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1.

Metachromatic leukodystrophy

Arylsulfatase A deficiency (also known as metachromatic leukodystrophy or MLD) is characterized by three clinical subtypes: late-infantile MLD, juvenile MLD, and adult MLD. Age of onset within a family is usually similar. The disease course may be from several years in the late-infantile-onset form to decades in the juvenile- and adult-onset forms. Late-infantile MLD. Onset is before age 30 months. Typical presenting findings include weakness, hypotonia, clumsiness, frequent falls, toe walking, and dysarthria. As the disease progresses, language, cognitive, and gross and fine motor skills regress. Later signs include spasticity, pain, seizures, and compromised vision and hearing. In the final stages, children have tonic spasms, decerebrate posturing, and general unawareness of their surroundings. Juvenile MLD. Onset is between age 30 months and 16 years. Initial manifestations include decline in school performance and emergence of behavioral problems, followed by gait disturbances. Progression is similar to but slower than in the late-infantile form. Adult MLD. Onset occurs after age 16 years, sometimes not until the fourth or fifth decade. Initial signs can include problems in school or job performance, personality changes, emotional lability, or psychosis; in others, neurologic symptoms (weakness and loss of coordination progressing to spasticity and incontinence) or seizures initially predominate. Peripheral neuropathy is common. Disease course is variable – with periods of stability interspersed with periods of decline – and may extend over two to three decades. The final stage is similar to earlier-onset forms. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
6071
Concept ID:
C0023522
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency

Dihyropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency (DPYDD) shows large phenotypic variability, ranging from no symptoms to a convulsive disorder with motor and mental retardation in homozygous patients. In addition, homozygous and heterozygous mutation carriers can develop severe toxicity after the administration of the antineoplastic drug 5-fluorouracil (5FU), which is also catabolized by the DPYD enzyme. This is an example of a pharmacogenetic disorder (Van Kuilenburg et al., 1999). Since there is no correlation between genotype and phenotype in DPD deficiency, it appears that the deficiency is a necessary, but not sufficient, prerequisite for the development of clinical abnormalities (Van Kuilenburg et al., 1999; Enns et al., 2004). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
409522
Concept ID:
C1959620
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Alternating hemiplegia of childhood 2

ATP1A3-related neurologic disorders represent a clinical continuum in which at least three distinct phenotypes have been delineated: rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP); alternating hemiplegia of childhood (ACH); and cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss (CAPOS). However, some affected individuals have intermediate phenotypes or only a few features that do not fit well into one of these major phenotypes. RDP has been characterized by: abrupt onset of dystonia over days to weeks with parkinsonism (primarily bradykinesia and postural instability); common bulbar involvement; and absence or minimal response to an adequate trial of L-dopa therapy, with few exceptions. Often fever, physiologic stress, or alcoholic binges trigger the onset of symptoms. After their initial appearance, symptoms often stabilize with little improvement; occasionally second episodes occur with abrupt worsening of symptoms. Rarely, affected individuals have reported a more gradual onset of symptoms over weeks to months. Anxiety, depression, and seizures have been reported. Age of onset ranges from four to 55 years, although a childhood variation of RDP with onset between ages nine and 14 months has been reported. AHC is a complex neurodevelopmental syndrome most frequently manifesting in infancy or early childhood with paroxysmal episodic neurologic dysfunction including alternating hemiparesis or dystonia, quadriparesis, seizure-like episodes, and oculomotor abnormalities. Episodes can last for minutes, hours, days, or even weeks. Remission of symptoms occurs with sleep and immediately after awakening. Over time, persistent neurologic deficits including oculomotor apraxia, ataxia, choreoathetosis, dystonia, parkinsonism, and cognitive and behavioral dysfunction develop in the majority of those affected; more than 50% develop epilepsy in addition to their episodic movement disorder phenotype. CAPOS (cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss) syndrome is characterized by episodes of ataxic encephalopathy and/or weakness during and after a febrile illness. Onset is between ages six months and four years. Some acute symptoms resolve; progression of sensory losses and severity vary. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
766702
Concept ID:
C3553788
Disease or Syndrome
4.

DK1-congenital disorder of glycosylation

DOLK-congenital disorder of glycosylation (DOLK-CDG, formerly known as congenital disorder of glycosylation type Im) is an inherited condition that often affects the heart but can also involve other body systems. The pattern and severity of this disorder's signs and symptoms vary among affected individuals.

