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Sparse scalp hair

MedGen UID:
346499
Concept ID:
C1857042
Finding
Synonyms: Hypotrichosis (scalp); Hypotrichosis of scalp; Hypotrichosis of the scalp; Hypotrichosis on scalp; Sparse to absent scalp hair; Sparse, thin scalp hair; Sparse-absent scalp hair; Thin scalp hair
 
HPO: HP:0002209

Definition

Decreased number of hairs per unit area of skin of the scalp. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • Sparse scalp hair

Conditions with this feature

Hallermann-Streiff syndrome
MedGen UID:
5414
Concept ID:
C0018522
Disease or Syndrome
Hallermann-Streiff syndrome is characterized by a typical skull shape (brachycephaly with frontal bossing), hypotrichosis, microphthalmia, cataracts, beaked nose, micrognathia, skin atrophy, dental anomalies, and proportionate short stature (Hallermann, 1948; Streiff, 1950; Francois, 1958). Mental retardation is present in a minority of cases (Gorlin et al., 1990).
Hereditary insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis
MedGen UID:
6915
Concept ID:
C0020074
Disease or Syndrome
NTRK1 congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (NTRK1-CIPA) is characterized by insensitivity to pain, anhidrosis (the inability to sweat), and intellectual disability. The ability to sense all pain (including visceral pain) is absent, resulting in repeated injuries including: oral self-mutilation (biting of tongue, lips, and buccal mucosa); biting of fingertips; bruising, scarring, and infection of the skin; multiple bone fractures (many of which fail to heal properly); and recurrent joint dislocations resulting in joint deformity. Sense of touch, vibration, and position are normal. Anhidrosis predisposes to recurrent febrile episodes that are often the initial manifestation of NTRK1-CIPA. Hypothermia in cold environments also occurs. Intellectual disability of varying degree is observed in most affected individuals; hyperactivity and emotional lability are common.
Langer-Giedion syndrome
MedGen UID:
6009
Concept ID:
C0023003
Disease or Syndrome
Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS) comprises TRPS I (caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in TRPS1) and TRPS II (caused by contiguous gene deletion of TRPS1, RAD21, and EXT1). Both types of TRPS are characterized by distinctive facial features; ectodermal features (fine, sparse, depigmented, and slow growing hair; dystrophic nails; and small breasts); and skeletal findings (short stature; short feet; brachydactyly with ulnar or radial deviation of the fingers; and early, marked hip dysplasia). TRPS II is characterized by multiple osteochondromas (typically first observed clinically on the scapulae and around the elbows and knees between ages 1 month and 6 years) and an increased risk of mild-to-moderate intellectual disability.
Dubowitz syndrome
MedGen UID:
59797
Concept ID:
C0175691
Disease or Syndrome
Dubowitz syndrome (DS) is a rare multiple congenital syndrome characterized primarly by growth retardation, microcephaly, distinctive facial dysmorphism, cutaneous eczema, a mild to severe intellectual deficit and genital abnormalities.
Johanson-Blizzard syndrome
MedGen UID:
59798
Concept ID:
C0175692
Disease or Syndrome
Johanson-Blizzard syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by poor growth, mental retardation, and variable dysmorphic features, including aplasia or hypoplasia of the nasal alae, abnormal hair patterns or scalp defects, and oligodontia. Other features include hypothyroidism, sensorineural hearing loss, imperforate anus, and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (summary by Al-Dosari et al., 2008).
Pallister-Killian syndrome
MedGen UID:
120540
Concept ID:
C0265449
Disease or Syndrome
Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a dysmorphic condition involving most organ systems, but is also characterized by a tissue-limited mosaicism; most fibroblasts have 47 chromosomes with an extra small metacentric chromosome, whereas the karyotype of lymphocytes is normal. The extra metacentric chromosome is an isochromosome for part of the short arm of chromosome 12: i(12)(p10) (Peltomaki et al., 1987; Warburton et al., 1987).
Neonatal pseudo-hydrocephalic progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
140806
Concept ID:
C0406586
Disease or Syndrome
Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (WDRTS) is a rare autosomal recessive neonatal progeroid disorder characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, failure to thrive, short stature, a progeroid appearance, hypotonia, and variable mental impairment (summary by Toriello, 1990). Average survival in WDRTS is 7 months, although survival into the third decade of life has been reported (Akawi et al., 2013).
Trichorhinophalangeal dysplasia type I
MedGen UID:
140929
Concept ID:
C0432233
Disease or Syndrome
Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome (TRPS) comprises TRPS I (caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in TRPS1) and TRPS II (caused by contiguous gene deletion of TRPS1, RAD21, and EXT1). Both types of TRPS are characterized by distinctive facial features; ectodermal features (fine, sparse, depigmented, and slow growing hair; dystrophic nails; and small breasts); and skeletal findings (short stature; short feet; brachydactyly with ulnar or radial deviation of the fingers; and early, marked hip dysplasia). TRPS II is characterized by multiple osteochondromas (typically first observed clinically on the scapulae and around the elbows and knees between ages 1 month and 6 years) and an increased risk of mild-to-moderate intellectual disability.
Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II
MedGen UID:
96587
Concept ID:
C0432246
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPDII), the most common form of microcephalic primordial dwarfism, is characterized by extreme short stature and microcephaly along with distinctive facial features. Associated features that differentiate it from other forms of primordial dwarfism and that may necessitate treatment include: abnormal dentition, a slender bone skeletal dysplasia with hip deformity and/or scoliosis, insulin resistance / diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, cardiac malformations, and global vascular disease. The latter includes neurovascular disease such as moyamoya vasculopathy and intracranial aneurysms (which can lead to strokes), coronary artery disease (which can lead to premature myocardial infarctions), and renal vascular disease. Hypertension, which is also common, can have multiple underlying causes given the complex comorbidities.
Odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
208666
Concept ID:
C0796093
Disease or Syndrome
Odontoonychodermal dysplasia (OODD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by dry hair, severe hypodontia, smooth tongue with marked reduction of fungiform and filiform papillae, onychodysplasia, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, hypo- and hyperhidrosis of the skin, and atrophic patches on the face (summary by Adaimy et al., 2007; Yu et al., 2019).
Primrose syndrome
MedGen UID:
162911
Concept ID:
C0796121
Disease or Syndrome
Primrose syndrome is characterized by macrocephaly, hypotonia, developmental delay, intellectual disability with expressive speech delay, behavioral issues, a recognizable facial phenotype, radiographic features, and altered glucose metabolism. Additional features seen in adults: sparse body hair, distal muscle wasting, and contractures. Characteristic craniofacial features include brachycephaly, high anterior hairline, deeply set eyes, ptosis, downslanted palpebral fissures, high palate with torus palatinus, broad jaw, and large ears with small or absent lobes. Radiographic features include calcification of the external ear cartilage, multiple Wormian bones, platybasia, bathrocephaly, slender bones with exaggerated metaphyseal flaring, mild epiphyseal dysplasia, and spondylar dysplasia. Additional features include hearing impairment, ocular anomalies, cryptorchidism, and nonspecific findings on brain MRI.
Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome
MedGen UID:
220983
Concept ID:
C1303073
Disease or Syndrome
Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS) is characterized by sparse scalp hair, prominence of the inter-phalangeal joints and distal phalanges due to decreased subcutaneous fat, characteristic coarse facial features, microcephaly, seizures, and developmental delay / intellectual disability. Seizures are of various types and can be difficult to manage. Developmental delay / intellectual disability (ID) is severe in nearly a half, moderate in a third, and mild in the remainder. Nearly a third never develop speech or language skills.
Pachyonychia congenita 2
MedGen UID:
314107
Concept ID:
C1721007
Disease or Syndrome
Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is characterized by hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful palmoplantar keratoderma and blistering, oral leukokeratosis, pilosebaceous cysts (including steatocystoma and vellus hair cysts), palmoplantar hyperhydrosis, and follicular keratoses on the trunk and extremities.
Congenital hypotrichosis with juvenile macular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
