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1.

Friedreich ataxia 1

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is characterized by slowly progressive ataxia with onset usually before age 25 years (mean age at onset: 10-15 yrs). FRDA is typically associated with dysarthria, muscle weakness, spasticity particularly in the lower limbs, scoliosis, bladder dysfunction, absent lower-limb reflexes, and loss of position and vibration sense. Approximately two thirds of individuals with FRDA have cardiomyopathy, up to 30% have diabetes mellitus, and approximately 25% have an "atypical" presentation with later onset or retained tendon reflexes. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
383962
Concept ID:
C1856689
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Cobalamin C disease

Disorders of intracellular cobalamin metabolism have a variable phenotype and age of onset that are influenced by the severity and location within the pathway of the defect. The prototype and best understood phenotype is cblC; it is also the most common of these disorders. The age of initial presentation of cblC spans a wide range: In utero with fetal presentation of nonimmune hydrops, cardiomyopathy, and intrauterine growth restriction. Newborns, who can have microcephaly, poor feeding, and encephalopathy. Infants, who can have poor feeding and slow growth, neurologic abnormality, and, rarely, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Toddlers, who can have poor growth, progressive microcephaly, cytopenias (including megaloblastic anemia), global developmental delay, encephalopathy, and neurologic signs such as hypotonia and seizures. Adolescents and adults, who can have neuropsychiatric symptoms, progressive cognitive decline, thromboembolic complications, and/or subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
341256
Concept ID:
C1848561
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Nephropathic cystinosis

Cystinosis comprises three allelic phenotypes: Nephropathic cystinosis in untreated children is characterized by renal Fanconi syndrome, poor growth, hypophosphatemic/calcipenic rickets, impaired glomerular function resulting in complete glomerular failure, and accumulation of cystine in almost all cells, leading to cellular dysfunction with tissue and organ impairment. The typical untreated child has short stature, rickets, and photophobia. Failure to thrive is generally noticed after approximately age six months; signs of renal tubular Fanconi syndrome (polyuria, polydipsia, dehydration, and acidosis) appear as early as age six months; corneal crystals can be present before age one year and are always present after age 16 months. Prior to the use of renal transplantation and cystine-depleting therapy, the life span in nephropathic cystinosis was no longer than ten years. With these interventions, affected individuals can survive at least into the mid-forties or fifties with satisfactory quality of life. Intermediate cystinosis is characterized by all the typical manifestations of nephropathic cystinosis, but onset is at a later age. Renal glomerular failure occurs in all untreated affected individuals, usually between ages 15 and 25 years. The non-nephropathic (ocular) form of cystinosis is characterized clinically only by photophobia resulting from corneal cystine crystal accumulation. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
419735
Concept ID:
C2931187
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Bardet-Biedl syndrome 1

Bardet-Biedl syndrome is an autosomal recessive and genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, kidney dysfunction, polydactyly, behavioral dysfunction, and hypogonadism (summary by Beales et al., 1999). Eight proteins implicated in the disorder assemble to form the BBSome, a stable complex involved in signaling receptor trafficking to and from cilia (summary by Scheidecker et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome BBS2 (615981) is caused by mutation in a gene on 16q13 (606151); BBS3 (600151), by mutation in the ARL6 gene on 3q11 (608845); BBS4 (615982), by mutation in a gene on 15q22 (600374); BBS5 (615983), by mutation in a gene on 2q31 (603650); BBS6 (605231), by mutation in the MKKS gene on 20p12 (604896); BBS7 (615984), by mutation in a gene on 4q27 (607590); BBS8 (615985), by mutation in the TTC8 gene on 14q32 (608132); BBS9 (615986), by mutation in a gene on 7p14 (607968); BBS10 (615987), by mutation in a gene on 12q21 (610148); BBS11 (615988), by mutation in the TRIM32 gene on 9q33 (602290); BBS12 (615989), by mutation in a gene on 4q27 (610683); BBS13 (615990), by mutation in the MKS1 gene (609883) on 17q23; BBS14 (615991), by mutation in the CEP290 gene (610142) on 12q21, BBS15 (615992), by mutation in the WDPCP gene (613580) on 2p15; BBS16 (615993), by mutation in the SDCCAG8 gene (613524) on 1q43; BBS17 (615994), by mutation in the LZTFL1 gene (606568) on 3p21; BBS18 (615995), by mutation in the BBIP1 gene (613605) on 10q25; BBS19 (615996), by mutation in the IFT27 gene (615870) on 22q12; BBS20 (619471), by mutation in the IFT172 gene (607386) on 9p21; BBS21 (617406), by mutation in the CFAP418 gene (614477) on 8q22; and BBS22 (617119), by mutation in the IFT74 gene (608040) on 9p21. The CCDC28B gene (610162) modifies the expression of BBS phenotypes in patients who have mutations in other genes. Mutations in MKS1, MKS3 (TMEM67; 609884), and C2ORF86 also modify the expression of BBS phenotypes in patients who have mutations in other genes. Although BBS had originally been thought to be a recessive disorder, Katsanis et al. (2001) demonstrated that clinical manifestation of some forms of Bardet-Biedl syndrome requires recessive mutations in 1 of the 6 loci plus an additional mutation in a second locus. While Katsanis et al. (2001) called this 'triallelic inheritance,' Burghes et al. (2001) suggested the term 'recessive inheritance with a modifier of penetrance.' Mykytyn et al. (2002) found no evidence of involvement of the common BBS1 mutation in triallelic inheritance. However, Fan et al. (2004) found heterozygosity in a mutation of the BBS3 gene (608845.0002) as an apparent modifier of the expression of homozygosity of the met390-to-arg mutation in the BBS1 gene (209901.0001). Allelic disorders include nonsyndromic forms of retinitis pigmentosa: RP51 (613464), caused by TTC8 mutation, and RP55 (613575), caused by ARL6 mutation. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
422452
Concept ID:
C2936862
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Chédiak-Higashi syndrome

Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is characterized by partial oculocutaneous albinism, immunodeficiency, and a mild bleeding tendency. Approximately 85% of affected individuals develop the accelerated phase, or hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, a life-threatening, hyperinflammatory condition. All affected individuals including adolescents and adults with atypical CHS and children with classic CHS who have successfully undergone allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) develop neurologic findings during early adulthood. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
3347
Concept ID:
C0007965
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Autosomal recessive inherited pseudoxanthoma elasticum

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a systemic disorder that affects the elastic tissue of the skin, the eye, and vascular system. Individuals most commonly present with angioid streaks of the retina found on routine eye examination or associated with retinal hemorrhage and/or characteristic papules in the skin. The most frequent cause of morbidity and disability in PXE is reduced vision due to complications of subretinal neovascularizations and macular atrophy. Other manifestations include premature gastrointestinal angina and/or bleeding, intermittent claudication of arm and leg muscles, stroke, renovascular hypertension, and cardiovascular complications (angina/myocardial infarction). Most affected individuals live a normal life span. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
698415
Concept ID:
C1275116
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Cohen syndrome

Cohen syndrome is characterized by failure to thrive in infancy and childhood; truncal obesity in the teen years; early-onset hypotonia and developmental delays; microcephaly developing during the first year of life; moderate to profound psychomotor retardation; progressive retinochoroidal dystrophy and high myopia; neutropenia in many with recurrent infections and aphthous ulcers in some; a cheerful disposition; joint hypermobility; and characteristic facial features. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78539
Concept ID:
C0265223
Congenital Abnormality
8.

Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism

Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism (OCA, type II; OCA2) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin pigment is reduced in skin, hair, and eyes. Although affected infants may appear at birth to have OCA type I, or complete absence of melanin pigment, most patients with OCA type II acquire small amounts of pigment with age. Individuals with OCA type II have the characteristic visual anomalies associated with albinism, including decreased acuity and nystagmus, which are usually less severe than in OCA type I (Lee et al., 1994; King et al., 2001). OCA type II has a highly variable phenotype. The hair of affected individuals may turn darker with age, and pigmented nevi or freckles may be seen. African and African American individuals may have yellow hair and blue-gray or hazel irides. One phenotypic variant, 'brown OCA,' has been described in African and African American populations and is characterized by light brown hair and skin color and gray to tan irides. The hair and irides may turn darker with time and the skin may tan with sun exposure; the ocular features of albinism are present in all variants (King et al., 2001). In addition, previous reports of so-called 'autosomal recessive ocular albinism,' (see, e.g., Witkop et al., 1978 and O'Donnell et al., 1978) with little or no obvious skin involvement, are now considered most likely to be part of the phenotypic spectrum of OCA1 or OCA2 (Lee et al., 1994; King et al., 2001). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
82810
Concept ID:
C0268495
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 3

The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure (Mole et al., 2005). The hallmark of CLN3 is the ultrastructural pattern of lipopigment with a 'fingerprint' profile, which can have 3 different appearances: pure within a lysosomal residual body; in conjunction with curvilinear or rectilinear profiles; and as a small component within large membrane-bound lysosomal vacuoles. The combination of fingerprint profiles within lysosomal vacuoles is a regular feature of blood lymphocytes from patients with CLN3 (Mole et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
155549
Concept ID:
C0751383
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, type 1

Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I is characterized by the presence of 2 of 3 major clinical symptoms: Addison disease, and/or hypoparathyroidism, and/or chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (Neufeld et al., 1981). However, variable APS1 phenotypes have been observed, even among sibs. In addition, some patients may exhibit apparent isolated hypoparathyroidism, an early manifestation of APS1 with peak incidence at around age 5 years; over longterm follow-up, the development of additional features of APS1 may be observed (Cranston et al., 2022). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
39125
Concept ID:
C0085859
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Retinitis pigmentosa 4

Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the RHO gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
462351
Concept ID:
C3151001
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Retinitis pigmentosa 3

X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) is a severe form of inherited retinal degeneration that primarily affects the rod photoreceptors (Demirci et al., 2002). It typically causes an early-onset night blindness and loss of peripheral vision, often causing patients to become legally blind by the age of 30 to 40 years. In RP3, affected males have a severe phenotype, and carrier females show a wide spectrum of clinical features ranging from completely asymptomatic to severe RP (Jin et al., 2007). Mutation in the RPGR gene is believed to account for approximately 70% of XLRP (Vervoort et al., 2000). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
336999
Concept ID:
C1845667
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Leber congenital amaurosis 1

Leber congenital amaurosis, also known as LCA, is an eye disorder that is present from birth (congenital). This condition primarily affects the retina, which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this disorder typically have severe visual impairment beginning at birth or shortly afterward. The visual impairment tends to be severe and may worsen over time.

Leber congenital amaurosis is also associated with other vision problems, including an increased sensitivity to light (photophobia), involuntary movements of the eyes (nystagmus), and extreme farsightedness (hyperopia). The pupils, which usually expand and contract in response to the amount of light entering the eye, do not react normally to light. Instead, they expand and contract more slowly than normal, or they may not respond to light at all.

A specific behavior called Franceschetti's oculo-digital sign is characteristic of Leber congenital amaurosis. This sign consists of affected individuals poking, pressing, and rubbing their eyes with a knuckle or finger. Poking their eyes often results in the sensation of flashes of light called phosphenes. Researchers suspect that this behavior may contribute to deep-set eyes in affected children.

In very rare cases, delayed development and intellectual disability have been reported in people with the features of Leber congenital amaurosis. Because of the visual loss, affected children may become isolated. Providing children with opportunities to play, hear, touch, understand and other early educational interventions may prevent developmental delays in children with Leber congenital amaurosis.

At least 20 genetic types of Leber congenital amaurosis have been described. The types are distinguished by their genetic cause, patterns of vision loss, and related eye abnormalities. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
419026
Concept ID:
C2931258
Disease or Syndrome
14.

3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type 3

Costeff syndrome is characterized by optic atrophy and/or choreoathetoid movement disorder with onset before age ten years. Optic atrophy is associated with progressive decrease in visual acuity within the first years of life, sometimes associated with infantile-onset horizontal nystagmus. Most individuals have chorea, often severe enough to restrict ambulation. Some are confined to a wheelchair from an early age. Although most individuals develop spastic paraparesis, mild ataxia, and occasional mild cognitive deficit in their second decade, the course of the disease is relatively stable. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
108273
Concept ID:
C0574084
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Vitelliform macular dystrophy 2

Bestrophinopathies, the spectrum of ophthalmic disorders caused by pathogenic variants in BEST1, are typically characterized by retinal degeneration. The four recognized phenotypes are the three autosomal dominant disorders: Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD), BEST1 adult-onset vitelliform macular dystrophy (AVMD), and autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy (ADVIRC); and autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB). Onset is usually in the first decade (except AVMD in which onset is age 30 to 50 years). Slow visual deterioration is the usual course. Choroidal neovascularization can occur in rare cases. ADVIRC is also associated with panophthalmic involvement including nanophthalmos, microcornea, hyperopia, and narrow anterior chamber angle with angle closure glaucoma. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
411553
Concept ID:
C2745945
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Lowe syndrome

Lowe syndrome (oculocerebrorenal syndrome) is characterized by involvement of the eyes, central nervous system, and kidneys. Dense congenital cataracts are found in all affected boys and infantile glaucoma in approximately 50%. All boys have impaired vision; corrected acuity is rarely better than 20/100. Generalized hypotonia is noted at birth and is of central (brain) origin. Deep tendon reflexes are usually absent. Hypotonia may slowly improve with age, but normal motor tone and strength are never achieved. Motor milestones are delayed. Almost all affected males have some degree of intellectual disability; 10%-25% function in the low-normal or borderline range, approximately 25% in the mild-to-moderate range, and 50%-65% in the severe-to-profound range of intellectual disability. Affected males have varying degrees of proximal renal tubular dysfunction of the Fanconi type, including low molecular-weight (LMW) proteinuria, aminoaciduria, bicarbonate wasting and renal tubular acidosis, phosphaturia with hypophosphatemia and renal rickets, hypercalciuria, sodium and potassium wasting, and polyuria. The features of symptomatic Fanconi syndrome do not usually become manifest until after the first few months of life, except for LMW proteinuria. Glomerulosclerosis associated with chronic tubular injury usually results in slowly progressive chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease between the second and fourth decades of life. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
18145
Concept ID:
C0028860
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Tyrosinase-negative oculocutaneous albinism