Individuals with DOLK-CDG typically develop signs and symptoms of the condition during infancy or early childhood. Nearly all individuals with DOLK-CDG develop a weakened and enlarged heart (dilated cardiomyopathy). Other frequent signs and symptoms include recurrent seizures; developmental delay; poor muscle tone (hypotonia); and dry, scaly skin (ichthyosis). Less commonly, affected individuals can have distinctive facial features, kidney disease, hormonal abnormalities, or eye problems.

Individuals with DOLK-CDG typically do not survive into adulthood, often because of complications related to dilated cardiomyopathy, and some do not survive past infancy. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
332072
Concept ID:
C1835849
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Arts syndrome

Arts syndrome, which is part of the spectrum of PRPS1-related disorders, is characterized by profound congenital sensorineural hearing impairment, early-onset hypotonia, delayed motor development, mild to moderate intellectual disability, ataxia, and increased risk of infection, all of which – with the exception of optic atrophy – present before age two years. Signs of peripheral neuropathy develop during early childhood. Twelve of 15 boys from the two Dutch families reported with Arts syndrome died before age six years of complications of infection. Carrier females can show late-onset (age >20 years) hearing impairment and other findings. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
163205
Concept ID:
C0796028
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 2

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-2 (FHL2) is an autosomal recessive disorder of immune dysregulation with onset in infancy or early childhood. It is characterized clinically by fever, edema, hepatosplenomegaly, and liver dysfunction. Neurologic impairment, seizures, and ataxia are frequent. Laboratory studies show pancytopenia, coagulation abnormalities, hypofibrinogenemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. There is increased production of cytokines, such as gamma-interferon (IFNG; 147570) and TNF-alpha (191160), by hyperactivation and proliferation of T cells and macrophages. Activity of cytotoxic T cells and NK cells is reduced, consistent with a defect in cellular cytotoxicity. Bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver show features of hemophagocytosis. Chemotherapy and/or immunosuppressant therapy may result in symptomatic remission, but the disorder is fatal without bone marrow transplantation (summary by Dufourcq-Lagelouse et al., 1999, Stepp et al., 1999, and Molleran Lee et al., 2004). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FHL, see 267700. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
400366
Concept ID:
C1863727
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 1

Familial Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by a macrophage activation syndrome with an onset usually occurring within a few months or less common several years after birth. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
1642840
Concept ID:
C4551514
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Corpus callosum agenesis-abnormal genitalia syndrome

Proud syndrome is an X-linked developmental disorder characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum, severe mental retardation, seizures, and spasticity. Males are severely affected, whereas females may be unaffected or have a milder phenotype (Proud et al., 1992). Proud syndrome is part of a phenotypic spectrum of disorders caused by mutation in the ARX gene comprising a nearly continuous series of developmental disorders ranging from lissencephaly (LISX2; 300215) to Proud syndrome to infantile spasms without brain malformations (DEE1; 308350) to syndromic (309510) and nonsyndromic (300419) mental retardation (Kato et al., 2004; Wallerstein et al., 2008). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
163217
Concept ID:
C0796124
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 14

KCNT1-related epilepsy is most often associated with two phenotypes: epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) and autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE). EIMFS is characterized by seizures, typically focal and asynchronous, beginning in the first six months of life with associated developmental plateau or regression. Autonomic manifestations (e.g., perioral cyanosis, flushing, apnea) are common. Seizures are intractable to multiple anticonvulsants and progress to become nearly continuous by age six to nine months. ADNFLE is characterized by clusters of nocturnal motor seizures that vary from simple arousals to hyperkinetic events with tonic or dystonic features. Individuals with KCNT1-related ADNFLE are more likely to develop seizures at a younger age, have cognitive comorbidity, and display psychiatric and behavioral problems than individuals with ADNFLE resulting from other causes. Less common seizure phenotypes in individuals with KCNT1-related epilepsy include West syndrome, Ohtahara syndrome, early myoclonic encephalopathy, leukodystrophy and/or leukoencephalopathy, focal epilepsy, and multifocal epilepsy. Additional neurologic features include hypotonia, microcephaly developing by age 12 months, strabismus, profound developmental delay, and additional movement disorders. Other systemic manifestations including pulmonary hemorrhage caused by prominent systemic-to-pulmonary collateral arteries or cardiac arrhythmia have been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
767109
Concept ID:
C3554195
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Mosaic variegated aneuploidy syndrome 1

Mosaic variegated aneuploidy (MVA) syndrome is a rare disorder in which some cells in the body have an abnormal number of chromosomes instead of the usual 46 chromosomes, a situation known as aneuploidy. Most commonly, cells have an extra chromosome, which is called trisomy, or are missing a chromosome, which is known as monosomy. In MVA syndrome, some cells are aneuploid and others have the normal number of chromosomes, which is a phenomenon known as mosaicism. Typically, at least one-quarter of cells in affected individuals have an abnormal number of chromosomes. Because the additional or missing chromosomes vary among the abnormal cells, the aneuploidy is described as variegated.