316921
Concept ID:
C1832162
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis with juvenile macular degeneration (HJMD) is a very rare syndrome characterized by sparse and short hair from birth followed by progressive macular degeneration leading to blindness.
Ectodermal dysplasia with natal teeth, Turnpenny type
MedGen UID:
371331
Concept ID:
C1832444
Disease or Syndrome
A rare disorder with manifestation of hypo or oligodontia and acanthosis nigricans. It has been described in four generations of one family. Onset generally occurs during adolescence. Some patients are born with multiple teeth. Hair anomalies (sparse body and scalp hair) also reported. Inheritance is autosomal dominant.
Ayme-Gripp syndrome
MedGen UID:
371416
Concept ID:
C1832812
Disease or Syndrome
Aymé-Gripp syndrome is classically defined as the triad of bilateral early cataracts, sensorineural hearing loss, and characteristic facial features in combination with neurodevelopmental abnormalities. The facial features are often described as "Down syndrome-like" and include brachycephaly, flat facial appearance, short nose, long philtrum, narrow mouth, and low-set and posteriorly rotated ears. Hearing loss is often congenital. Other features may include postnatal short stature, seizure disorder, nonspecific brain abnormalities on head imaging, skeletal abnormalities, and joint limitations. A subset of individuals have been found to have pericarditis or pericardial effusion during the neonatal or infantile period. All affected individuals have had developmental delay, but the degree of cognitive impairment is extremely variable. Other features including gastrointestinal and endocrine abnormalities, ectodermal dysplasia (i.e., nail dystrophy and mammary gland hypoplasia), dental anomalies, and chronic glomerulopathy with proteinuria have been reported in rare affected individuals.
Tooth agenesis, selective, 4
MedGen UID:
372057
Concept ID:
C1835492
Disease or Syndrome
Any tooth agenesis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the WNT10A gene.
Hypotrichosis 7
MedGen UID:
322969
Concept ID:
C1836672
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive hypotrichosis is a condition that affects hair growth. People with this condition have sparse hair (hypotrichosis) on the scalp beginning in infancy. This hair is usually coarse, dry, and tightly curled (often described as woolly hair). Scalp hair may also be lighter in color than expected and is fragile and easily broken. Affected individuals often cannot grow hair longer than a few inches. The eyebrows, eyelashes, and other body hair may be sparse as well. Over time, the hair problems can remain stable or progress to complete scalp hair loss (alopecia) and a decrease in body hair.\n\nRarely, people with autosomal recessive hypotrichosis have skin problems affecting areas with sparse hair, such as redness (erythema), itchiness (pruritus), or missing patches of skin (erosions) on the scalp. In areas of poor hair growth, they may also develop bumps called hyperkeratotic follicular papules that develop around hair follicles, which are specialized structures in the skin where hair growth occurs.
Oligodontia-cancer predisposition syndrome
MedGen UID:
324868
Concept ID:
C1837750
Neoplastic Process
Oligodontia-cancer predisposition syndrome is a rare, genetic, odontologic disease characterized by congenital absence of six or more permanent teeth (excluding the third molars) in association with an increased risk for malignancies, ranging from gastrointestinal polyposis to early-onset colorectal cancer and/or breast cancer. Ectodermal dysplasia (manifesting with sparse hair and/or eyebrows) may also be associated.
Hypotrichosis 2
MedGen UID:
374435
Concept ID:
C1840299
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis simplex can affect all body hair or be limited to the scalp. Usually patients with the scalp-limited form of hypotrichosis present with normal hair at birth; they experience a progressive, gradual loss of scalp hair beginning at the middle of the first decade and leading to almost complete loss of scalp hair by the third decade. A few sparse, fine, short hairs remain in some individuals. Body hair, beard, eyebrows, axillary hair, teeth, and nails develop normally. Light and electron microscopy of hairs from early hypotrichosis simplex revealed no structural changes, whereas hairs from patients with advanced hypotrichosis showed focal areas of defective cuticular structure. Men and women are equally affected (summary by Betz et al., 2000). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nonsyndromic hypotrichosis, see 605389.
Hypotrichosis-lymphedema-telangiectasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
375070
Concept ID:
C1843004
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis-lymphedema-telangiectasia syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by these 3 features, which begin at birth or in early childhood and are progressive (summary by Irrthum et al., 2003).
Growth delay due to insulin-like growth factor I resistance
MedGen UID:
338622
Concept ID:
C1849157
Disease or Syndrome
Patients with mutations in the receptor for insulin-like growth factor I show intrauterine growth retardation and postnatal growth failure, resulting in short stature and microcephaly. Other features may include delayed bone age, developmental delay, and dysmorphic features.
Saldino-Mainzer syndrome
MedGen UID:
341455
Concept ID:
C1849437
Disease or Syndrome
Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500).
Rapadilino syndrome
MedGen UID:
336602
Concept ID:
C1849453
Disease or Syndrome
RAPADILINO syndrome is a rare condition that involves many parts of the body. Bone development is especially affected, causing many of the characteristic features of the condition.\n\nMost affected individuals have underdevelopment or absence of the bones in the forearms and the thumbs, which are known as radial ray malformations. The kneecaps (patellae) can also be underdeveloped or absent. Other features include an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate) or a high arched palate; a long, slender nose; and dislocated joints.\n\nMany infants with RAPADILINO syndrome have difficulty feeding and experience diarrhea and vomiting. The combination of impaired bone development and feeding problems leads to slow growth and short stature in affected individuals.\n\nSome individuals with RAPADILINO syndrome have harmless light brown patches of skin that resemble a skin finding known as café-au-lait spots. In addition, people with RAPADILINO syndrome have a slightly increased risk of developing a type of bone cancer known as osteosarcoma or a blood-related cancer called lymphoma. In individuals with RAPADILINO syndrome, osteosarcoma most often develops during childhood or adolescence, and lymphoma typically develops in young adulthood.\n\nThe condition name is an acronym for the characteristic features of the disorder: RA for radial ray malformations, PA for patella and palate abnormalities, DI for diarrhea and dislocated joints, LI for limb abnormalities and little size, and NO for slender nose and normal intelligence.\n\nThe varied signs and symptoms of RAPADILINO syndrome overlap with features of other disorders, namely Baller-Gerold syndrome and Rothmund-Thomson syndrome. These syndromes are also characterized by radial ray defects, skeletal abnormalities, and slow growth. All of these conditions can be caused by mutations in the same gene. Based on these similarities, researchers are investigating whether Baller-Gerold syndrome, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, and RAPADILINO syndrome are separate disorders or part of a single syndrome with overlapping signs and symptoms.
Bartsocas-Papas syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
337894
Concept ID:
C1849718
Disease or Syndrome
Bartsocas-Papas syndrome-1 (BPS1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple popliteal pterygia, ankyloblepharon, filiform bands between the jaws, cleft lip and palate, and syndactyly. Early lethality is common, although survival into childhood and beyond has been reported (summary by Mitchell et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bartsocas-Papas Syndrome Bartsocas-Papas syndrome-2 (BPS2) is caused by mutation in the CHUK gene (600664). A less severe form of popliteal pterygium syndrome (PPS; 119500) is caused by mutation in the IRF6 gene (607199).
Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip-palate syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
343663
Concept ID:
C1851841
Disease or Syndrome
An EEC syndrome characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 7q11.2-q21.3.
Genitopatellar syndrome
MedGen UID:
381208
Concept ID:
C1853566
Disease or Syndrome
KAT6B disorders include genitopatellar syndrome (GPS) and Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson variant of Ohdo syndrome (SBBYSS) which are part of a broad phenotypic spectrum with variable expressivity; individuals presenting with a phenotype intermediate between GPS and SBBYSS have been reported. Both phenotypes are characterized by some degree of global developmental delay / intellectual disability; hypotonia; genital abnormalities; and skeletal abnormalities including patellar hypoplasia/agenesis, flexion contractures of the knees and/or hips, and anomalies of the digits, spine, and/or ribs. Congenital heart defects, small bowel malrotation, feeding difficulties, slow growth, cleft palate, hearing loss, and dental anomalies have been observed in individuals with either phenotype.
