehead, and feeding difficulties (NEDSFF) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by distinct craniofacial features, multisystem dysfunction, profound neurodevelopmental delays, and neonatal death (Shankar et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and skeletal and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1824004
Concept ID:
C5774231
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and skeletal and brain abnormalities (NEDDFSB) is a multisystemic developmental disorder characterized by feeding difficulties, poor overall growth, and global developmental delay with moderate to severely impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech. Affected individuals have dysmorphic facial features and skeletal defects, mainly affecting the distal extremities. More variable additional findings include hypotonia, seizures, and ocular defects. Brain imaging tends to show structural defects of the corpus callosum and cerebellar hypoplasia (Duijkers et al., 2019).
Intellectual developmental disorder with ocular anomalies and distinctive facial features
MedGen UID:
1824011
Concept ID:
C5774238
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with ocular anomalies and distinctive facial features (IDDOF) is characterized by global developmental delay, mildly impaired intellectual development, ophthalmologic anomalies, microcephaly or relative microcephaly, hearing loss, and characteristic facial features (Huang et al., 2022).
Developmental delay with variable intellectual disability and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1824015
Concept ID:
C5774242
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with variable intellectual disability and dysmorphic facies (DIDDF) is a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by neurologic deficits and characteristic dysmorphic facial features apparent from infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals usually show impaired intellectual development, speech delay, learning difficulties, and/or behavioral problems. Additional features may include hypotonia, hand or foot deformities, and palatal defects (Verberne et al., 2021; Verberne et al., 2022).
Orofaciodigital syndrome 19
MedGen UID:
1824021
Concept ID:
C5774248
Disease or Syndrome
Orofaciodigital syndrome XIX (OFD19) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by tongue nodules; dental anomalies including congenital absence or abnormal shape of incisors; narrow, high-arched or cleft palate; retrognathia; and digital anomalies. Some patients have notching of the upper or lower lip (Iturrate et al., 2022).
Rabin-Pappas syndrome
MedGen UID:
1824042
Concept ID:
C5774269
Disease or Syndrome
Rabin-Pappas syndrome (RAPAS) is a multisystemic disorder characterized by severely impaired global development apparent from infancy, feeding difficulties with failure to thrive, small head circumference, and dysmorphic facial features. Affected individuals have impaired intellectual development and hypotonia; they do not achieve walking or meaningful speech. Other neurologic findings may include seizures, hearing loss, ophthalmologic defects, and brain imaging abnormalities. There is variable involvement of other organ systems, including skeletal, genitourinary, cardiac, and possibly endocrine (Rabin et al., 2020).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 70
MedGen UID:
1824044
Concept ID:
C5774271
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-70 (MRD70) is characterized by mild global developmental delay, moderately impaired intellectual disability with speech difficulties, and behavioral abnormalities. More variable findings may include hypotonia and dysmorphic features (Rabin et al., 2020)
Respiratory infections, recurrent, and failure to thrive with or without diarrhea
MedGen UID:
1824079
Concept ID:
C5774306
Disease or Syndrome
Recurrent respiratory infections and failure to thrive with or without diarrhea (RIFTD) is characterized by neonatal onset of chronic cough, episodic wheezing, recurrent lower respiratory tract infections, chronic diarrhea, and failure to thrive. Despite the resemblance to cystic fibrosis (CF; 219700), these patients have normal sweat chloride and pancreatic elastase tests (Bertoli-Avella et al., 2022).
Tessadori-Van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1824083
Concept ID:
C5774310
Disease or Syndrome
Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome-3 (TEBIVANED3) is characterized by global developmental delay with poor overall growth, impaired intellectual development, and speech difficulties. More variable features include hypotonia, microcephaly, and dysmorphic facies. The severity and manifestations of the disorder are highly variable (Tessadori et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental disorder, see TEBIVANED1 (619758).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, dysmorphic facies, and skeletal anomalies, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1840880
Concept ID:
C5830244
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, dysmorphic facies, and skeletal anomalies, with or without seizures (NEDFSS), is characterized by these features and global developmental delay with delayed or absent walking, moderate to severely impaired intellectual development, and poor or absent speech acquisition. Affected individuals may also have behavioral abnormalities. About half of patients develop various types of seizures that are usually well-controlled with medication. Rare patients are noted to have heat intolerance or insensitivity to pain (Lines et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, spasticity, and complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
1840932
Concept ID:
C5830296
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, spasticity, and partial or complete agenesis of the corpus callosum (NEDSSCC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by axial hypotonia and global developmental delay apparent from the first days or months of life. Affected individuals often have feeding difficulties and develop early-onset seizures that tend to be well-controlled. Other features include peripheral spasticity with hyperreflexia, variable dysmorphic features, impaired intellectual development, behavioral abnormalities, and hypoplasia or absence of the corpus callosum on brain imaging (Faqeih et al., 2023).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 71, with behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1841073
Concept ID:
C5830437
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-71 with behavioral abnormalities (MRD71) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with hypotonia, speech delay, and variably impaired cognitive development. Almost all affected individuals show marked behavioral manifestations, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD, hypersensitivity, and aggression. Many have dysmorphic features, although there is not a common gestalt (Harris et al., 2021).
Teebi hypertelorism syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
989457
Concept ID:
CN306405
Disease or Syndrome
Teebi hypertelorism syndrome-1 (TBHS1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hypertelorism with upslanting palpebral fissures, prominent forehead, broad and depressed nasal bridge with short nose, thick eyebrows, and widow's peak. Additional features include small broad hands with mild interdigital webbing and shawl scrotum. Umbilical malformations, cardiac defects, natal teeth, cleft lip/palate, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and malformations of the central nervous system (ventriculomegaly, abnormal corpus callosum) have also been reported. Development is typically normal, although some patients with developmental delays have been reported (summary by Bhoj et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Teebi Hypertelorism Syndrome Teebi hypertelorism syndrome-2 (TBHS2; 619736) is caused by mutation in the CDH11 gene (600023) on chromosome 16q21.

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PubMed

Butnariu L, Rusu C, Caba L, Pânzaru M, Braha E, Grămescu M, Popescu R, Bujoranu C, Gorduza EV
Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 2013 Jul-Sep;117(3):714-21. PMID: 24502039

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Etiology

Butnariu L, Rusu C, Caba L, Pânzaru M, Braha E, Grămescu M, Popescu R, Bujoranu C, Gorduza EV
Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 2013 Jul-Sep;117(3):714-21. PMID: 24502039

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Myers L, Anderlid BM, Nordgren A, Lundin K, Kuja-Halkola R, Tammimies K, Bölte S
Am J Med Genet A 2020 May;182(5):1177-1189. Epub 2020 Mar 12 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61545. PMID: 32162839
Blomqvist M, Smeland MF, Lindgren J, Sikora P, Riise Stensland HMF, Asin-Cayuela J
Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud 2019 Jun;5(3) Epub 2019 Jun 3 doi: 10.1101/mcs.a003954. PMID: 30886116Free PMC Article
Butnariu L, Rusu C, Caba L, Pânzaru M, Braha E, Grămescu M, Popescu R, Bujoranu C, Gorduza EV
Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 2013 Jul-Sep;117(3):714-21. PMID: 24502039

Clinical prediction guides

Eker HK
Childs Nerv Syst 2021 May;37(5):1779-1784. Epub 2020 Aug 18 doi: 10.1007/s00381-020-04843-9. PMID: 32809063

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