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Bifid distal phalanx of toe

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Anatomical Abnormality
Synonyms: Bifid distal phalanges of toes; Bifid terminal phalanx of toe; Notched outermost bones of toes
HPO: HP:0001853

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVBifid distal phalanx of toe

Conditions with this feature

Syndactyly-polydactyly-ear lobe syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, congenital limb malformation syndrome characterized by complete cutaneous syndactyly between toes 1-2, ulnar polydactyly (ranging from nubbins to an almost complete additional finger) and earlobe malformations. Additionally, abnormalities along the medial border of the foot are observed on X-ray imaging. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1976.
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) is characterized by skeletal findings (short stature, mesomelic limb shortening predominantly of the upper limbs, and brachydactyly), genital abnormalities (in males: micropenis / webbed penis, hypoplastic scrotum, cryptorchidism; in females: hypoplastic clitoris and labia majora), dysmorphic facial features (widely spaced and prominent eyes, frontal bossing, anteverted nares, midface retrusion), dental abnormalities (including malocclusion, crowding, hypodontia, late eruption of permanent teeth), bilobed tongue, and occasional prenatal macrocephaly that persists postnatally. Less common findings include renal anomalies, radial head dislocation, vertebral abnormalities such as hemivertebrae and scoliosis, nail dysplasia, cardiac defects, cleft lip/palate, and (rarely) cognitive delay. When present, cardiac defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A variant of Robinow syndrome, associated with osteosclerosis and caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DVL1, is characterized by normal stature, persistent macrocephaly, increased bone mineral density with skull osteosclerosis, and hearing loss, in addition to the typical features described above.
Gonadal dysgenesis, dysmorphic facies, retinal dystrophy, and myopathy
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Myoectodermal gonadal dysgenesis syndrome (MEGD) is characterized by 46,XY complete or partial gonadal dysgenesis, or 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis, in association with extragonadal anomalies, including low birth weight, typical facies, rod and cone dystrophy, sensorineural hearing loss, omphalocele, anal atresia, renal agenesis, skeletal abnormalities, dry and scaly skin, severe myopathy, and neuromotor delay. Dysmorphic facial features along with muscular habitus are the hallmarks of the syndrome. Abnormal hair patterning with frontal upsweep and additional whorls, eyebrow abnormalities comprising broad, arched, and sparse or thick eyebrows, underdeveloped alae nasi, smooth philtrum, and low-set ears with overfolded helices facilitate a gestalt diagnosis. (Guran et al., 2019; Altunoglu et al., 2022).
Autosomal recessive Robinow syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
ROR2-related Robinow syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, skeletal abnormalities, and other anomalies. Craniofacial features include macrocephaly, broad prominent forehead, low-set ears, ocular hypertelorism, prominent eyes, midface hypoplasia, short upturned nose with depressed nasal bridge and flared nostrils, large and triangular mouth with exposed incisors and upper gums, gum hypertrophy, misaligned teeth, ankyloglossia, and micrognathia. Skeletal abnormalities include short stature, mesomelic or acromesomelic limb shortening, hemivertebrae with fusion of thoracic vertebrae, and brachydactyly. Other common features include micropenis with or without cryptorchidism in males and reduced clitoral size and hypoplasia of the labia majora in females, renal tract abnormalities, and nail hypoplasia or dystrophy. The disorder is recognizable at birth or in early childhood.

Recent clinical studies


Kress W, Schropp C, Lieb G, Petersen B, Büsse-Ratzka M, Kunz J, Reinhart E, Schäfer WD, Sold J, Hoppe F, Pahnke J, Trusen A, Sörensen N, Krauss J, Collmann H
Eur J Hum Genet 2006 Jan;14(1):39-48. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201507. PMID: 16251895

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