There are at least three types of MVA syndrome, each with a different genetic cause. Type 1 is the most common and displays the classic signs and symptoms described above. Type 2 appears to have slightly different signs and symptoms than type 1, although the small number of affected individuals makes it difficult to define its characteristic features. Individuals with MVA syndrome type 2 grow slowly before and after birth; however, their head size is typically normal. Some people with MVA syndrome type 2 have unusually short arms. Individuals with MVA syndrome type 2 do not seem to have an increased risk of cancer. Another form of MVA syndrome is characterized by a high risk of developing Wilms tumor. Individuals with this form may also have other signs and symptoms typical of MVA syndrome type 1.

In MVA syndrome, growth before birth is slow (intrauterine growth restriction). After birth, affected individuals continue to grow at a slow rate and are shorter than average. In addition, they typically have an unusually small head size (microcephaly). Another common feature of MVA syndrome is an increased risk of developing cancer in childhood. Cancers that occur most frequently in affected individuals include a cancer of muscle tissue called rhabdomyosarcoma, a form of kidney cancer known as Wilms tumor, and a cancer of the blood-forming tissue known as leukemia.

Less commonly, people with MVA syndrome have eye abnormalities or distinctive facial features, such as a broad nasal bridge and low-set ears. Some affected individuals have brain abnormalities, the most common of which is called Dandy-Walker malformation. Intellectual disability, seizures, and other health problems can also occur in people with MVA syndrome. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
338026
Concept ID:
C1850343
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 7

Most characteristically, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) manifests as an early-onset encephalopathy that usually, but not always, results in severe intellectual and physical disability. A subgroup of infants with AGS present at birth with abnormal neurologic findings, hepatosplenomegaly, elevated liver enzymes, and thrombocytopenia, a picture highly suggestive of congenital infection. Otherwise, most affected infants present at variable times after the first few weeks of life, frequently after a period of apparently normal development. Typically, they demonstrate the subacute onset of a severe encephalopathy characterized by extreme irritability, intermittent sterile pyrexias, loss of skills, and slowing of head growth. Over time, as many as 40% develop chilblain skin lesions on the fingers, toes, and ears. It is becoming apparent that atypical, sometimes milder, cases of AGS exist, and thus the true extent of the phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in the AGS-related genes is not yet known. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
854829
Concept ID:
C3888244
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic paralysis

ALS2-related disorder involves retrograde degeneration of the upper motor neurons of the pyramidal tracts and comprises a clinical continuum of the following three phenotypes: Infantile ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia (IAHSP), characterized by onset of spasticity with increased reflexes and sustained clonus of the lower limbs within the first two years of life, progressive weakness and spasticity of the upper limbs by age seven to eight years, and wheelchair dependence in the second decade with progression toward severe spastic tetraparesis and a pseudobulbar syndrome caused by progressive cranial nerve involvement. Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis (JPLS), characterized by upper motor neuron findings of pseudobulbar palsy and spastic quadriplegia without dementia or cerebellar, extrapyramidal, or sensory signs. Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (JALS or ALS2), characterized by onset between ages three and 20 years. All affected individuals show a spastic pseudobulbar syndrome (spasticity of speech and swallowing) together with spastic paraplegia. Some individuals are bedridden by age 12 to 50 years. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
419413
Concept ID:
C2931441
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Severe X-linked mitochondrial encephalomyopathy

Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-6 (COXPD6) is an X-linked recessive severe encephalomyopathic disorder with onset in utero or in infancy. Affected patients have hypotonia and severely impaired psychomotor development associated with variably decreased enzymatic activity of mitochondrial respiratory complexes in skeletal muscle or fibroblasts. More variable features may include sensorimotor neuropathy, seizures, severe muscle weakness, abnormal signals in the basal ganglia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, deafness, swallowing difficulties, and respiratory insufficiency. Death in childhood may occur (summary by Berger et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
463103
Concept ID:
C3151753
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Familial acute necrotizing encephalopathy

Acute necrotizing encephalopathy type 1, also known as susceptibility to infection-induced acute encephalopathy 3 or IIAE3, is a rare type of brain disease (encephalopathy) that occurs following a viral infection such as the flu.