Oculocutaneous albinism is a group of conditions that affect coloring (pigmentation) of the skin, hair, and eyes. Affected individuals typically have very fair skin and white or light-colored hair. Long-term sun exposure greatly increases the risk of skin damage and skin cancers, including an aggressive form of skin cancer called melanoma, in people with this condition. Oculocutaneous albinism also reduces pigmentation of the colored part of the eye (the iris) and the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (the retina). People with this condition usually have vision problems such as reduced sharpness; rapid, involuntary eye movements (nystagmus); and increased sensitivity to light (photophobia).

Researchers have identified multiple types of oculocutaneous albinism, which are distinguished by their specific skin, hair, and eye color changes and by their genetic cause. Oculocutaneous albinism type 1 is characterized by white hair, very pale skin, and light-colored irises. Type 2 is typically less severe than type 1; the skin is usually a creamy white color and hair may be light yellow, blond, or light brown. Type 3 includes a form of albinism called rufous oculocutaneous albinism, which usually affects dark-skinned people. Affected individuals have reddish-brown skin, ginger or red hair, and hazel or brown irises. Type 3 is often associated with milder vision abnormalities than the other forms of oculocutaneous albinism. Type 4 has signs and symptoms similar to those seen with type 2.

Several additional types of this disorder have been proposed, each affecting one or a few families. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
1643910
Concept ID:
C4551504
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Autosomal dominant optic atrophy classic form

Optic atrophy type 1 (OPA1, or Kjer type optic atrophy) is characterized by bilateral and symmetric optic nerve pallor associated with insidious decrease in visual acuity (usually between ages 4 and 6 years), visual field defects, and color vision defects. Visual impairment is usually moderate (6/10 to 2/10), but ranges from mild or even insignificant to severe (legal blindness with acuity <1/20). The visual field defect is typically centrocecal, central, or paracentral; it is often large in those with severe disease. The color vision defect is often described as acquired blue-yellow loss (tritanopia). Other findings can include auditory neuropathy resulting in sensorineural hearing loss that ranges from severe and congenital to subclinical (i.e., identified by specific audiologic testing only). Visual evoked potentials are typically absent or delayed; pattern electroretinogram shows an abnormal N95:P50 ratio. Tritanopia is the classic feature of color vision defect, but more diffuse nonspecific dyschromatopsia is not uncommon. Ophthalmoscopic examination discloses temporal or diffuse pallor of the optic discs, sometimes associated with optic disc excavation. The neuroretinal rim shows some pallor in most cases, sometimes associated with a temporal pigmentary gray crescent. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
137902
Concept ID:
C0338508
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Focal dermal hypoplasia

Focal dermal hypoplasia is a multisystem disorder characterized primarily by involvement of the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. Skin manifestations present at birth include atrophic and hypoplastic areas of skin; cutis aplasia; fat nodules in the dermis manifesting as soft, yellow-pink cutaneous nodules; and pigmentary changes. Verrucoid papillomas of the skin and mucous membranes may appear later. The nails can be ridged, dysplastic, or hypoplastic; hair can be sparse or absent. Limb malformations include oligo-/syndactyly and split hand/foot. Developmental abnormalities of the eye can include anophthalmia/microphthalmia, iris and chorioretinal coloboma, and lacrimal duct abnormalities. Craniofacial findings can include facial asymmetry, notched alae nasi, cleft lip and palate, and pointed chin. Occasional findings include dental anomalies, abdominal wall defects, diaphragmatic hernia, and renal anomalies. Psychomotor development is usually normal; some individuals have cognitive impairment. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
42055
Concept ID:
C0016395
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Leber congenital amaurosis 2

RPE65-related Leber congenital amaurosis / early-onset severe retinal dystrophy (RPE65-LCA/EOSRD) is a severe inherited retinal degeneration (IRD) with a typical presentation between birth and age five years. While central vision varies, the hallmark of this disorder is the presence of severe visual impairment with a deceptively preserved retinal structure. Vision is relatively stable in the first decade of life, but begins to decline in adolescence. Most affected individuals are legally blind (visual acuity 20/200 and/or visual fields extending <20 degrees from fixation) by age 20 years. After age 20 years, visual acuity declines further and by the fourth decade all affected individuals are legally blind and many have complete loss of vision (i.e., no light perception). Milder disease phenotypes have been described in individuals with hypomorphic alleles. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
348473
Concept ID:
C1859844
Disease or Syndrome
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