U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Search results

Items: 15

1.

Tyrosinemia type I

Untreated tyrosinemia type I usually presents either in young infants with severe liver involvement or later in the first year with liver dysfunction and renal tubular dysfunction associated with growth failure and rickets. Untreated children may have repeated, often unrecognized, neurologic crises lasting one to seven days that can include change in mental status, abdominal pain, peripheral neuropathy, and/or respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Death in the untreated child usually occurs before age ten years, typically from liver failure, neurologic crisis, or hepatocellular carcinoma. Combined treatment with nitisinone and a low-tyrosine diet has resulted in a greater than 90% survival rate, normal growth, improved liver function, prevention of cirrhosis, correction of renal tubular acidosis, and improvement in secondary rickets. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
75688
Concept ID:
C0268490
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Nephropathic cystinosis

Cystinosis comprises three allelic phenotypes: Nephropathic cystinosis in untreated children is characterized by renal Fanconi syndrome, poor growth, hypophosphatemic/calcipenic rickets, impaired glomerular function resulting in complete glomerular failure, and accumulation of cystine in almost all cells, leading to cellular dysfunction with tissue and organ impairment. The typical untreated child has short stature, rickets, and photophobia. Failure to thrive is generally noticed after approximately age six months; signs of renal tubular Fanconi syndrome (polyuria, polydipsia, dehydration, and acidosis) appear as early as age six months; corneal crystals can be present before age one year and are always present after age 16 months. Prior to the use of renal transplantation and cystine-depleting therapy, the life span in nephropathic cystinosis was no longer than ten years. With these interventions, affected individuals can survive at least into the mid-forties or fifties with satisfactory quality of life. Intermediate cystinosis is characterized by all the typical manifestations of nephropathic cystinosis, but onset is at a later age. Renal glomerular failure occurs in all untreated affected individuals, usually between ages 15 and 25 years. The non-nephropathic (ocular) form of cystinosis is characterized clinically only by photophobia resulting from corneal cystine crystal accumulation. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
419735
Concept ID:
C2931187
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Familial X-linked hypophosphatemic vitamin D refractory rickets

The phenotypic spectrum of X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) ranges from isolated hypophosphatemia to severe lower-extremity bowing. XLH frequently manifests in the first two years of life when lower-extremity bowing becomes evident with the onset of weight bearing; however, it sometimes is not manifest until adulthood, as previously unevaluated short stature. In adults, enthesopathy (calcification of the tendons, ligaments, and joint capsules) associated with joint pain and impaired mobility may be the initial presenting complaint. Persons with XLH are prone to spontaneous dental abscesses; sensorineural hearing loss has also been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
196551
Concept ID:
C0733682
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Arterial calcification, generalized, of infancy, 1

Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) is characterized by infantile onset of widespread arterial calcification and/or narrowing of large and medium-sized vessels resulting in cardiovascular findings (which can include heart failure, respiratory distress, edema, cyanosis, hypertension, and/or cardiomegaly). Additional findings can include typical skin and retinal manifestations of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), periarticular calcifications, development of rickets after infancy, cervical spine fusion, and hearing loss. While mortality in infancy is high, survival into the third and fourth decades has occurred. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1631685
Concept ID:
C4551985
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Linear nevus sebaceous syndrome

Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims syndrome, also known as linear sebaceous nevus syndrome, is characterized by sebaceous nevi, often on the face, associated with variable ipsilateral abnormalities of the central nervous system, ocular anomalies, and skeletal defects (summary by Happle, 1991 and Ernst et al., 2007). The linear sebaceous nevi follow the lines of Blaschko (Hornstein and Knickenberg, 1974; Bouwes Bavinck and van de Kamp, 1985). All cases are sporadic. The syndrome is believed to be caused by an autosomal dominant lethal mutation that survives by somatic mosaicism (Gorlin et al., 2001). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1646345
Concept ID:
C4552097
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets

Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) is characterized by isolated renal phosphate wasting, hypophosphatemia, and inappropriately normal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) levels. Patients frequently present with bone pain, rickets, and tooth abscesses. In contrast to X-linked dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH; 307800), ADHR shows incomplete penetrance, variable age at onset (childhood to adult), and resolution of the phosphate-wasting defect in rare cases (Econs et al., 1997). See also hypophosphatemic bone disease (146350). Genetic Heterogeneity of Hypophosphatemic Rickets Other forms of hypophosphatemic rickets include autosomal recessive forms, i.e., ARHR1 (241520), caused by mutation in the DMP1 gene (600980) on chromosome 4q21, and ARHR2 (613312), caused by mutation in the ENPP1 gene (173335) on chromosome 6q23. An X-linked dominant form (XLHR; 307800) is caused by mutation in the PHEX gene (300550), and an X-linked recessive form (300554) is caused by mutation in the CLCN5 gene (300008). Clinical Variability of Hypophosphatemic Rickets Hypophosphatemic rickets can be caused by disorders of vitamin D metabolism or action (see VDDR1A, 264700). A form of hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH; 241530) is caused by mutation in the SLC34A3 gene (609826), and there is evidence that a form of hypophosphatemic rickets with hyperparathyroidism (612089) may be caused by a translocation that results in an increase in alpha-klotho levels (KLOTHO; 604824). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
83346
Concept ID:
C0342642
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Arterial calcification, generalized, of infancy, 2

Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI) is characterized by infantile onset of widespread arterial calcification and/or narrowing of large and medium-sized vessels resulting in cardiovascular findings (which can include heart failure, respiratory distress, edema, cyanosis, hypertension, and/or cardiomegaly). Additional findings can include typical skin and retinal manifestations of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), periarticular calcifications, development of rickets after infancy, cervical spine fusion, and hearing loss. While mortality in infancy is high, survival into the third and fourth decades has occurred. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
477791
Concept ID:
C3276161
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic bone disease

Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the presence of hypophosphatemia secondary to renal phosphate wasting, radiographic and/or histologic evidence of rickets, limb deformities, muscle weakness, and bone pain. HHRH is distinct from other forms of hypophosphatemic rickets in that affected individuals present with hypercalciuria due to increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels and increased intestinal calcium absorption (summary by Bergwitz et al., 2006). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
501133
Concept ID:
C1853271
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Hypophosphatemic rickets, X-linked recessive

X-linked recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (XLHRR) is a form of X-linked hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis, which comprises a group of disorders characterized by proximal renal tubular reabsorptive failure, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and renal insufficiency. These disorders have also been referred to as the 'Dent disease complex' (Scheinman, 1998; Gambaro et al., 2004). For a general discussion of Dent disease, see 300009. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
335115
Concept ID:
C1845168
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Hypophosphatemic rickets, autosomal recessive, 2

Researchers have described several forms of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets, which are distinguished by their pattern of inheritance and genetic cause. The most common form of the disorder is known as X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH). It has an X-linked dominant pattern of inheritance. X-linked recessive, autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive forms of the disorder are much rarer.

Another rare type of the disorder is known as hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH). In addition to hypophosphatemia, this condition is characterized by the excretion of high levels of calcium in the urine (hypercalciuria).

Other signs and symptoms of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets can include premature fusion of the skull bones (craniosynostosis) and dental abnormalities. The disorder may also cause abnormal bone growth where ligaments and tendons attach to joints (enthesopathy). In adults, hypophosphatemia is characterized by a softening of the bones known as osteomalacia.

In most cases, the signs and symptoms of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets begin in early childhood. The features of the disorder vary widely, even among affected members of the same family. Mildly affected individuals may have hypophosphatemia without other signs and symptoms. More severely affected children experience slow growth and are shorter than their peers. They develop bone abnormalities that can interfere with movement and cause bone pain. The most noticeable of these abnormalities are bowed legs or knock knees. These abnormalities become apparent with weight-bearing activities such as walking. If untreated, they tend to worsen with time.

Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets is a disorder related to low levels of phosphate in the blood (hypophosphatemia). Phosphate is a mineral that is essential for the normal formation of bones and teeth. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
442380
Concept ID:
C2750078
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Hypophosphatemic rickets, autosomal recessive, 1

Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets is a disorder related to low levels of phosphate in the blood (hypophosphatemia). Phosphate is a mineral that is essential for the normal formation of bones and teeth.

In most cases, the signs and symptoms of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets begin in early childhood. The features of the disorder vary widely, even among affected members of the same family. Mildly affected individuals may have hypophosphatemia without other signs and symptoms. More severely affected children experience slow growth and are shorter than their peers. They develop bone abnormalities that can interfere with movement and cause bone pain. The most noticeable of these abnormalities are bowed legs or knock knees. These abnormalities become apparent with weight-bearing activities such as walking. If untreated, they tend to worsen with time.

Other signs and symptoms of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets can include premature fusion of the skull bones (craniosynostosis) and dental abnormalities. The disorder may also cause abnormal bone growth where ligaments and tendons attach to joints (enthesopathy). In adults, hypophosphatemia is characterized by a softening of the bones known as osteomalacia.

Another rare type of the disorder is known as hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH). In addition to hypophosphatemia, this condition is characterized by the excretion of high levels of calcium in the urine (hypercalciuria).

Researchers have described several forms of hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets, which are distinguished by their pattern of inheritance and genetic cause. The most common form of the disorder is known as X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH). It has an X-linked dominant pattern of inheritance. X-linked recessive, autosomal dominant, and autosomal recessive forms of the disorder are much rarer. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
1632314
Concept ID:
C4551495
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Fanconi renotubular syndrome 5

Fanconi renotubular syndrome-5 (FRTS5) is a mitochondrial disorder characterized by proximal renotubular dysfunction from birth, followed by progressive kidney disease and pulmonary fibrosis. It occurs only in individuals of Acadian descent (Crocker et al., 1997 and Hartmannova et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Fanconi renotubular syndrome, see FRTS1 (134600). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1711127
Concept ID:
C5394473
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Hypophosphatemic rickets and hyperparathyroidism

MedGen UID:
383131
Concept ID:
C2677524
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 55

Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-55 (COXPD55) is characterized by global developmental delay, hypotonia, short stature, and impaired intellectual development with speech disabilities in childhood. Indolent progressive external ophthalmoplegia phenotype has been described in 1 patient (summary by Olahova et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1806598
Concept ID:
C5676915
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Hypophosphatemic rickets

Rickets due to low serum phosphate concentrations, the cause of which can be nutritional or genetic. This condition is characterized by normal parathyroid hormone concentrations, usually caused by renal phosphate wasting occurring in isolation or as part of a renal tubular disorder, and characterized by resistance to treatment with ultraviolet radiation or vitamin D. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
309957
Concept ID:
C1704375
Disease or Syndrome
Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Supplemental Content

Find related data

Search details

See more...

Recent activity