U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Actinic keratosis

MedGen UID:
9627
Concept ID:
C0022602
Neoplastic Process
Synonyms: Actinic Keratoses; Actinic Keratosis; Keratoses, Actinic; Keratosis, Actinic
SNOMED CT: Actinic keratosis (201101007); Atrophic keratosis (201101007); AK - Actinic keratosis (201101007); SK - Solar keratosis (201101007); Hyperplastic keratosis (201101007); Senile keratoma (201101007); Actinic keratosis (856006); Solar keratosis (856006); Senile keratoma (856006); Keratinocytic intraepidermal neoplasia (856006); Solar keratosis (201101007)
 
HPO: HP:0025127
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0005173

Definition

A scaly, crusty lesion caused by damage from the ultraviolet radiation of the sun, with typical location on sun-exposed areas of the skin. Actinic keratosis lesions are often elevated, rough, and wartlike, and may be red, or occasionally tan, pink, or flesh-toned in color. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVActinic keratosis

Conditions with this feature

Xeroderma pigmentosum, group C
MedGen UID:
416702
Concept ID:
C2752147
Disease or Syndrome
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Acute sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure) with marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age two years; Sunlight-induced ocular involvement (photophobia, severe keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids, ocular surface neoplasms); Greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma) within the first decade of life. Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, progressive cognitive impairment, and ataxia). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years).
Familial cutaneous telangiectasia and oropharyngeal predisposition cancer syndrome
MedGen UID:
482833
Concept ID:
C3281203
Neoplastic Process
Patients with this syndrome develop cutaneous telangiectases in infancy with patchy alopecia over areas of affected skin, thinning of the lateral eyebrows, and mild dental and nail anomalies. Affected individuals are at increased risk of developing oropharyngeal cancer, and other malignancies have been reported as well (Tanaka et al., 2012).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Worley B, Harikumar V, Reynolds K, Dirr MA, Christensen RE, Anvery N, Yi MD, Poon E, Alam M
Arch Dermatol Res 2023 Jul;315(5):1099-1108. Epub 2022 Dec 1 doi: 10.1007/s00403-022-02490-5. PMID: 36454335
Eisen DB, Asgari MM, Bennett DD, Connolly SM, Dellavalle RP, Freeman EE, Goldenberg G, Leffell DJ, Peschin S, Sligh JE, Wu PA, Frazer-Green L, Malik S, Schlesinger TE
J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Oct;85(4):e209-e233. Epub 2021 Apr 2 doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.02.082. PMID: 33820677
Marçon CR, Maia M
An Bras Dermatol 2019 Sep-Oct;94(5):503-520. Epub 2019 Sep 30 doi: 10.1016/j.abd.2019.09.023. PMID: 31777350Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Hyeraci M, Papanikolau ES, Grimaldi M, Ricci F, Pallotta S, Monetta R, Minafò YA, Di Lella G, Galdo G, Abeni D, Fania L, Dellambra E
Biomolecules 2023 Jul 2;13(7) doi: 10.3390/biom13071067. PMID: 37509103Free PMC Article
Worley B, Harikumar V, Reynolds K, Dirr MA, Christensen RE, Anvery N, Yi MD, Poon E, Alam M
Arch Dermatol Res 2023 Jul;315(5):1099-1108. Epub 2022 Dec 1 doi: 10.1007/s00403-022-02490-5. PMID: 36454335
Willenbrink TJ, Ruiz ES, Cornejo CM, Schmults CD, Arron ST, Jambusaria-Pahlajani A
J Am Acad Dermatol 2020 Sep;83(3):709-717. Epub 2020 May 7 doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.03.126. PMID: 32387665
Reinehr CPH, Bakos RM
An Bras Dermatol 2019 Nov-Dec;94(6):637-657. Epub 2019 Nov 6 doi: 10.1016/j.abd.2019.10.004. PMID: 31789244Free PMC Article
Snaidr VA, Damian DL, Halliday GM
Exp Dermatol 2019 Feb;28 Suppl 1:15-22. doi: 10.1111/exd.13819. PMID: 30698874

