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Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 27(IDDMOH)

MedGen UID:
862965
Concept ID:
C4014528
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: IDDMOH; INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER WITH MICROCEPHALY AND WITH OR WITHOUT OCULAR MALFORMATIONS OR HYPOGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM
 
Gene (location): SOX11 (2p25.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014376
OMIM®: 615866

Definition

Intellectual developmental disorder with microcephaly and with or without ocular malformations or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IDDMOH) is characterized by mildly impaired intellectual development and microcephaly. Patients may also have ocular malformations, ocular apraxia, or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The disorder shows a unique DNA methylation signature (summary by Al-Jawahiri et al., 2022). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Renal malrotation
MedGen UID:
68662
Concept ID:
C0238210
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of the normal developmental rotation of the kidney leading to an abnormal orientation of the kidney.
Uterine hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120575
Concept ID:
C0266399
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the uterus.
Short distal phalanx of finger
MedGen UID:
326590
Concept ID:
C1839829
Finding
Short distance from the end of the finger to the most distal interphalangeal crease or the distal interphalangeal joint flexion point. That is, hypoplasia of one or more of the distal phalanx of finger.
Clinodactyly
MedGen UID:
1644094
Concept ID:
C4551485
Congenital Abnormality
An angulation of a digit at an interphalangeal joint in the plane of the palm (finger) or sole (toe).
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
4693
Concept ID:
C0015934
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Growth delay
MedGen UID:
99124
Concept ID:
C0456070
Pathologic Function
A deficiency or slowing down of growth pre- and postnatally.
Poor suck
MedGen UID:
324693
Concept ID:
C1837142
Finding
An inadequate sucking reflex, resulting in the difficult of newborns to be breast-fed.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
96566
Concept ID:
C0431478
Congenital Abnormality
A type of abnormal location of the ears in which the position of the ears is characterized by posterior rotation (the superior part of the ears is rotated towards the back of the head, and the inferior part of the ears towards the front).
Intellectual disability, mild
MedGen UID:
10044
Concept ID:
C0026106
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Mild intellectual disability is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 50-69.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Delayed eruption of teeth
MedGen UID:
68678
Concept ID:
C0239174
Finding
Delayed tooth eruption, which can be defined as tooth eruption more than 2 SD beyond the mean eruption age.
Open mouth
MedGen UID:
116104
Concept ID:
C0240379
Finding
A facial appearance characterized by a permanently or nearly permanently opened mouth.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Short palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98067
Concept ID:
C0423112
Finding
Distance between the medial and lateral canthi is more than 2 SD below the mean for age (objective); or, apparently reduced length of the palpebral fissures.
Underdeveloped nasal alae
MedGen UID:
322332
Concept ID:
C1834055
Congenital Abnormality
Thinned, deficient, or excessively arched ala nasi.
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
Thick vermilion border
MedGen UID:
332232
Concept ID:
C1836543
Finding
Increased width of the skin of vermilion border region of upper lip.
Long nose
MedGen UID:
326583
Concept ID:
C1839798
Finding
Distance from nasion to subnasale more than two standard deviations above the mean, or alternatively, an apparently increased length from the nasal root to the nasal base.
Anteverted nares
MedGen UID:
326648
Concept ID:
C1840077
Finding
Anteriorly-facing nostrils viewed with the head in the Frankfurt horizontal and the eyes of the observer level with the eyes of the subject. This gives the appearance of an upturned nose (upturned nasal tip).
Midface retrusion
MedGen UID:
339938
Concept ID:
C1853242
Anatomical Abnormality
Posterior positions and/or vertical shortening of the infraorbital and perialar regions, or increased concavity of the face and/or reduced nasolabial angle.
Everted lower lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
344003
Concept ID:
C1853246
Finding
An abnormal configuration of the lower lip such that it is turned outward i.e., everted, with the Inner aspect of the lower lip vermilion (normally opposing the teeth) being visible in a frontal view.
Short nose
MedGen UID:
343052
Concept ID:
C1854114
Finding
Distance from nasion to subnasale more than two standard deviations below the mean, or alternatively, an apparently decreased length from the nasal root to the nasal tip.
Low hanging columella
MedGen UID:
344656
Concept ID:
C1856119
Finding
Columella extending inferior to the level of the nasal base, when viewed from the side.
Sparse scalp hair
MedGen UID:
346499
Concept ID:
C1857042
Finding
Decreased number of hairs per unit area of skin of the scalp.
Short philtrum
MedGen UID:
350006
Concept ID:
C1861324
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Underdeveloped supraorbital ridges
MedGen UID:
349384
Concept ID:
C1861869
Congenital Abnormality
Flatness of the supraorbital portion of the frontal bones.
Full cheeks
MedGen UID:
355661
Concept ID:
C1866231
Finding
Increased prominence or roundness of soft tissues between zygomata and mandible.
Highly arched eyebrow
MedGen UID:
358357
Concept ID:
C1868571
Finding
Increased height of the central portion of the eyebrow, forming a crescent, semicircular, or inverted U shape.
Short chin
MedGen UID:
784514
Concept ID:
C3697248
Finding
Decreased vertical distance from the vermilion border of the lower lip to the inferior-most point of the chin.
Hypertrichosis
MedGen UID:
43787
Concept ID:
C0020555
Disease or Syndrome
Hypertrichosis is increased hair growth that is abnormal in quantity or location.
Long eyelashes
MedGen UID:
342955
Concept ID:
C1853738
Finding
Mid upper eyelash length >10 mm or increased length of the eyelashes (subjective).
Hypoplastic fifth toenail
MedGen UID:
868713
Concept ID:
C4023116
Anatomical Abnormality
Underdeveloped nails of the fifth toes.
Hypoplastic fifth fingernail
MedGen UID:
870244
Concept ID:
C4024682
Anatomical Abnormality
A nail of the fifth finger that is diminished in length and width, i.e., underdeveloped nail of little finger.
Delayed puberty
MedGen UID:
46203
Concept ID:
C0034012
Pathologic Function
Passing the age when puberty normally occurs with no physical or hormonal signs of the onset of puberty.
Decreased response to growth hormone stimulation test
MedGen UID:
1784655
Concept ID:
C5539399
Finding
Insufficient responses to growth hormone (GH) provocation tests. GH deficiency is defined as a serum peak GH concentration less than 10 ng/mL on provocation with a combination of at least two separate stimulation tests.
Ptosis
MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Disease or Syndrome
The upper eyelid margin is positioned 3 mm or more lower than usual and covers the superior portion of the iris (objective); or, the upper lid margin obscures at least part of the pupil (subjective).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Rech ME, McCarthy JM, Chen CA, Edmond JC, Shah VS, Bosch DGM, Berry GT, Williams L, Madan-Khetarpal S, Niyazov D, Shaw-Smith C, Kovar EM, Lupo PJ, Schaaf CP
Am J Med Genet A 2020 Jun;182(6):1426-1437. Epub 2020 Apr 10 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61580. PMID: 32275123
Morris CA, Mervis CB, Hobart HH, Gregg RG, Bertrand J, Ensing GJ, Sommer A, Moore CA, Hopkin RJ, Spallone PA, Keating MT, Osborne L, Kimberley KW, Stock AD
Am J Med Genet A 2003 Nov 15;123A(1):45-59. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.20496. PMID: 14556246