Generalized basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome
MedGen UID:
343009
Concept ID:
C1853919
Disease or Syndrome
Generalized basaloid follicular hamartoma syndrome is a rare, genetic skin disease characterized by multiple milium-like, comedone-like lesions and skin-colored to hyperpigmented, 1 to 2 mm-sized papules, associated with hypotrichosis and palmar/plantar pits. Lesions are usually first noticed on cheeks or neck and gradually increase in size and number to involve the scalp, face, ears, shoulders, chest, axillas, and upper arms. In severe cases, lower back, lower arms, and back of the legs can be involved. Mild hypohidrosis has also been reported.
EEM syndrome
MedGen UID:
341679
Concept ID:
C1857041
Congenital Abnormality
EEM syndrome denotes a disorder characterized by ectodermal dysplasia, ectrodactyly, and macular dystrophy. The ectodermal dysplasia consists of hypotrichosis affecting scalp hair, eyebrows, and eyelashes, with partial anodontia. Different degrees of absence deformities as well as syndactyly have been described, the hands often being more severely affected than the feet. The retinal lesion appears as a central geographic atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillary layer of the macular area with coarse hyperpigmentations and sparing of the larger choroidal vessels (summary by Kjaer et al., 2005).
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia-hypothyroidism-ciliary dyskinesia syndrome
MedGen UID:
384046
Concept ID:
C1857052
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, ectodermal dysplasia syndrome characterized by the association of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (manifesting with the triad of hypohidrosis, anodontia/hypodontia and hypotrichosis) with primary hypothyroidism and respiratory tract ciliary dyskinesia. Patients frequently present urticaria pigmentosa-like skin pigmentation, increased mast cells and melanin depositions in the dermis and severe, recurrent chest infections. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1986.
Dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 1
MedGen UID:
341705
Concept ID:
C1857144
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita and related telomere biology disorders (DC/TBD) are caused by impaired telomere maintenance resulting in short or very short telomeres. The phenotypic spectrum of telomere biology disorders is broad and includes individuals with classic dyskeratosis congenita (DC) as well as those with very short telomeres and an isolated physical finding. Classic DC is characterized by a triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia, although this may not be present in all individuals. People with DC/TBD are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukemia, solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), taurodontism, liver disease, gastrointestinal telangiectasias, and avascular necrosis of the hips or shoulders. Although most persons with DC/TBD have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in both forms; additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome and Coats plus syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC/TBD vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF.
Yunis-Varon syndrome
MedGen UID:
341818
Concept ID:
C1857663
Disease or Syndrome
Yunis-Varon syndrome (YVS) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal defects, including cleidocranial dysplasia and digital anomalies, and severe neurologic involvement with neuronal loss. Enlarged cytoplasmic vacuoles are found in neurons, muscle, and cartilage. The disorder is usually lethal in infancy (summary by Campeau et al., 2013).
Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip-palate syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
347666
Concept ID:
C1858562
Disease or Syndrome
The TP63-related disorders comprise six overlapping phenotypes: Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome (which includes Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome). Acro-dermo-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome. Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate syndrome 3 (EEC3). Limb-mammary syndrome. Split-hand/foot malformation type 4 (SHFM4). Isolated cleft lip/cleft palate (orofacial cleft 8). Individuals typically have varying combinations of ectodermal dysplasia (hypohidrosis, nail dysplasia, sparse hair, tooth abnormalities), cleft lip/palate, split-hand/foot malformation/syndactyly, lacrimal duct obstruction, hypopigmentation, hypoplastic breasts and/or nipples, and hypospadias. Findings associated with a single phenotype include ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (tissue strands that completely or partially fuse the upper and lower eyelids), skin erosions especially on the scalp associated with areas of scarring, and alopecia, trismus, and excessive freckling.
Osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism, type 1
MedGen UID:
347149
Concept ID:
C1859452
Congenital Abnormality
Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type I is a severe autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by dwarfism, microcephaly, and neurologic abnormalities, including mental retardation, brain malformations, and ocular/auditory sensory deficits. Patients often die in early childhood (summary by Pierce and Morse, 2012).
ADULT syndrome
MedGen UID:
400232
Concept ID:
C1863204
Disease or Syndrome
The TP63-related disorders comprise six overlapping phenotypes: Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome (which includes Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome). Acro-dermo-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome. Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate syndrome 3 (EEC3). Limb-mammary syndrome. Split-hand/foot malformation type 4 (SHFM4). Isolated cleft lip/cleft palate (orofacial cleft 8). Individuals typically have varying combinations of ectodermal dysplasia (hypohidrosis, nail dysplasia, sparse hair, tooth abnormalities), cleft lip/palate, split-hand/foot malformation/syndactyly, lacrimal duct obstruction, hypopigmentation, hypoplastic breasts and/or nipples, and hypospadias. Findings associated with a single phenotype include ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (tissue strands that completely or partially fuse the upper and lower eyelids), skin erosions especially on the scalp associated with areas of scarring, and alopecia, trismus, and excessive freckling.
Craniosynostosis-anal anomalies-porokeratosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
351066
Concept ID:
C1864186
Disease or Syndrome
CDAGS syndrome is characterized by craniosynostosis and clavicular hypoplasia, delayed closure of the fontanel, anal and genitourinary anomalies, and skin eruption of porokeratotic lesions (Mendoza-Londono et al., 2005).
Ichthyosis, hystrix-like, with hearing loss
MedGen UID:
355410
Concept ID:
C1865234
Disease or Syndrome
Hystrix-like ichthyosis with deafness (HID) is a disorder characterized by dry, scaly skin (ichthyosis) and hearing loss that is usually profound. Hystrix-like means resembling a porcupine; in this type of ichthyosis, the scales may be thick and spiky, giving the appearance of porcupine quills.\n\nNewborns with HID typically develop reddened skin. The skin abnormalities worsen over time, and the ichthyosis eventually covers most of the body, although the palms of the hands and soles of the feet are usually only mildly affected. Breaks in the skin may occur and in severe cases can lead to life-threatening infections. Affected individuals have an increased risk of developing a type of skin cancer called squamous cell carcinoma, which can also affect mucous membranes such as the inner lining of the mouth. People with HID may also have patchy hair loss caused by scarring on particular areas of skin.
Fontaine progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
394125
Concept ID:
C2676780
Disease or Syndrome
SLC25A24 Fontaine progeroid syndrome is a multisystem connective tissue disorder characterized by poor growth, abnormal skeletal features, and distinctive craniofacial features with sagging, thin skin, and decreased subcutaneous fat suggesting an aged appearance that is most pronounced in infancy and improves with time. Characteristic radiographic features include turribrachycephaly with widely open anterior fontanelle, craniosynostosis, and anomalies of the terminal phalanges. Cardiovascular, genitourinary, ocular, and gastrointestinal abnormalities may also occur. To date, 13 individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of SLC25A24 Fontaine progeroid syndrome have been described.
Ectodermal dysplasia and immunodeficiency 2
MedGen UID:
394295
Concept ID:
C2677481
Disease or Syndrome
