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1.

Renal cysts and diabetes syndrome

The 17q12 recurrent deletion syndrome is characterized by variable combinations of the three following findings: structural or functional abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract, maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5 (MODY5), and neurodevelopmental or neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., developmental delay, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety, and bipolar disorder). Using a method of data analysis that avoids ascertainment bias, the authors determined that multicystic kidneys and other structural and functional kidney anomalies occur in 85% to 90% of affected individuals, MODY5 in approximately 40%, and some degree of developmental delay or learning disability in approximately 50%. MODY5 is most often diagnosed before age 25 years (range: age 10-50 years). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
96569
Concept ID:
C0431693
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia 14

Primary ciliary dyskinesia-14 (CILD14) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent respiratory infections associated with defects in ciliary inner dynein arms and axonemal disorganization (Merveille et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
462486
Concept ID:
C3151136
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia 12

Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, abnormally positioned internal organs, and the inability to have children (infertility). The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia and flagella. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. They are found in the linings of the airway, the reproductive system, and other organs and tissues. Flagella are tail-like structures, similar to cilia, that propel sperm cells forward.

In the respiratory tract, cilia move back and forth in a coordinated way to move mucus towards the throat. This movement of mucus helps to eliminate fluid, bacteria, and particles from the lungs. Most babies with primary ciliary dyskinesia experience breathing problems at birth, which suggests that cilia play an important role in clearing fetal fluid from the lungs. Beginning in early childhood, affected individuals develop frequent respiratory tract infections. Without properly functioning cilia in the airway, bacteria remain in the respiratory tract and cause infection. People with primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections can result in a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages, called bronchi, leading from the windpipe to the lungs and can cause life-threatening breathing problems.

Some individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have abnormally placed organs within their chest and abdomen. These abnormalities arise early in embryonic development when the differences between the left and right sides of the body are established. About 50 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a mirror-image reversal of their internal organs (situs inversus totalis). For example, in these individuals the heart is on the right side of the body instead of on the left. Situs inversus totalis does not cause any apparent health problems. When someone with primary ciliary dyskinesia has situs inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome.

Approximately 12 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a condition known as heterotaxy syndrome or situs ambiguus, which is characterized by abnormalities of the heart, liver, intestines, or spleen. These organs may be structurally abnormal or improperly positioned. In addition, affected individuals may lack a spleen (asplenia) or have multiple spleens (polysplenia). Heterotaxy syndrome results from problems establishing the left and right sides of the body during embryonic development. The severity of heterotaxy varies widely among affected individuals.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia can also lead to infertility. Vigorous movements of the flagella are necessary to propel the sperm cells forward to the female egg cell. Because their sperm do not move properly, males with primary ciliary dyskinesia are usually unable to father children. Infertility occurs in some affected females and is likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes.

Another feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ear infections (otitis media), especially in young children. Otitis media can lead to permanent hearing loss if untreated. The ear infections are likely related to abnormal cilia within the inner ear.

Rarely, individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have an accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), likely due to abnormal cilia in the brain. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
436379
Concept ID:
C2675228
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia 11

Rarely, individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have an accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), likely due to abnormal cilia in the brain.

Another feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ear infections (otitis media), especially in young children. Otitis media can lead to permanent hearing loss if untreated. The ear infections are likely related to abnormal cilia within the inner ear.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia can also lead to infertility. Vigorous movements of the flagella are necessary to propel the sperm cells forward to the female egg cell. Because their sperm do not move properly, males with primary ciliary dyskinesia are usually unable to father children. Infertility occurs in some affected females and is likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes.

Approximately 12 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a condition known as heterotaxy syndrome or situs ambiguus, which is characterized by abnormalities of the heart, liver, intestines, or spleen. These organs may be structurally abnormal or improperly positioned. In addition, affected individuals may lack a spleen (asplenia) or have multiple spleens (polysplenia). Heterotaxy syndrome results from problems establishing the left and right sides of the body during embryonic development. The severity of heterotaxy varies widely among affected individuals.

