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1.

Familial Mediterranean fever

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is divided into two phenotypes: type 1 and type 2. FMF type 1 is characterized by recurrent short episodes of inflammation and serositis including fever, peritonitis, synovitis, pleuritis, and, rarely, pericarditis and meningitis. The symptoms and severity vary among affected individuals, sometimes even among members of the same family. Amyloidosis, which can lead to renal failure, is the most severe complication, if untreated. FMF type 2 is characterized by amyloidosis as the first clinical manifestation of FMF in an otherwise asymptomatic individual. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
45811
Concept ID:
C0031069
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Sandhoff disease

Sandhoff disease comprises a phenotypic continuum encompassing acute infantile, subacute juvenile, and late-onset disease. Although classification into these phenotypes is somewhat arbitrary, it is helpful in understanding the variation observed in the timing of disease onset, presenting manifestations, rate of progression, and life span. Acute infantile Sandhoff disease (onset age <6 months). Infants are generally normal at birth followed by progressive weakness and slowing of developmental progress, then developmental regression and severe neurologic impairment. Seizures are common. Death usually occurs between ages two and three years. Subacute juvenile Sandhoff disease (onset age 2-5 years). After attaining normal developmental milestones, developmental progress slows, followed by developmental regression and neurologic impairment (abnormal gait, dysarthria, and cognitive decline). Death (usually from aspiration) typically occurs in the early to late teens. Late-onset Sandhoff disease (onset older teen years or young adulthood). Nearly normal psychomotor development is followed by a range of neurologic findings (e.g., weakness, spasticity, dysarthria, and deficits in cerebellar function) and psychiatric findings (e.g., deficits in executive function and memory). Life expectancy is not necessarily decreased. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
11313
Concept ID:
C0036161
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Hyperlipoproteinemia, type I

Familial lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency usually presents in childhood and is characterized by very severe hypertriglyceridemia with episodes of abdominal pain, recurrent acute pancreatitis, eruptive cutaneous xanthomata, and hepatosplenomegaly. Clearance of chylomicrons from the plasma is impaired, causing triglycerides to accumulate in plasma and the plasma to have a milky (lactescent or lipemic) appearance. Symptoms usually resolve with restriction of total dietary fat to =20 g/day. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
7352
Concept ID:
C0023817
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Hereditary angioedema type 3

Hereditary angioedema is a disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of severe swelling (angioedema). The parts of the body that are most often affected by swelling are the limbs, face, intestinal tract, and airway. Minor trauma or stress may trigger an attack, but swelling often occurs without a known trigger. Episodes involving the intestinal tract cause severe abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Swelling in the airway can restrict breathing and lead to life-threatening obstruction of the airway. About one-third of people with this condition develop a non-itchy rash called erythema marginatum during an attack.

Symptoms of hereditary angioedema typically begin in childhood and worsen during puberty.  On average, untreated individuals have swelling episodes every 1 to 2 weeks, and most episodes last for about 3 to 4 days. The frequency and duration of attacks vary greatly among people with hereditary angioedema, even among people in the same family.

Hereditary angioedema is broadly divided into two types, which are distinguished by levels of a protein called C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) in the blood. These types are known as hereditary angioedema due to C1-INH deficiency and hereditary angioedema with normal C1-INH. 

Hereditary angioedema due to C1-INH deficiency is further divided into two types: type I occurs when C1-INH levels are low, and type II occurs when the C1-INH protein is not functioning correctly. 

The different types of hereditary angioedema have similar signs and symptoms. 

 [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
346653
Concept ID:
C1857728
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Visceral neuropathy, familial, 1, autosomal recessive

Autosomal recessive familial visceral neuropathy-1 (VSCN1) is characterized by a broad spectrum of developmental anomalies associating neural crest and extraneural crest features, including intestinal dysmotility due to aganglionosis (Hirschsprung disease), hypoganglionosis, and/or chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction. Some patients develop progressive peripheral neuropathy, and arthrogryposis has been observed. Hypoplasia or aplasia of the olfactory bulb and of the external auditory canals, as well as microtia or anotia, have been reported. Patients also exhibit facial dysmorphisms, including microretrognathia in most; other variable features include structural cardiac anomalies and arthrogryposis with multiple pterygia (Le et al., 2021). Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Visceral Neuropathy Autosomal recessive familial visceral neuropathy-2 (VSCN2; 619465) is caused by mutation in the ERBB2 gene (164870) on chromosome 17q12. Also see VSCN3 (609629) for an autosomal dominant form of the disorder. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
340946
Concept ID:
C1855733
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Episodic abdominal pain

An intermittent form of abdominal pain. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
814352
Concept ID:
C3808022
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