EDAID2 is characterized by variable features of ectodermal dysplasia (e.g., hypo/anhidrosis, sparse hair, tooth anomalies) and various immunologic and infectious phenotypes of differing severity (summary by Boisson et al., 2017). Some patients may also have neutrophilia and autoinflammatory disease, such as liver disease (Tan et al., 2020). Mutations in the NFKBIA gene result in functional impairment of NFKB (see 164011), a master transcription factor required for normal activation of immune responses. Interruption of NFKB signaling results in decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines and certain interferons, rendering patients susceptible to infection (McDonald et al., 2007). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ectodermal dysplasia and immune deficiency, see 300291.
Hypotrichosis 4
MedGen UID:
413053
Concept ID:
C2750815
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis-4 (HYPT4), also known as Marie Unna hereditary hypotrichosis-1 (MUHH1), is an autosomal dominant form of hair loss characterized by the absence or scarcity of scalp hair, eyebrows, and eyelashes at birth. Coarse, wiry hair begins to grow during childhood. Around puberty, progressive hair loss occurs in the affected patients. Although the disorder has the potential to affect all hair shafts, progressive and patterned alopecia of the scalp is the main manifestation of the disorder (summary by Mansur et al., 2010). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nonsyndromic hypotrichosis, see 605389. Genetic Heterogeneity of Marie Unna Hereditary Hypotrichosis See also MUHH2 (HYPT5; 612841), caused by heterozygous mutation in the EPS8L3 gene (614989) on chromosome 1p13.
Hereditary hypotrichosis with recurrent skin vesicles
MedGen UID:
442697
Concept ID:
C2751292
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis and recurrent skin vesicles (HYPTSV) is characterized by sparse to absent scalp hair, eyebrows, eyelashes, and body hair, as well as recurrent vesicles of scalp and skin. Some patients also exhibit trauma-induced blistering, and anomalies of dental enamel and of nails may be observed (Ayub et al., 2009; Onoufriadis et al., 2020).
Ectodermal dysplasia-syndactyly syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
462157
Concept ID:
C3150807
Disease or Syndrome
Ectodermal dysplasia-syndactyly syndrome (EDSS) is characterized by sparse to absent scalp hair, eyebrows, and eyelashes, hypoplastic nails, tooth enamel hypoplasia, conical-shaped teeth, palmoplantar keratoderma, and partial cutaneous syndactyly (summary by Raza et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Ectodermal Dysplasia-Syndactyly Syndrome Ectodermal dysplasia-syndactyly syndrome-2 (EDSS2; 613576) maps to chromosome 7p21-p14.
Hypotrichosis 3
MedGen UID:
462782
Concept ID:
C3151432
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis simplex can affect all body hair (generalized; see 605389) or be limited to the scalp. Usually patients with the scalp-limited form of hypotrichosis present with normal hair at birth; they experience a progressive, gradual loss of scalp hair beginning at the middle of the first decade and leading to almost complete loss of scalp hair by the third decade. A few sparse, fine, short hairs remain in some individuals. Body hair, beard, eyebrows, axillary hair, teeth, and nails develop normally. Light and electron microscopy of hairs from patients with early hypotrichosis simplex revealed no structural changes, whereas hairs from patients with advanced hypotrichosis showed focal areas of defective cuticular structure. Men and women are equally affected (summary by Betz et al., 2000). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nonsyndromic hypotrichosis, see HYPT1 (605389).
Nestor-Guillermo progeria syndrome
MedGen UID:
462796
Concept ID:
C3151446
Disease or Syndrome
Nestor-Guillermo progeria syndrome (NGPS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by lipoatrophy, osteoporosis, and very severe osteolysis. Patients have no cardiovascular impairment, diabetes mellitus, or hypertriglyceridemia, but suffer profound skeletal abnormalities that affect their quality of life. Onset is after 2 years of age, and lifespan is relatively long (summary by Cabanillas et al., 2011).
Hypotrichosis 8
MedGen UID:
481100
Concept ID:
C3279470
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis simplex refers to a group of hereditary isolated alopecias characterized by diffuse and progressive hair loss, usually beginning in early childhood (Pasternack et al., 2008). Localized autosomal recessive hypotrichosis (LAH) is characterized by fragile hairs that break easily, leaving short, sparse scalp hairs. The disorder affects the trunk and extremities as well as the scalp, and the eyebrows and eyelashes may also be involved, whereas beard, pubic, and axillary hairs are largely spared. In addition, patients can develop hyperkeratotic follicular papules, erythema, and pruritus in affected areas (summary by Schaffer et al., 2006). Woolly hair (WH) refers to a group of hair shaft disorders that are characterized by fine and tightly curled hair. Compared to normal curly hair that is observed in some populations, WH grows slowly and stops growing after a few inches. Under light microscopy, WH shows some structural anomalies, including trichorrhexis nodosa and tapered ends (summary by Petukhova et al., 2009). Several families have been reported in which some affected individuals exhibit features of hypotrichosis and others have woolly scalp hair (Khan et al., 2011). Woolly hair is also a feature of several syndromes, such as Naxos disease (601214) and cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (115150) (Petukhova et al., 2009), or the palmoplantar keratoderma and cardiomyopathy syndrome (601214) (Carvajal-Huerta, 1998). Genetic Heterogeneity of Hypotrichosis and Woolly Hair For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nonsyndromic hypotrichosis, see HYPT1 (605389). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of localized hypotrichosis, see LAH1 (HYPT6; 607903). Another form of autosomal recessive woolly hair with or without hypotrichosis (ARWH2; 604379) is caused by mutation in the LIPH gene (607365) and is allelic to autosomal recessive localized hypotrichosis (LAH2). ARWH3 (616760) is caused by mutation in the KRT25 gene (616646) on chromosome 17q21. An autosomal dominant form of woolly hair with hypotrichosis (HYPT13; 615896) is caused by mutation in the KRT71 gene (608245) on chromosome 12q13. Another autosomal dominant form of woolly hair (ADWH; 194300) with normal hair density is caused by mutation in the KRT74 gene (608248) on chromosome 12q13, and is allelic to an autosomal dominant form of hypotrichosis simplex of the scalp (HYPT3; 613981) as well as an ectodermal dysplasia of the hair/nail type (ECTD7; 614929).
Hypotrichosis 9
MedGen UID:
481882
Concept ID:
C3280252
Disease or Syndrome
A hypotrichosis that has material basis in an autosomal recessive mutation on chromosome 10q11.23-q22.3.
Hypotrichosis 10
MedGen UID:
481883
Concept ID:
C3280253
Disease or Syndrome
A hypotrichosis that has material basis in an autosomal recessive mutation on chromosome 7p22.3-p21.3.
Coffin-Siris syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
482831
Concept ID:
C3281201
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is classically characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the distal phalanx or nail of the fifth and additional digits, developmental or cognitive delay of varying degree, distinctive facial features, hypotonia, hirsutism/hypertrichosis, and sparse scalp hair. Congenital anomalies can include malformations of the cardiac, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and/or central nervous systems. Other findings commonly include feeding difficulties, slow growth, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and hearing impairment.
Ectodermal dysplasia 11B, hypohidrotic/hair/tooth type, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
761671
Concept ID:
C3539920
Disease or Syndrome
Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by hypotrichosis (sparseness of scalp and body hair), hypohidrosis (reduced ability to sweat), and hypodontia (congenital absence of teeth). The cardinal features of classic HED become obvious during childhood. The scalp hair is thin, lightly pigmented, and slow growing. Sweating, although present, is greatly deficient, leading to episodes of hyperthermia until the affected individual or family acquires experience with environmental modifications to control temperature. Only a few abnormally formed teeth erupt, at a later-than-average age. Physical growth and psychomotor development are otherwise within normal limits. Mild HED is characterized by mild manifestations of any or all the characteristic features.
Ectodermal dysplasia 8, hair/tooth/nail type
MedGen UID:
764338
Concept ID:
C3551424
Disease or Syndrome
Some ectodermal dysplasias are here classified as congenital disorders characterized by abnormal development in 2 or more ectodermal structures (hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands) without other systemic findings. Ectodermal dysplasia-8 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by abnormal development of hair, teeth, and nails.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 14
MedGen UID:
766161
Concept ID:
C3553247