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Wojcik MH, Srivastava S, Agrawal PB, Balci TB, Callewaert B, Calvo PL, Carli D, Caudle M, Colaiacovo S, Cross L, Demetriou K, Drazba K, Dutra-Clarke M, Edwards M, Genetti CA, Grange DK, Hickey SE, Isidor B, Küry S, Lachman HM, Lavillaureix A, Lyons MJ, Marcelis C, Marco EJ, Martinez-Agosto JA, Nowak C, Pizzol A, Planes M, Prijoles EJ, Riberi E, Rush ET, Russell BE, Sachdev R, Schmalz B, Shears D, Stevenson DA, Wilson K, Jansen S, de Vries BBA, Curry CJ
Am J Med Genet A 2023 Jul;191(7):1900-1910. Epub 2023 May 14 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.63226. PMID: 37183572Free PMC Article
Boerwinkle AH, Gordon BA, Wisch J, Flores S, Henson RL, Butt OH, McKay N, Chen CD, Benzinger TLS, Fagan AM, Handen BL, Christian BT, Head E, Mapstone M, Rafii MS, O'Bryant S, Lai F, Rosas HD, Lee JH, Silverman W, Brickman AM, Chhatwal JP, Cruchaga C, Perrin RJ, Xiong C, Hassenstab J, McDade E, Bateman RJ, Ances BM; Alzheimer's Biomarker Consortium-Down Syndrome; Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network
Lancet Neurol 2023 Jan;22(1):55-65. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00408-2. PMID: 36517172Free PMC Article
Zhao J, Lyu G, Ding C, Wang X, Li J, Zhang W, Yang X, Zhang VW
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2022 Mar;10(3):e1825. Epub 2022 Feb 14 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.1825. PMID: 35156329Free PMC Article
Mohan P, Lemoine J, Trotter C, Rakova I, Billings P, Peacock S, Kao CY, Wang Y, Xia F, Eng CM, Benn P
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;59(1):33-39. doi: 10.1002/uog.23756. PMID: 34358384Free PMC Article
Srivastava S, Cohen JS, Vernon H, Barañano K, McClellan R, Jamal L, Naidu S, Fatemi A
Ann Neurol 2014 Oct;76(4):473-83. Epub 2014 Aug 30 doi: 10.1002/ana.24251. PMID: 25131622