Diagnosis

Hyeraci M, Papanikolau ES, Grimaldi M, Ricci F, Pallotta S, Monetta R, Minafò YA, Di Lella G, Galdo G, Abeni D, Fania L, Dellambra E
Biomolecules 2023 Jul 2;13(7) doi: 10.3390/biom13071067. PMID: 37509103Free PMC Article
Arcuri D, Ramchatesingh B, Lagacé F, Iannattone L, Netchiporouk E, Lefrançois P, Litvinov IV
Int J Mol Sci 2023 Mar 5;24(5) doi: 10.3390/ijms24054989. PMID: 36902419Free PMC Article
Dianzani C, Conforti C, Giuffrida R, Corneli P, di Meo N, Farinazzo E, Moret A, Magaton Rizzi G, Zalaudek I
Int J Dermatol 2020 Jun;59(6):677-684. Epub 2020 Feb 3 doi: 10.1111/ijd.14767. PMID: 32012240
Reinehr CPH, Bakos RM
An Bras Dermatol 2019 Nov-Dec;94(6):637-657. Epub 2019 Nov 6 doi: 10.1016/j.abd.2019.10.004. PMID: 31789244Free PMC Article
Weber P, Tschandl P, Sinz C, Kittler H
Curr Treat Options Oncol 2018 Sep 20;19(11):56. doi: 10.1007/s11864-018-0573-6. PMID: 30238167Free PMC Article

Therapy

Arcuri D, Ramchatesingh B, Lagacé F, Iannattone L, Netchiporouk E, Lefrançois P, Litvinov IV
Int J Mol Sci 2023 Mar 5;24(5) doi: 10.3390/ijms24054989. PMID: 36902419Free PMC Article
Allen NC, Martin AJ, Snaidr VA, Eggins R, Chong AH, Fernandéz-Peñas P, Gin D, Sidhu S, Paddon VL, Banney LA, Lim A, Upjohn E, Schaider H, Ganhewa AD, Nguyen J, McKenzie CA, Prakash S, McLean C, Lochhead A, Ibbetson J, Dettrick A, Landgren A, Allnutt KJ, Allison C, Davenport RB, Mumford BP, Wong B, Stagg B, Tedman A, Gribbin H, Edwards HA, De Rosa N, Stewart T, Doolan BJ, Kok Y, Simpson K, Low ZM, Kovitwanichkanont T, Scolyer RA, Dhillon HM, Vardy JL, Chadban SJ, Bowen DG, Chen AC, Damian DL
N Engl J Med 2023 Mar 2;388(9):804-812. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2203086. PMID: 36856616
Worley B, Harikumar V, Reynolds K, Dirr MA, Christensen RE, Anvery N, Yi MD, Poon E, Alam M
Arch Dermatol Res 2023 Jul;315(5):1099-1108. Epub 2022 Dec 1 doi: 10.1007/s00403-022-02490-5. PMID: 36454335
Nikas IP, Paschou SA, Ryu HS
Biomolecules 2020 Mar 20;10(3) doi: 10.3390/biom10030477. PMID: 32245130Free PMC Article
Snaidr VA, Damian DL, Halliday GM
Exp Dermatol 2019 Feb;28 Suppl 1:15-22. doi: 10.1111/exd.13819. PMID: 30698874