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, coarse facial features, feeding difficulties, and hypoplastic or absent fifth fingernails and fifth distal phalanges. Other more variable features may also occur. Patients with ARID1A mutations have a wide spectrum of manifestations, from severe intellectual disability and serious internal complications that could result in early death to mild intellectual disability (summary by Kosho et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Coffin-Siris syndrome, see CSS1 (135900). The chromosome 1p36.11 duplication syndrome, in which the ARID1A gene is duplicated, is characterized by impaired intellectual development, microcephaly, dysmorphic facial features, and hand and foot anomalies.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 15
MedGen UID:
766162
Concept ID:
C3553248
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, coarse facial features, feeding difficulties, and hypoplastic or absent fifth fingernails and fifth distal phalanges. Other more variable features may also occur. Patients with SMARCB1 mutations may have more severe neurodevelopmental deficits including severe intellectual disability, brain structural abnormalities, and no expressive words, as well as scoliosis (summary by Kosho et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Coffin-Siris syndrome, see CSS1 (135900).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 16
MedGen UID:
766163
Concept ID:
C3553249
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, coarse facial features, feeding difficulties, and hypoplastic or absent fifth fingernails and fifth distal phalanges. Other more variable features may also occur. Patients with SMARCA4 mutations may have less coarse craniofacial appearances and fewer behavioral abnormalities than Coffin-Siris patients with mutations in other genes (summary by Kosho et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Coffin-Siris syndrome, see CSS1 (135900).
Ectodermal dysplasia 5, hair/nail type
MedGen UID:
767022
Concept ID:
C3554108
Disease or Syndrome
Some ectodermal dysplasias are here classified as congenital disorders characterized by abnormal development in 2 or more ectodermal structures (hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands) without other systemic findings. Ectodermal dysplasia of the hair/nail type is a rare congenital condition characterized by hypotrichosis and nail dystrophy without nonectodermal or other ectodermal manifestations.
Ectodermal dysplasia 7, hair/nail type
MedGen UID:
767031
Concept ID:
C3554117
Disease or Syndrome
Some ectodermal dysplasias are here classified as congenital disorders characterized by abnormal development in 2 or more ectodermal structures (hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands) without other systemic findings. Ectodermal dysplasia of the hair/nail type is a rare congenital condition characterized by hypotrichosis and nail dystrophy without nonectodermal or other ectodermal manifestations.
Partial lipodystrophy, congenital cataracts, and neurodegeneration syndrome
MedGen UID:
813897
Concept ID:
C3807567
Disease or Syndrome
Lipodystrophies are rare disorders characterized by loss of body fat from various regions and predisposition to metabolic complications of insulin resistance and lipid abnormalities. FPLD7 is an autosomal dominant disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Additional features, including early-onset cataracts and later onset of spasticity of the lower limbs, have been noted in some patients (summary by Garg et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD), see 151660.
Short stature with microcephaly and distinctive facies
MedGen UID:
862776
Concept ID:
C4014339
Disease or Syndrome
Short stature with microcephaly and distinctive facies (SSMCF) is characterized by pre- or postnatal growth retardation, frontal bossing, high forehead, sparse hair and eyebrows, and telecanthus. Patients also show skin dyspigmentation, with hyper- and/or hypopigmented areas (Leduc et al., 2016).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 27
MedGen UID:
862965
Concept ID:
C4014528
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with microcephaly and with or without ocular malformations or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IDDMOH) is characterized by mildly impaired intellectual development and microcephaly. Patients may also have ocular malformations, ocular apraxia, or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The disorder shows a unique DNA methylation signature (summary by Al-Jawahiri et al., 2022).
Hypotrichosis 12
MedGen UID:
863000
Concept ID:
C4014563
Disease or Syndrome
Any hypotrichosis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the RPL21 gene.
Wooly hair-palmoplantar keratoderma syndrome
MedGen UID:
863639
Concept ID:
C4015202
Disease or Syndrome
Palmoplantar keratoderma and woolly hair (PPKWH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the presence of these cardinal features and the absence of cardiomyopathy symptoms or findings on echocardiography and electrocardiogram. Palmoplantar keratoderma is of the striate type; hair is generally sparse; and leukonychia is present (Ramot et al., 2014).
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity, type 1, with or without fractures
MedGen UID:
865814
Concept ID:
C4017377
Disease or Syndrome
Any spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the B3GALT6 gene.
Wooly hair, autosomal recessive 3
MedGen UID:
902275
Concept ID:
C4225214
Disease or Syndrome
Any wooly hair in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the KRT25 gene.
Coffin-Siris syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
934755
Concept ID:
C4310788
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, coarse facial features, and hypoplasia of the distal phalanges, particularly the fifth digit. Other features may also be observed, including congenital heart defects, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, and poor overall growth with short stature and microcephaly (summary by Wieczorek et al., 2013). Patients with SMARCE1 mutations have a wide spectrum of manifestations, including severe to moderate intellectual disability and heart defects (summary by Kosho et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Coffin-Siris syndrome, see CSS1 (135900).
Developmental delay with short stature, dysmorphic facial features, and sparse hair
MedGen UID:
934768
Concept ID:
C4310801
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome with characteristics of craniofacial dysmorphism (including an abnormal skull shape, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, low-set ears, depressed nasal bridge, micrognathia), short stature, ectodermal anomalies (such as sparse eyebrows, eyelashes, and scalp hair, hypoplastic toenails), developmental delay, and intellectual disability. Additional features may include cerebral/cerebellar malformations and mild renal involvement.
Hypotrichosis-lymphedema-telangiectasia-renal defect syndrome
MedGen UID:
1373459
Concept ID:
C4317151
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis-lymphedema-telangiectasia-renal defect syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by these 4 features, which begin in early childhood and are progressive (summary by Moalem et al., 2015).
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair 1
MedGen UID:
1379805
Concept ID:
C4478716
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair is characterized by facial features similar to those observed in Noonan syndrome (163950), including hypertelorism, ptosis, downslanting palpebral fissures, low-set posteriorly angulated ears, and overfolded pinnae. In addition, patients display short stature, frequently with growth hormone (GH; see 139250) deficiency; cognitive deficits; relative macrocephaly; small posterior fossa resulting in Chiari I malformation; hypernasal voice; cardiac defects, especially dysplasia of the mitral valve and septal defects; and ectodermal abnormalities, in which the most characteristic feature is the hair anomaly, including easily pluckable, sparse, thin, slow-growing hair (summary by Bertola et al., 2017). Reviews Komatsuzaki et al. (2010) reviewed the clinical manifestations of patients with Noonan syndrome, Costello syndrome (218040), and cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC; see 115150) compared to patients with mutations in the SHOC2 gene. They noted that although there is phenotypic overlap among the disorders, loose anagen/easily pluckable hair had not been reported in mutation-positive patients with Noonan, CFC, or Costello syndrome, and appeared to be a distinctive feature of SHOC2 mutation-positive patients. Genetic Heterogeneity of Noonan Syndrome-Like Disorder with Loose Anagen Hair NSLH2 (617506) is caused by mutation in the PPP1CB gene (600590) on chromosome 2p23.
Congenital heart defects and ectodermal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
1387409
Concept ID:
C4479250
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital heart defects and ectodermal dysplasia (CHDED) is a rare disorder characterized by these cardinal features, with additional variable features of microcephaly, craniofacial or skeletal dysmorphism, feeding difficulties, or hypotonia (Sifrim et al., 2016).