Some individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have abnormally placed organs within their chest and abdomen. These abnormalities arise early in embryonic development when the differences between the left and right sides of the body are established. About 50 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a mirror-image reversal of their internal organs (situs inversus totalis). For example, in these individuals the heart is on the right side of the body instead of on the left. Situs inversus totalis does not cause any apparent health problems. When someone with primary ciliary dyskinesia has situs inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome.

In the respiratory tract, cilia move back and forth in a coordinated way to move mucus towards the throat. This movement of mucus helps to eliminate fluid, bacteria, and particles from the lungs. Most babies with primary ciliary dyskinesia experience breathing problems at birth, which suggests that cilia play an important role in clearing fetal fluid from the lungs. Beginning in early childhood, affected individuals develop frequent respiratory tract infections. Without properly functioning cilia in the airway, bacteria remain in the respiratory tract and cause infection. People with primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections can result in a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages, called bronchi, leading from the windpipe to the lungs and can cause life-threatening breathing problems.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, abnormally positioned internal organs, and the inability to have children (infertility). The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia and flagella. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. They are found in the linings of the airway, the reproductive system, and other organs and tissues. Flagella are tail-like structures, similar to cilia, that propel sperm cells forward. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
390741
Concept ID:
C2675229
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia 22

Primary ciliary dyskinesia-22 (CILD22) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective structure and function of cilia or flagella. Ciliary dysfunction causes respiratory distress in term neonates, impaired mucociliary clearance, chronic cough, sinusitis, bronchiectasis, and male infertility. Defective motility of embryonic nodal cilia leads to situs abnormalities in about 50% of patients. CILD22 is characterized by defects of the inner and outer dynein arms (summary by Zariwala et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
815873
Concept ID:
C3809543
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia 26

Primary ciliary dyskinesia-26 is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective ciliary movement. Affected individuals have neonatal respiratory distress, recurrent upper and lower airway disease, and bronchiectasis. About half of patients show laterality defects, including situs inversus totalis. Respiratory cilia from patients show defects in the inner and outer dynein arms (summary by Austin-Tse et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
816014
Concept ID:
C3809684
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia 5

Primary ciliary dyskinesia-5 (CILD5) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early onset of a progressive decline in lung function due to an inability to clear mucus and particles from the airways. Affected individuals have recurrent infections of the sinuses, ears, airways, and lungs. Sperm motility is also decreased. Individuals with CILD5 do not have situs inversus (summary by Olbrich et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
324840
Concept ID:
C1837615
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Axial spondylometaphyseal dysplasia

Axial spondylometaphyseal dysplasia (SMDAX) is characterized by postnatal growth failure, including rhizomelic short stature in early childhood that evolves into short trunk in late childhood, and thoracic hypoplasia that may cause mild to moderate respiratory problems in the neonatal period and later susceptibility to airway infection. Impaired visual acuity comes to medical attention in early life and vision rapidly deteriorates. Retinal changes are diagnosed as retinitis pigmentosa or pigmentary retinal degeneration on funduscopic examination and as cone-rod dystrophy on electroretinogram. Radiologic hallmarks include short ribs with flared and cupped anterior ends, mild spondylar dysplasia, lacy iliac crests, and metaphyseal irregularities essentially confined to the proximal femora (summary by Suzuki et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
356065
Concept ID:
C1865695
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Deafness-infertility syndrome

CATSPER-related male infertility results from abnormalities in sperm and can be either CATSPER-related nonsyndromic male infertility (NSMI) or the deafness-infertility syndrome (DIS) when associated with non-progressive prelingual sensorineural hearing loss. Males with NSMI have infertility while females have no symptoms. Males with DIS have both infertility and hearing loss, while females have only hearing loss. Routine semen analysis typically identifies abnormalities in sperm number, morphology, and motility. Otologic examination and audiologic assessment can identify hearing loss. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
370197
Concept ID:
C1970187
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Spermatogenic failure, Y-linked, 1

Y chromosome infertility is characterized by azoospermia (absence of sperm), severe oligozoospermia (<1 x 106 sperm/mL semen), moderate oligozoospermia (1-5 x 106 sperm/mL semen), or mild oligozoospermia (5-20 x 106 sperm/mL semen). Males with Y chromosome infertility usually have no obvious symptoms, although physical examination may reveal small testes. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1634798
Concept ID:
C4551960
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Spermatogenic failure 18

