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Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 12A (Zellweger)(PBD12A)

MedGen UID:
766916
Concept ID:
C3554002
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 12A
 
Gene (location): PEX19 (1q23.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0013951
OMIM®: 614886

Definition

Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome resulting from disordered peroxisome biogenesis. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group 14 (CG14, equivalent to CGJ) have mutations in the PEX19 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Renal tubular dysfunction
MedGen UID:
57484
Concept ID:
C0151747
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormal function of the renal tubule. The basic functional unit of the kidney, the nephron, consists of a renal corpuscle attached to a renal tubule, with roughly 0.8 to 1.5 nephrons per adult kidney. The functions of the renal tubule include reabsorption of water, electrolytes, glucose, and amino acids and secretion of substances such as uric acid.
Abnormality of the male genitalia
MedGen UID:
869392
Concept ID:
C4023819
Anatomical Abnormality
Abnormality of the male genital system.
Double outlet right ventricle
MedGen UID:
41649
Concept ID:
C0013069
Congenital Abnormality
Double outlet right ventricle (DORV) is a type of ventriculoarterial connection in which both great vessels arise entirely or predominantly from the right ventricle.
Patent ductus arteriosus
MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
In utero, the ductus arteriosus (DA) serves to divert ventricular output away from the lungs and toward the placenta by connecting the main pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the first 3 days of life is a physiologic shunt in healthy term and preterm newborn infants, and normally is substantially closed within about 24 hours after bith and completely closed after about three weeks. Failure of physiologcal closure is referred to a persistent or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Depending on the degree of left-to-right shunting, PDA can have clinical consequences.
Atrial septal defect
MedGen UID:
6753
Concept ID:
C0018817
Congenital Abnormality
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital abnormality of the interatrial septum that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Growth delay
MedGen UID:
99124
Concept ID:
C0456070
Pathologic Function
A deficiency or slowing down of growth pre- and postnatally.
Decreased body weight
MedGen UID:
375512
Concept ID:
C1844806
Finding
Abnormally low body weight.
Cholelithiasis
MedGen UID:
3039
Concept ID:
C0008350
Disease or Syndrome
Hard, pebble-like deposits that form within the gallbladder.
Hepatic failure
MedGen UID:
88444
Concept ID:
C0085605
Disease or Syndrome
A disorder characterized by the inability of the liver to metabolize chemicals in the body. Causes include cirrhosis and drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Signs and symptoms include jaundice and encephalopathy. Laboratory test results reveal abnormal plasma levels of ammonia, bilirubin, lactic dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase.
Poor suck
MedGen UID:
324693
Concept ID:
C1837142
Finding
An inadequate sucking reflex, resulting in the difficult of newborns to be breast-fed.
Hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
9335
Concept ID:
C0020255
Disease or Syndrome
Hydrocephalus is an active distension of the ventricular system of the brain resulting from inadequate passage of CSF from its point of production within the cerebral ventricles to its point of absorption into the systemic circulation.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
116012
Concept ID:
C0235946
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy (wasting, decrease in size of cells or tissue) affecting the cerebrum.
CNS demyelination
MedGen UID:
137898
Concept ID:
C0338474
Disease or Syndrome
A loss of myelin from nerve fibers in the central nervous system.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Brisk reflexes
MedGen UID:
382164
Concept ID:
C2673700
Finding
Tendon reflexes that are noticeably more active than usual (conventionally denoted 3+ on clinical examination). Brisk reflexes may or may not indicate a neurological lesion. They are distinguished from hyperreflexia by the fact that hyerreflexia is characterized by hyperactive repeating (clonic) reflexes, which are considered to be always abnormal.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Isolated scaphocephaly
MedGen UID:
82712
Concept ID:
C0265534
Congenital Abnormality
Scaphocephaly is a subtype of dolichocephaly where the anterior and posterior aspects of the cranial vault are pointed (boat-shaped). Scaphocephaly is caused by a precocious fusion of sagittal suture without other associated synostosis.
Cranial asymmetry
MedGen UID:
348059
Concept ID:
C1860245
Finding
Asymmetry of the bones of the skull.
Wide anterior fontanel
MedGen UID:
400926
Concept ID:
C1866134
Finding
Enlargement of the anterior fontanelle with respect to age-dependent norms.
Prominence of the premaxilla
MedGen UID:
412683
Concept ID:
C2749369
Finding
Prominent positioning of the premaxilla in relation to the rest of the maxilla, the facial skeleton, or mandible. Not necessarily caused by an increase in size (hypertrophy of) the premaxilla.
Delayed closure of the anterior fontanelle
MedGen UID:
825928
Concept ID:
C3840083
Finding
A delay in closure (ossification) of the anterior fontanelle, which generally undergoes closure around the 18th month of life.
Abnormal cortical bone morphology
MedGen UID:
867376
Concept ID:
C4021741
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormality of compact bone (also known as cortical bone), which forms the dense surface of bones.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Sepsis
MedGen UID:
48626
Concept ID:
C0036690
Disease or Syndrome
Systemic inflammatory response to infection.
Hyperbilirubinemia
MedGen UID:
86321
Concept ID:
C0311468
Finding
An increased amount of bilirubin in the blood.
Elevated hepatic transaminase
MedGen UID:
338525
Concept ID:
C1848701
Finding
Elevations of the levels of SGOT and SGPT in the serum. SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase) and SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase) are transaminases primarily found in the liver and heart and are released into the bloodstream as the result of liver or heart damage. SGOT and SGPT are used clinically mainly as markers of liver damage.
Elevated circulating long chain fatty acid concentration
MedGen UID:
395207
Concept ID:
C1859241
Finding
Increased concentration of long-chain fatty acids in the blood circulation.
Weak cry
MedGen UID:
65892
Concept ID:
C0234860
Finding
Prominent nose
MedGen UID:
98423
Concept ID:
C0426415
Finding
Distance between subnasale and pronasale more than two standard deviations above the mean, or alternatively, an apparently increased anterior protrusion of the nasal tip.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Triangular face
MedGen UID:
324383
Concept ID:
C1835884
Finding
Facial contour, as viewed from the front, triangular in shape, with breadth at the temples and tapering to a narrow chin.
Wide nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
341441
Concept ID:
C1849367
Finding
Increased breadth of the nasal bridge (and with it, the nasal root).
Abnormality of the hairline
MedGen UID:
869866
Concept ID:
C4024297
Anatomical Abnormality
The hairline refers to the outline of hair of the head. An abnormality of the hairline can refer to an unusually low or high border between areas of the scalp with and without hair or to abnormal projections of scalp hair.
Periorbital fullness
MedGen UID:
1710990
Concept ID:
C4760994
Finding
Increase in periorbital soft tissue.
Decreased fetal movement
MedGen UID:
68618
Concept ID:
C0235659
Finding
An abnormal reduction in quantity or strength of fetal movements.

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