Pidermolysis bullosa, junctional 7, with interstitial lung disease and nephrotic syndrome
MedGen UID:
1388385
Concept ID:
C4518785
Disease or Syndrome
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa-7 with interstitial lung disease and nephrotic syndrome (JEB7), also known as ILNEB, is an autosomal recessive multiorgan disorder that includes congenital interstitial lung disease, nephrotic syndrome, and epidermolysis bullosa. The respiratory and renal features predominate, and lung involvement accounts for the lethal course of the disease (summary by Has et al., 2012).
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, spondylodysplastic type, 1
MedGen UID:
1646889
Concept ID:
C4552003
Disease or Syndrome
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome spondylodysplastic type 1 (EDSSPD1) is characterized by short stature, developmental anomalies of the forearm bones and elbow, and bowing of extremities, in addition to the classic stigmata of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, including joint laxity, skin hyperextensibility, and poor wound healing. Significant developmental delay is not a consistent feature (Guo et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, Spondylodysplastic Type See EDSSPD2 (615349), caused by mutation in the B3GALT6 gene (615291), and EDSSPD3 (612350), caused by mutation in the SLC39A13 gene (608735).
Coffin-Siris syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
1648281
Concept ID:
C4747954
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is classically characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the distal phalanx or nail of the fifth and additional digits, developmental or cognitive delay of varying degree, distinctive facial features, hypotonia, hirsutism/hypertrichosis, and sparse scalp hair. Congenital anomalies can include malformations of the cardiac, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and/or central nervous systems. Other findings commonly include feeding difficulties, slow growth, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and hearing impairment.
Ectodermal dysplasia 14, hair/tooth type with or without hypohidrosis
MedGen UID:
1648329
Concept ID:
C4748560
Disease or Syndrome
Some ectodermal dysplasias are here classified as congenital disorders characterized by abnormal development in 2 or more ectodermal structures (hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands) without other systemic findings. Ectodermal dysplasia-14 of the hair/tooth type (ECTD14) is primarily characterized by scalp hypotrichosis and hypodontia. Some patients have decreased sweating, and some show subtle facial dysmorphism (Peled et al., 2016). Rabie et al. (2022) tabulated the features of 24 patients with TSPEAR-associated ectodermal dysplasia, and found that of the various ectodermal derivatives, teeth were the most affected (82.6%), followed by hair (78.3%), nails (43.5%), and sweat glands (39.1%). The authors also noted that TSPEAR-associated dysmorphic facial features varied according to ethnic origin.
Coffin-Siris syndrome 8
MedGen UID:
1679527
Concept ID:
C5193054
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is classically characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the distal phalanx or nail of the fifth and additional digits, developmental or cognitive delay of varying degree, distinctive facial features, hypotonia, hirsutism/hypertrichosis, and sparse scalp hair. Congenital anomalies can include malformations of the cardiac, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and/or central nervous systems. Other findings commonly include feeding difficulties, slow growth, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and hearing impairment.
Turnpenny-fry syndrome
MedGen UID:
1683283
Concept ID:
C5193060
Disease or Syndrome
Turnpenny-Fry syndrome (TPFS) is characterized by developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, impaired growth, and recognizable facial features that include frontal bossing, sparse hair, malar hypoplasia, small palpebral fissures and oral stoma, and dysplastic 'satyr' ears. Other common findings include feeding problems, constipation, and a range of brain, cardiac, vascular, and skeletal malformations (Turnpenny et al., 2018).
Ectodermal dysplasia 15, hypohidrotic/hair type
MedGen UID:
1680605
Concept ID:
C5193145
Disease or Syndrome
Some ectodermal dysplasias are here classified as congenital disorders characterized by abnormal development in 2 or more ectodermal structures (hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands) without other systemic findings. Ectodermal dysplasia-15 (ECTD15) is characterized by hypotrichosis that develops in early childhood and absence of sweating except with extreme exercise. Skin is dry from birth and eczematous lesions may develop in adulthood. Other features include blepharitis and photophobia (van den Bogaard et al., 2019).
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome type 2
MedGen UID:
1684753
Concept ID:
C5203410
Disease or Syndrome
Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is characterized by a rash that progresses to poikiloderma; sparse hair, eyelashes, and/or eyebrows; small size; skeletal and dental abnormalities; juvenile cataracts; and an increased risk for cancer, especially osteosarcoma. A variety of benign and malignant hematologic abnormalities have been reported in affected individuals. The rash of RTS typically develops between ages three and six months (occasionally as late as age two years) as erythema, swelling, and blistering on the face, subsequently spreading to the buttocks and extremities. The rash evolves over months to years into the chronic pattern of reticulated hypo- and hyperpigmentation, telangiectasias, and punctate atrophy (collectively known as poikiloderma) that persist throughout life. Hyperkeratotic lesions occur in approximately one third of individuals. Skeletal abnormalities can include radial ray defects, ulnar defects, absent or hypoplastic patella, and osteopenia.
Anauxetic dysplasia 3
MedGen UID:
1718444
Concept ID:
C5394289
Disease or Syndrome
Anauxetic dysplasia-3 (ANXD3) is characterized by severe short stature, brachydactyly, skin laxity, joint hypermobility, and joint dislocations. Radiographs show short metacarpals, broad middle phalanges, and metaphyseal irregularities. Most patients also exhibit motor and cognitive delays (Narayanan et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of anauxetic dysplasia, see ANXD1 (607095).
Mandibuloacral dysplasia with type A lipodystrophy
MedGen UID:
1757618
Concept ID:
C5399785
Disease or Syndrome
Mandibuloacral dysplasia with type A lipodystrophy (MADA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by growth retardation, craniofacial anomalies with mandibular hypoplasia, skeletal abnormalities with progressive osteolysis of the distal phalanges and clavicles, and pigmentary skin changes. The lipodystrophy is characterized by a marked acral loss of fatty tissue with normal or increased fatty tissue in the neck and trunk. Some patients may show progeroid features. Metabolic complications can arise due to insulin resistance and diabetes (Young et al., 1971; Simha and Garg, 2002; summary by Garavelli et al., 2009). See also MAD type B (MADB; 608612), which is caused by mutation in the ZMPSTE24 gene (606480).
IFAP syndrome 1, with or without BRESHECK syndrome
MedGen UID:
1746744
Concept ID:
C5399971
Disease or Syndrome
The IFAP/BRESHECK syndrome is an X-linked multiple congenital anomaly disorder with variable severity. The classic triad, which defines IFAP, is ichthyosis follicularis, atrichia, and photophobia. Some patients have additional features, including mental retardation, brain anomalies, Hirschsprung disease, corneal opacifications, kidney dysplasia, cryptorchidism, cleft palate, and skeletal malformations, particularly of the vertebrae, which constitutes BRESHECK syndrome (summary by Naiki et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of IFAP Syndrome IFAP syndrome-2 (IFAP2; 619016) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the SREBF1 gene (184756) on chromosome 17p11.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with alopecia and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1775930
Concept ID:
C5436741
Disease or Syndrome
Bachmann-Bupp syndrome (BABS) is characterized by a distinctive type of alopecia, global developmental delay in the moderate to severe range, hypotonia, nonspecific dysmorphic features, behavioral abnormalities (autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) and feeding difficulties. Hair is typically present at birth but may be sparse and of an unexpected color with subsequent loss of hair in large clumps within the first few weeks of life. Rare findings may include seizures with onset in later childhood and conductive hearing loss.
Blepharophimosis-impaired intellectual development syndrome
MedGen UID:
1779966
Concept ID:
C5443984
Disease or Syndrome