Prognosis

Zou DD, Sun YZ, Li XJ, Wu WJ, Xu D, He YT, Qi J, Tu Y, Tang Y, Tu YH, Wang XL, Li X, Lu FY, Huang L, Long H, He L, Li X
Elife 2023 Dec 15;12 doi: 10.7554/eLife.85270. PMID: 38099574Free PMC Article
Heron CE, Feldman SR
J Drugs Dermatol 2021 Jan 1;20(1):102-104. doi: 10.36849/JDD.5328. PMID: 33400406
Willenbrink TJ, Ruiz ES, Cornejo CM, Schmults CD, Arron ST, Jambusaria-Pahlajani A
J Am Acad Dermatol 2020 Sep;83(3):709-717. Epub 2020 May 7 doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2020.03.126. PMID: 32387665
Rosenberg AR, Tabacchi M, Ngo KH, Wallendorf M, Rosman IS, Cornelius LA, Demehri S
JCI Insight 2019 Mar 21;4(6) doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.125476. PMID: 30895944Free PMC Article
Jansen MHE, Kessels JPHM, Nelemans PJ, Kouloubis N, Arits AHMM, van Pelt HPA, Quaedvlieg PJF, Essers BAB, Steijlen PM, Kelleners-Smeets NWJ, Mosterd K
N Engl J Med 2019 Mar 7;380(10):935-946. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1811850. PMID: 30855743

Clinical prediction guides

Thamm JR, Welzel J, Schuh S
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2024 May;22(5):675-690. Epub 2024 Mar 8 doi: 10.1111/ddg.15288. PMID: 38456369
Ogawa T, Donizy P, Wu CL, Cornejo KM, Ryś J, Hoang MP
Am J Dermatopathol 2020 Sep;42(9):629-640. doi: 10.1097/DAD.0000000000001548. PMID: 32833736
Goldenberg G
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017 Mar;31 Suppl 2:12-16. doi: 10.1111/jdv.14152. PMID: 28263018
Cantisani C, Paolino G, Melis M, Faina V, Romaniello F, Didona D, Cardone M, Calvieri S
Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov 2016;10(1):40-48. doi: 10.2174/1872213x10666160504104825. PMID: 27142784
Zimmerman EE, Crawford P
Am Fam Physician 2012 Dec 15;86(12):1118-24. PMID: 23316984

Recent systematic reviews

Worley B, Harikumar V, Reynolds K, Dirr MA, Christensen RE, Anvery N, Yi MD, Poon E, Alam M
Arch Dermatol Res 2023 Jul;315(5):1099-1108. Epub 2022 Dec 1 doi: 10.1007/s00403-022-02490-5. PMID: 36454335
Labadie JG, Ibrahim SA, Worley B, Kang BY, Rakita U, Rigali S, Arndt KA, Bernstein E, Brauer JA, Chandra S, Didwania A, DiGiorgio C, Donelan M, Dover JS, Galadari H, Geronemus RG, Goldman MP, Haedersdal M, Hruza G, Ibrahimi OA, Kauvar A, Kelly KM, Krakowski AC, Miest R, Orringer JS, Ozog DM, Ross EV, Shumaker PR, Sobanko JF, Suozzi K, Taylor MB, Teng JMC, Uebelhoer NS, Waibel J, Wanner M, Ratchev I, Christensen RE, Poon E, Miller CH, Alam M
JAMA Dermatol 2022 Oct 1;158(10):1193-1201. doi: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2022.3234. PMID: 35976634
Mainville L, Smilga AS, Fortin PR
J Cutan Med Surg 2022 May-Jun;26(3):297-308. Epub 2022 Feb 8 doi: 10.1177/12034754221078201. PMID: 35134311Free PMC Article
Mohney L, Singh R, Grada A, Feldman S
J Drugs Dermatol 2022 Jan 1;21(1):60-65. doi: 10.36849/JDD.2022.6632. PMID: 35005863
Eisen DB, Asgari MM, Bennett DD, Connolly SM, Dellavalle RP, Freeman EE, Goldenberg G, Leffell DJ, Peschin S, Sligh JE, Wu PA, Frazer-Green L, Malik S, Schlesinger TE
J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Oct;85(4):e209-e233. Epub 2021 Apr 2 doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.02.082. PMID: 33820677

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Consumer resources

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...