Diagnosis

Wojcik MH, Srivastava S, Agrawal PB, Balci TB, Callewaert B, Calvo PL, Carli D, Caudle M, Colaiacovo S, Cross L, Demetriou K, Drazba K, Dutra-Clarke M, Edwards M, Genetti CA, Grange DK, Hickey SE, Isidor B, Küry S, Lachman HM, Lavillaureix A, Lyons MJ, Marcelis C, Marco EJ, Martinez-Agosto JA, Nowak C, Pizzol A, Planes M, Prijoles EJ, Riberi E, Rush ET, Russell BE, Sachdev R, Schmalz B, Shears D, Stevenson DA, Wilson K, Jansen S, de Vries BBA, Curry CJ
Am J Med Genet A 2023 Jul;191(7):1900-1910. Epub 2023 May 14 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.63226. PMID: 37183572Free PMC Article
Hsu RH, Lee CH, Chien YH, Lin SP, Hung MZ, Chen NC, Lin YL, Hwu WL, Lee NC
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2023 Jun;11(6):e2160. Epub 2023 Feb 27 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.2160. PMID: 36849876Free PMC Article
Schwartz CE, Louie RJ, Toutain A, Skinner C, Friez MJ, Stevenson RE
Am J Med Genet A 2023 Jan;191(1):144-159. Epub 2022 Oct 27 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.63008. PMID: 36300573
Mohan P, Lemoine J, Trotter C, Rakova I, Billings P, Peacock S, Kao CY, Wang Y, Xia F, Eng CM, Benn P
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;59(1):33-39. doi: 10.1002/uog.23756. PMID: 34358384Free PMC Article
Cocciadiferro D, Augello B, De Nittis P, Zhang J, Mandriani B, Malerba N, Squeo GM, Romano A, Piccinni B, Verri T, Micale L, Pasqualucci L, Merla G
Hum Mol Genet 2018 Nov 1;27(21):3651-3668. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddy241. PMID: 30107592Free PMC Article

Therapy

Schrauwen I, Melegh BI, Chakchouk I, Acharya A, Nasir A, Poston A, Cornejo-Sanchez DM, Szabo Z, Karosi T, Bene J, Melegh B, Leal SM
Eur J Hum Genet 2019 Jun;27(6):869-878. Epub 2019 Mar 14 doi: 10.1038/s41431-019-0372-y. PMID: 30872814Free PMC Article
Okur V, Cho MT, van Wijk R, van Oirschot B, Picker J, Coury SA, Grange D, Manwaring L, Krantz I, Muraresku CC, Hulick PJ, May H, Pierce E, Place E, Bujakowska K, Telegrafi A, Douglas G, Monaghan KG, Begtrup A, Wilson A, Retterer K, Anyane-Yeboa K, Chung WK
Eur J Hum Genet 2019 Jul;27(7):1081-1089. Epub 2019 Feb 18 doi: 10.1038/s41431-019-0366-9. PMID: 30778173Free PMC Article
Srivastava S, Cohen JS, Vernon H, Barañano K, McClellan R, Jamal L, Naidu S, Fatemi A
Ann Neurol 2014 Oct;76(4):473-83. Epub 2014 Aug 30 doi: 10.1002/ana.24251. PMID: 25131622

Prognosis

Saffari A, Lau T, Tajsharghi H, Karimiani EG, Kariminejad A, Efthymiou S, Zifarelli G, Sultan T, Toosi MB, Sedighzadeh S, Siu VM, Ortigoza-Escobar JD, AlShamsi AM, Ibrahim S, Al-Sannaa NA, Al-Hertani W, Sandra W, Tarnopolsky M, Alavi S, Li C, Day-Salvatore DL, Martínez-González MJ, Levandoski KM, Bedoukian E, Madan-Khetarpal S, Idleburg MJ, Menezes MJ, Siddharth A, Platzer K, Oppermann H, Smitka M, Collins F, Lek M, Shahrooei M, Ghavideldarestani M, Herman I, Rendu J, Faure J, Baker J, Bhambhani V, Calderwood L, Akhondian J, Imannezhad S, Mirzadeh HS, Hashemi N, Doosti M, Safi M, Ahangari N, Torbati PN, Abedini S, Salpietro V, Gulec EY, Eshaghian S, Ghazavi M, Pascher MT, Vogel M, Abicht A, Moutton S, Bruel AL, Rieubland C, Gallati S, Strom TM, Lochmüller H, Mohammadi MH, Alvi JR, Zackai EH, Keena BA, Skraban CM, Berger SI, Andrew EH, Rahimian E, Morrow MM, Wentzensen IM, Millan F, Henderson LB, Dafsari HS, Jungbluth H, Gomez-Ospina N, McRae A, Peter M, Veltra D, Marinakis NM, Sofocleous C, Ashrafzadeh F, Pehlivan D, Lemke JR, Melki J, Benezit A, Bauer P, Weis D, Lupski JR, Senderek J, Christodoulou J, Chung WK, Goodchild R, Offiah AC, Moreno-De-Luca A, Suri M, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Houlden H, Maroofian R
Brain 2023 Aug 1;146(8):3273-3288. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad039. PMID: 36757831Free PMC Article
Srivastava S, Cohen JS, Vernon H, Barañano K, McClellan R, Jamal L, Naidu S, Fatemi A
Ann Neurol 2014 Oct;76(4):473-83. Epub 2014 Aug 30 doi: 10.1002/ana.24251. PMID: 25131622