Blepharophimosis-impaired intellectual development syndrome (BIS) is a congenital disorder characterized by a distinct facial appearance with blepharophimosis and global development delay. Affected individuals have delayed motor skills, sometimes with inability to walk, and impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech; some patients show behavioral abnormalities. There are recognizable facial features, including epicanthal folds, sparse eyebrows, broad nasal bridge, short nose with downturned tip, and open mouth with thin upper lip. Other more variable features include distal skeletal anomalies, feeding difficulties with poor growth, respiratory infections, and hypotonia with peripheral spasticity (summary by Cappuccio et al., 2020).
Coffin-Siris syndrome 12
MedGen UID:
1782096
Concept ID:
C5444111
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome-12 (CSS12) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development, speech and language delay, and behavioral abnormalities, such as autism or hyperactivity. Affected individuals may have hypotonia and poor feeding in infancy. There are variable dysmorphic facial features, although most patients do not have the classic hypoplastic fifth digit/nail abnormalities that are often observed in other forms of CSS (Barish et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Coffin-Siris syndrome, see CSS1 (135900).
Faundes-Banka syndrome
MedGen UID:
1782083
Concept ID:
C5543554
Disease or Syndrome
Faundes-Banka syndrome (FABAS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by variable combinations of developmental delay and microcephaly, as well as micrognathia and other dysmorphic features (Faundes et al., 2021).
VISS syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794165
Concept ID:
C5561955
Disease or Syndrome
VISS syndrome is a generalized connective tissue disorder characterized by early-onset thoracic aortic aneurysm and other connective tissue findings, such as aneurysm and tortuosity of other arteries, joint hypermobility, skin laxity, and hernias, as well as craniofacial dysmorphic features, structural cardiac defects, skeletal anomalies, and motor developmental delay (Van Gucht et al., 2021). Immune dysregulation has been observed in some patients (Ziegler et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1794184
Concept ID:
C5561974
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and dysmorphic facies (NEDHYDF) is characterized by global developmental delay and hypotonia apparent from birth. Affected individuals have variably impaired intellectual development, often with speech delay and delayed walking. Seizures are generally not observed, although some patients may have single seizures or late-onset epilepsy. Most patients have prominent dysmorphic facial features. Additional features may include congenital cardiac defects (without arrhythmia), nonspecific renal anomalies, joint contractures or joint hyperextensibility, dry skin, and cryptorchidism. There is significant phenotypic variability in both the neurologic and extraneurologic manifestations (summary by Tan et al., 2022).
Zaki syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794247
Concept ID:
C5562037
Disease or Syndrome
Zaki syndrome (ZKS) is characterized by developmental delay, progressive microcephaly, and short stature, as well as dysmorphic features including sparse scalp hair, cupped ears, wide nose and mouth, short philtrum, and high-arched palate. Other variable features have been observed, including ocular, skeletal, cardiac, and renal anomalies (Chai et al., 2021).
Netherton syndrome
MedGen UID:
1802991
Concept ID:
C5574950
Disease or Syndrome
Netherton syndrome (NETH) is a rare and severe autosomal recessive skin disorder characterized by congenital erythroderma, a specific hair-shaft abnormality, and atopic manifestations with high IgE levels. Generalized scaly erythroderma is apparent at or soon after birth and usually persists. Scalp hair is sparse and brittle with a characteristic 'bamboo' shape under light microscopic examination due to invagination of the distal part of the hair shaft to its proximal part. Atopic manifestations include eczema-like rashes, atopic dermatitis, pruritus, hay fever, angioedema, urticaria, high levels of IgE in the serum, and hypereosinophilia. Life-threatening complications are frequent during the neonatal period, including hypernatremic dehydration, hypothermia, extreme weight loss, bronchopneumonia, and sepsis. During childhood, failure to thrive is common as a result of malnutrition, metabolic disorders, chronic erythroderma, persistent cutaneous infections, or enteropathy (summary by Bitoun et al., 2002).
ACCES syndrome
MedGen UID:
1804308
Concept ID:
C5677019
Disease or Syndrome
Aplasia cutis congenita and ectrodactyly skeletal syndrome (ACCES) is characterized by highly variable expressivity, even within the same family. Most patients exhibit scalp defects, whereas ectrodactyly is less common; however, more variable and less obvious digital and skeletal anomalies are often present. Early growth deficiency and neurodevelopmental delay are also commonly seen (Schnur et al., 2021).
Chilton-Okur-Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1803276
Concept ID:
C5677022
Disease or Syndrome
Chilton-Okur-Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome (CHOCNS) is characterized mainly by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development and occasional speech delay. Most patients have behavioral abnormalities, including autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, and aggression. About half of patients have dysmorphic facial features, and about half have nonspecific brain abnormalities, including thin corpus callosum. Rare involvement of other organ systems may be present. At least 1 child with normal development at age 2.5 years has been reported (Chilton et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, language delay, and skeletal defects with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1823986
Concept ID:
C5774213
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, language delay, and skeletal defects with or without seizures (NEDHLSS) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy. Affected individuals show severe hypotonia with delayed walking or inability to walk, poor or absent speech, and impaired intellectual development with behavioral abnormalities. Most patients have early-onset seizures, mild skeletal defects that are usually distal, and nonspecific dysmorphic features. More severely affected individuals have additional congenital abnormalities; however, cardiac involvement is rare (summary by Rodan et al., 2021).
Developmental delay with short stature, dysmorphic facial features, and sparse hair 2
MedGen UID:
1823996
Concept ID:
C5774223
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with short stature, dysmorphic facial features, and sparse hair-2 (DEDSSH2) is an autosomal recessive syndromic disorder characterized by the constellation of these features apparent from infancy. Affected individuals may have other abnormalities, including congenital cardiac defects and distal skeletal anomalies (Hawer et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEDSSH2, see DEDSSH1 (616901).
Dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 8
MedGen UID:
1824030
Concept ID:
C5774257
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive dyskeratosis congenita-8 (DKCB8) is characterized by progressive bone marrow failure affecting all lineages apparent from infancy or early childhood. More variable features may include poor growth, mild developmental delay, immunodeficiency, and gastrointestinal manifestations, such as esophageal stricture or inflammatory bowel disease. Some patients may have mucocutaneous features, including oral leukoplakia, nail dystrophy, or pigmentary skin abnormalities, although these features may be absent. Unlike patients with other forms of DKC, those with DKCB8 do not have shortened telomeres, although there is evidence of telomere instability. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant may be curative (Kermasson et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of dyskeratosis congenita, see DKCA1 (127550).
Hypotrichosis 15
MedGen UID:
1824052
Concept ID:
C5774279
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotrichosis-15 (HYP15) is characterized by sparse or absent hair on the scalp and/or body, and eyebrows and eyelashes may be sparse or absent as well (Malki et al., 2020; Shah et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypotrichosis, see HYPT1 (605389).
Inflammatory poikiloderma with hair abnormalities and acral keratoses
MedGen UID:
1824066
Concept ID:
C5774293
Disease or Syndrome
Inflammatory poikiloderma with hair abnormalities and acral keratoses (IPHAK) is characterized by mottled hyper- and hypopigmentation of the skin as well as sparse scalp hair and eyelashes, sparse or absent eyebrows, and palmoplantar keratoses (Han et al., 2022).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Vasko A, Drivas TG, Schrier Vergano SA
Genes (Basel) 2021 Jun 19;12(6) doi: 10.3390/genes12060937. PMID: 34205270Free PMC Article
Vergano SS, Deardorff MA
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2014 Sep;166C(3):252-6. Epub 2014 Aug 28 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31411. PMID: 25169447
Daniel E, McCurdy EA, Shashi V, McGuirt WF Jr
Laryngoscope 2002 Jun;112(6):962-7. doi: 10.1097/00005537-200206000-00005. PMID: 12160292