Acute necrotizing encephalopathy type 1 typically appears in infancy or early childhood, although some people do not develop the condition until adolescence or adulthood. People with this condition usually show typical symptoms of an infection, such as fever, cough, congestion, vomiting, and diarrhea, for a few days. Following these flu-like symptoms, affected individuals develop neurological problems, such as seizures, hallucinations, difficulty coordinating movements (ataxia), or abnormal muscle tone. Eventually, most affected individuals go into a coma, which usually lasts for a number of weeks. The condition is described as "acute" because the episodes of illness are time-limited.

People with acute necrotizing encephalopathy type 1 develop areas of damage (lesions) in certain regions of the brain. As the condition progresses, these brain regions develop swelling (edema), bleeding (hemorrhage), and then tissue death (necrosis). The progressive brain damage and tissue loss results in encephalopathy.

Approximately one-third of individuals with acute necrotizing encephalopathy type 1 do not survive their illness and subsequent neurological decline. Of those who do survive, about half have permanent brain damage due to tissue necrosis, resulting in impairments in walking, speech, and other basic functions. Over time, many of these skills may be regained, but the loss of brain tissue is permanent. Other individuals who survive their illness appear to recover completely.

It is estimated that half of individuals with acute necrotizing encephalopathy type 1 are susceptible to recurrent episodes and will have another infection that results in neurological decline; some people may have numerous episodes throughout their lives. Neurological function worsens following each episode as more brain tissue is damaged. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
382634
Concept ID:
C2675556
Finding
15.

Autosomal recessive complex spastic paraplegia type 9B

Autosomal recessive SPG9B is a neurologic disorder characterized by early-onset complex spastic paraplegia. Affected individuals had delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, and severe motor impairment. More variable features include dysmorphic facial features, tremor, and urinary incontinence (summary by Coutelier et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive SPG, see SPG5A (270800). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1800403
Concept ID:
C5568980
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, Okinawa type

Okinawa-type hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSNO) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by young adult onset of proximal or distal muscle weakness and atrophy, muscle cramps, and fasciculations, with later onset of distal sensory impairment. The disorder is slowly progressive and clinically resembles amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; see 105400) (summary by Ishiura et al., 2012). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
346886
Concept ID:
C1858338
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Progressive encephalopathy with leukodystrophy due to DECR deficiency

2,4-Dienoyl-CoA reductase deficiency (DECRD) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction due to impaired production of NADPH, which is an essential cofactor for several mitochondrial enzymes. Affected individuals have a variable phenotype: some may have severe neurologic symptoms and metabolic dysfunction beginning in early infancy, whereas others may present with more subtle features, such as childhood-onset optic atrophy or intermittent muscle weakness. The variable severity is putatively dependent on the effect of the mutation on the NADK2 enzyme. Biochemical analysis typically shows hyperlysinemia, due to defective activity of the mitochondrial NADP(H)-dependent enzyme AASS (605113), which is usually a benign finding. More severe cases have increased C10:2-carnitine levels, due to defective activity of the enzyme DECR (DECR1; 222745) (summary by Houten et al., 2014 and Pomerantz et al., 2018). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
346552
Concept ID:
C1857252
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Ataxia - oculomotor apraxia type 4

Ataxia-oculomotor apraxia-4 (AOA4) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of dystonia and ataxia in the first decade. Additional features include oculomotor apraxia and peripheral neuropathy. Some patients may show cognitive impairment. The disorder is progressive, and most patients become wheelchair-bound in the second or third decade (summary by Bras et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ataxia-oculomotor apraxia, see AOA1 (208920). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
902323
Concept ID:
C4225397
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Severe motor and intellectual disabilities-sensorineural deafness-dystonia syndrome

Deafness, dystonia, and cerebral hypomyelination is an X-linked recessive mental retardation syndrome characterized by almost no psychomotor development, dysmorphic facial features, sensorineural deafness, dystonia, pyramidal signs, and hypomyelination on brain imaging (summary by Cacciagli et al., 2013). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
812964
Concept ID:
C3806634
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Fibrosis, neurodegeneration, and cerebral angiomatosis

Fibrosis, neurodegeneration, and cerebral angiomatosis (FINCA) is characterized by severe progressive cerebropulmonary symptoms, resulting in death in infancy from respiratory failure. Features include malabsorption, progressive growth failure, recurrent infections, chronic hemolytic anemia, and transient liver dysfunction. Neuropathology shows increased angiomatosis-like leptomeningeal, cortical, and superficial white matter vascularization and congestion, vacuolar degeneration and myelin loss in white matter, as well as neuronal degeneration. Interstitial fibrosis and granuloma-like lesions are seen in the lungs, and there is hepatomegaly with steatosis and collagen accumulation (Uusimaa et al., 2018). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648312
Concept ID:
C4748939
Disease or Syndrome
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