Clinical prediction guides

Wisch JK, McKay NS, Boerwinkle AH, Kennedy J, Flores S, Handen BL, Christian BT, Head E, Mapstone M, Rafii MS, O'Bryant SE, Price JC, Laymon CM, Krinsky-McHale SJ, Lai F, Rosas HD, Hartley SL, Zaman S, Lott IT, Tudorascu D, Zammit M, Brickman AM, Lee JH, Bird TD, Cohen A, Chrem P, Daniels A, Chhatwal JP, Cruchaga C, Ibanez L, Jucker M, Karch CM, Day GS, Lee JH, Levin J, Llibre-Guerra J, Li Y, Lopera F, Roh JH, Ringman JM, Supnet-Bell C, van Dyck CH, Xiong C, Wang G, Morris JC, McDade E, Bateman RJ, Benzinger TLS, Gordon BA, Ances BM; Alzheimer's Biomarker Consortium-Down syndrome; Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network
Lancet Neurol 2024 May;23(5):500-510. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(24)00084-X. PMID: 38631766
Saffari A, Lau T, Tajsharghi H, Karimiani EG, Kariminejad A, Efthymiou S, Zifarelli G, Sultan T, Toosi MB, Sedighzadeh S, Siu VM, Ortigoza-Escobar JD, AlShamsi AM, Ibrahim S, Al-Sannaa NA, Al-Hertani W, Sandra W, Tarnopolsky M, Alavi S, Li C, Day-Salvatore DL, Martínez-González MJ, Levandoski KM, Bedoukian E, Madan-Khetarpal S, Idleburg MJ, Menezes MJ, Siddharth A, Platzer K, Oppermann H, Smitka M, Collins F, Lek M, Shahrooei M, Ghavideldarestani M, Herman I, Rendu J, Faure J, Baker J, Bhambhani V, Calderwood L, Akhondian J, Imannezhad S, Mirzadeh HS, Hashemi N, Doosti M, Safi M, Ahangari N, Torbati PN, Abedini S, Salpietro V, Gulec EY, Eshaghian S, Ghazavi M, Pascher MT, Vogel M, Abicht A, Moutton S, Bruel AL, Rieubland C, Gallati S, Strom TM, Lochmüller H, Mohammadi MH, Alvi JR, Zackai EH, Keena BA, Skraban CM, Berger SI, Andrew EH, Rahimian E, Morrow MM, Wentzensen IM, Millan F, Henderson LB, Dafsari HS, Jungbluth H, Gomez-Ospina N, McRae A, Peter M, Veltra D, Marinakis NM, Sofocleous C, Ashrafzadeh F, Pehlivan D, Lemke JR, Melki J, Benezit A, Bauer P, Weis D, Lupski JR, Senderek J, Christodoulou J, Chung WK, Goodchild R, Offiah AC, Moreno-De-Luca A, Suri M, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Houlden H, Maroofian R
Brain 2023 Aug 1;146(8):3273-3288. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad039. PMID: 36757831Free PMC Article
Mohan P, Lemoine J, Trotter C, Rakova I, Billings P, Peacock S, Kao CY, Wang Y, Xia F, Eng CM, Benn P
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;59(1):33-39. doi: 10.1002/uog.23756. PMID: 34358384Free PMC Article
Schrauwen I, Melegh BI, Chakchouk I, Acharya A, Nasir A, Poston A, Cornejo-Sanchez DM, Szabo Z, Karosi T, Bene J, Melegh B, Leal SM
Eur J Hum Genet 2019 Jun;27(6):869-878. Epub 2019 Mar 14 doi: 10.1038/s41431-019-0372-y. PMID: 30872814Free PMC Article
Castori M, Valiante M, Pascolini G, Leuzzi V, Pizzuti A, Grammatico P
Eur J Med Genet 2013 Oct;56(10):570-6. Epub 2013 Aug 27 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2013.08.004. PMID: 23994350

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