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Lu G, Peng Q, Wu L, Zhang J, Ma L
BMC Med Genomics 2021 Nov 14;14(1):270. doi: 10.1186/s12920-021-01119-2. PMID: 34775996Free PMC Article
Vasko A, Drivas TG, Schrier Vergano SA
Genes (Basel) 2021 Jun 19;12(6) doi: 10.3390/genes12060937. PMID: 34205270Free PMC Article
Kaur S, Goraya JS
Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Nov;35(6):796-799. Epub 2018 Oct 11 doi: 10.1111/pde.13679. PMID: 30307060
Larizza L, Roversi G, Volpi L
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2010 Jan 29;5:2. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-5-2. PMID: 20113479Free PMC Article
Daniel E, McCurdy EA, Shashi V, McGuirt WF Jr
Laryngoscope 2002 Jun;112(6):962-7. doi: 10.1097/00005537-200206000-00005. PMID: 12160292

Diagnosis

Kaneko H, Takemoto M, Murakami H, Ihara K, Kosaki R, Motegi SI, Taniguchi A, Matsuo M, Yamazaki N, Nishigori C, Takita J, Koshizaka M, Maezawa Y, Yokote K
Pediatr Int 2022 Jan;64(1):e15120. doi: 10.1111/ped.15120. PMID: 35616152
Larizza L, Roversi G, Volpi L
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2010 Jan 29;5:2. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-5-2. PMID: 20113479Free PMC Article
Morioka D, Hosaka Y
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Itin PH, Bohn S, Mathys D, Guggenheim R, Richard G
Dermatology 1996;193(4):349-52. doi: 10.1159/000246290. PMID: 8993967
Stratton RF, Tolworthy JA, Young RS
Am J Med Genet 1994 Jun 1;51(2):153-5. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.1320510215. PMID: 8092193

Therapy

Kaur S, Goraya JS
Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Nov;35(6):796-799. Epub 2018 Oct 11 doi: 10.1111/pde.13679. PMID: 30307060
Anees M, Butt G, Gull S, Nazeer A, Hussain I, Ibrahim M
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2018 Feb;28(2):98-102. doi: 10.29271/jcpsp.2018.02.98. PMID: 29394966
Harrison S, Sinclair R
Australas J Dermatol 2004 May;45(2):103-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-0960.2004.00055.x. PMID: 15068456
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Am J Med Genet 1992 Jul 15;43(5):829-32. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.1320430515. PMID: 1642271
Colamaria V, Burlina AB, Gaburro D, Pajno-Ferrara F, Saudubray JM, Merino RG, Dalla Bernardina B
Epilepsia 1989 Sep-Oct;30(5):573-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1528-1157.1989.tb05474.x. PMID: 2792032

Prognosis

Baumann M, Beaver EM, Palomares-Bralo M, Santos-Simarro F, Holzer P, Povysil G, Müller T, Valovka T, Janecke AR
Hum Mutat 2020 Apr;41(4):753-758. Epub 2020 Jan 16 doi: 10.1002/humu.23970. PMID: 31898838Free PMC Article
Paolacci S, Li Y, Agolini E, Bellacchio E, Arboleda-Bustos CE, Carrero D, Bertola D, Al-Gazali L, Alders M, Altmüller J, Arboleda G, Beleggia F, Bruselles A, Ciolfi A, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Krieg T, Mohammed S, Müller C, Novelli A, Ortega J, Sandoval A, Velasco G, Yigit G, Arboleda H, Lopez-Otin C, Wollnik B, Tartaglia M, Hennekam RC
J Med Genet 2018 Dec;55(12):837-846. Epub 2018 Oct 15 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2018-105528. PMID: 30323018
Anees M, Butt G, Gull S, Nazeer A, Hussain I, Ibrahim M
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2018 Feb;28(2):98-102. doi: 10.29271/jcpsp.2018.02.98. PMID: 29394966
Hunter AG
Am J Med Genet A 2006 Apr 1;140(7):709-26. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.31149. PMID: 16523517
Momeni P, Glöckner G, Schmidt O, von Holtum D, Albrecht B, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Hennekam R, Meinecke P, Zabel B, Rosenthal A, Horsthemke B, Lüdecke HJ
Nat Genet 2000 Jan;24(1):71-4. doi: 10.1038/71717. PMID: 10615131

Clinical prediction guides

Kaneko H, Takemoto M, Murakami H, Ihara K, Kosaki R, Motegi SI, Taniguchi A, Matsuo M, Yamazaki N, Nishigori C, Takita J, Koshizaka M, Maezawa Y, Yokote K
Pediatr Int 2022 Jan;64(1):e15120. doi: 10.1111/ped.15120. PMID: 35616152
Baumann M, Beaver EM, Palomares-Bralo M, Santos-Simarro F, Holzer P, Povysil G, Müller T, Valovka T, Janecke AR
Hum Mutat 2020 Apr;41(4):753-758. Epub 2020 Jan 16 doi: 10.1002/humu.23970. PMID: 31898838Free PMC Article
Paolacci S, Li Y, Agolini E, Bellacchio E, Arboleda-Bustos CE, Carrero D, Bertola D, Al-Gazali L, Alders M, Altmüller J, Arboleda G, Beleggia F, Bruselles A, Ciolfi A, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Krieg T, Mohammed S, Müller C, Novelli A, Ortega J, Sandoval A, Velasco G, Yigit G, Arboleda H, Lopez-Otin C, Wollnik B, Tartaglia M, Hennekam RC
J Med Genet 2018 Dec;55(12):837-846. Epub 2018 Oct 15 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2018-105528. PMID: 30323018
Anees M, Butt G, Gull S, Nazeer A, Hussain I, Ibrahim M
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2018 Feb;28(2):98-102. doi: 10.29271/jcpsp.2018.02.98. PMID: 29394966
Hull S, Arno G, Robson AG, Broadgate S, Plagnol V, McKibbin M, Halford S, Michaelides M, Holder GE, Moore AT, Khan KN, Webster AR
JAMA Ophthalmol 2016 Sep 1;134(9):992-1000. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2016.2089. PMID: 27386845

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