Spermatogenic failure-18 is a form of male infertility caused by multiple morphologic abnormalities of the sperm flagella (Ben Khelifa et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of spermatogenic failure, see SPGF1 (258150). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1617309
Concept ID:
C4539783
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Spermatogenic failure 7

CATSPER-related male infertility results from abnormalities in sperm and can be either CATSPER-related nonsyndromic male infertility (NSMI) or the deafness-infertility syndrome (DIS) when associated with non-progressive prelingual sensorineural hearing loss. Males with NSMI have infertility while females have no symptoms. Males with DIS have both infertility and hearing loss, while females have only hearing loss. Routine semen analysis typically identifies abnormalities in sperm number, morphology, and motility. Otologic examination and audiologic assessment can identify hearing loss. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
414478
Concept ID:
C2751811
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Retinitis pigmentosa with or without situs inversus

Retinitis pigmentosa-82 with or without situs inversus (RP82) is an autosomal recessive form of retinal degeneration characterized by initial loss of rod photoreceptors, resulting in impaired night vision followed by progressive visual-field constriction as both rod and cone photoreceptors die. Some affected individuals have situs inversus (Davidson et al., 2013; Audo et al., 2017). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1658130
Concept ID:
C4747737
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Spermatogenic failure 11

Any azoospermia in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the KLHL10 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
767367
Concept ID:
C3554453
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Spermatogenic failure 46

Spermatogenic failure-46 (SPGF46) is characterized by male infertility due to asthenoteratozoospermia. Sperm of affected men exhibit multiple morphologic abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF), including flagella that are absent, short, coiled, angulated, and/or of irregular caliber. Ultrastructural analysis shows disorganization of axonemal and periaxonemal structures (Liu et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of spermatogenic failure, see SPGF1 (258150). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1726728
Concept ID:
C5436799
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Spermatogenic failure 3

In spermatogenic failure-3 (SPGF3), primary infertility is associated with nonobstructive asthenozoospermia (Dirami et al., 2013). For a discussion of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of spermatogenic failure, see SPGF1 (258150). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648302
Concept ID:
C4721889
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Spermatogenic failure 43

Spermatogenic failure-43 (SPGF43) is characterized by infertility and spermatozoa lacking progressive motility due to multiple morphologic abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF), including short, absent, coiled, irregular-caliber, and/or bent flagella. Most flagella lack the central pair (9+0 configuration) on ultrastructural analysis (Liu et al., 2019; Sha et al., 2019; Liu et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of spermatogenic failure, see SPGF1 (258150). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1684830
Concept ID:
C5231490
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Spermatogenic failure 27

Spermatogenic failure-27 (SPGF27) is characterized by infertility due to multiple morphologic abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF), a phenotype also designated as 'dysplasia of the fibrous sheath,' 'short tails,' or 'stump tails.' Spermatozoa in the ejaculate exhibit short, irregular, coiled, or absent flagella. Ultrastructural analysis shows loss of the central pair of microtubules, loss of the inner dynein arms, and peripheral doublet disorganization (Lores et al., 2018). For a discussion of the phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of spermatogenic failure, see SPGF1 (258150). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1634748
Concept ID:
C4693784
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Spermatogenic failure 19

Spermatogenic failure-19 is characterized by multiple morphologic abnormalities of the flagella (MMAF), including absent, short, coiled, bent, and irregular-caliber flagella (Tang et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of spermatogenic failure, see SPGF1 (258150). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1614356
Concept ID:
C4539818
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Spermatogenic failure 16

Spermatogenic failure-16 (SPGF16) is characterized by acephalic spermatozoa causing male infertility. Semen from affected men consistently shows nearly 100% abnormally shaped spermatozoa, mostly made up of headless tails, with a small proportion of intact spermatozoa with an abnormal head-tail junction, as well as a few tailless heads. Ultrastructurally, the anomaly involves absence of the implantation fossa and basal plate between the sperm head and the tail (summary by Zhu et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of spermatogenic failure, see SPGF1 (258150). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
934641
Concept ID:
C4310674
Disease or Syndrome
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