U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Kinetic tremor

MedGen UID:
1638576
Concept ID:
C4551521
Sign or Symptom
Synonym: Essential tremor
SNOMED CT: Kinetic tremor (30721006)
 
HPO: HP:0030186

Definition

Tremor that occurs during any voluntary movement. It may include visually or non-visually guided movements. Tremor during target directed movement is called intention tremor. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Brunner syndrome
MedGen UID:
208683
Concept ID:
C0796275
Disease or Syndrome
Brunner syndrome is a recessive X-linked disorder characterized by impulsive aggressiveness and mild mental retardation associated with MAOA deficiency (Brunner et al., 1993).
Tremor-nystagmus-duodenal ulcer syndrome
MedGen UID:
349908
Concept ID:
C1860860
Disease or Syndrome
A rare hyperkinetic movement disorder with characteristics of mild to severe, progressive essential tremor, nystagmus (principally horizontal), duodenal ulceration and a narcolepsy-like sleep disturbance. Refractive errors and cerebellar signs such as gait ataxia and adiadochokinesia may be associated. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1976.
Tremor, hereditary essential, 2
MedGen UID:
356087
Concept ID:
C1865810
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 6
MedGen UID:
370848
Concept ID:
C1970198
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the GRIK2 gene.
Tremor, hereditary essential, and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
394839
Concept ID:
C2678494
Disease or Syndrome
Nephronophthisis-like nephropathy 1
MedGen UID:
461769
Concept ID:
C3150419
Disease or Syndrome
The nephronophthisis (NPH) phenotype is characterized by reduced renal concentrating ability, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, cystic renal disease, and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before age 30 years. Three age-based clinical subtypes are recognized: infantile, juvenile, and adolescent/adult. Infantile NPH can present in utero with oligohydramnios sequence (limb contractures, pulmonary hypoplasia, and facial dysmorphisms) or postnatally with renal manifestations that progress to ESRD before age 3 years. Juvenile NPH, the most prevalent subtype, typically presents with polydipsia and polyuria, growth retardation, chronic iron-resistant anemia, or other findings related to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension is typically absent due to salt wasting. ESRD develops at a median age of 13 years. Ultrasound findings are increased echogenicity, reduced corticomedullary differentiation, and renal cysts (in 50% of affected individuals). Histologic findings include tubulointerstitial fibrosis, thickened and disrupted tubular basement membrane, sporadic corticomedullary cysts, and normal or reduced kidney size. Adolescent/adult NPH is clinically similar to juvenile NPH, but ESRD develops at a median age of 19 years. Within a subtype, inter- and intrafamilial variability in rate of progression to ESRD is considerable. Approximately 80%-90% of individuals with the NPH phenotype have no extrarenal features (i.e., they have isolated NPH); ~10%-20% have extrarenal manifestations that constitute a recognizable syndrome (e.g., Joubert syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Jeune syndrome and related skeletal disorders, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, Senior-Løken syndrome, Leber congenital amaurosis, COACH syndrome, and oculomotor apraxia, Cogan type).
Microcephaly, short stature, and impaired glucose metabolism 2
MedGen UID:
906140
Concept ID:
C4225195
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly, short stature, and impaired glucose metabolism-2 (MSSGM2) is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by microcephaly associated with impaired intellectual development, and short stature. Patients develop diabetes in the second or third decade of life, and hypothyroidism and delayed puberty have also been reported (Abdulkarim et al., 2015; Kernohan et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of microcephaly, short stature, and impaired glucose metabolism, see MSSGM1 (616033).
Tremor, hereditary essential, 5
MedGen UID:
897748
Concept ID:
C4225223
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary essential tremor-5 is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by kinetic, intention, and/or postural tremor mainly affecting the upper limbs. The age at onset and severity are highly variable, even within families (summary by Hor et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hereditary essential tremor, see ETM1 (190300).
Tremor, hereditary essential, 6
MedGen UID:
1711112
Concept ID:
C5394329
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary essential tremor-6 (ETM6) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by adult-onset kinetic and/or postural tremor usually affecting the upper limbs. Some patients may have involvement of the head, trunk, lower limbs, and/or voice. Additional neurologic features, such as cognitive impairment or pyramidal signs, are usually not observed. Brain imaging does not show cerebellar atrophy or leukodystrophy. Skin biopsy shows intranuclear eosinophilic inclusions in fibroblasts and sweat gland cells, which may be used for diagnosis. There is evidence of genetic anticipation, with progressive earlier age at onset in younger generations. In rare cases, the phenotype may convert to NIID over time (summary by Sun et al., 2020; Ng et al., 2020). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hereditary essential tremor, see ETM1 (190300).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Baumann CR
Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2012 Jan;18 Suppl 1:S90-2. doi: 10.1016/S1353-8020(11)70029-3. PMID: 22166466
Sullivan KL, Hauser RA, Zesiewicz TA
Neurologist 2004 Sep;10(5):250-8. doi: 10.1097/01.nrl.0000138736.07840.b2. PMID: 15335442
Anouti A, Koller WC
West J Med 1995 Jun;162(6):510-3. PMID: 7618310Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Louis ED
Handb Clin Neurol 2023;196:389-401. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-323-98817-9.00012-0. PMID: 37620080
Weidauer S, Neuhaus E, Hattingen E
Clin Neuroradiol 2023 Jun;33(2):293-306. Epub 2022 Nov 28 doi: 10.1007/s00062-022-01231-5. PMID: 36443509Free PMC Article
Loesch DZ, Duffy DL, Martin NG, Tassone F, Atkinson A, Storey E
Twin Res Hum Genet 2021 Apr;24(2):95-102. Epub 2021 Mar 24 doi: 10.1017/thg.2021.10. PMID: 33757613
Witek N, Hawkins J, Hall D
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2021 Feb 26;21(3):13. doi: 10.1007/s11910-021-01092-4. PMID: 33638050
Louis ED, Wise A, Alcalay RN, Rao AK, Factor-Litvak P
J Neurol Sci 2016 Jul 15;366:47-51. Epub 2016 Apr 23 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2016.04.040. PMID: 27288775Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Louis ED
Handb Clin Neurol 2023;196:389-401. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-323-98817-9.00012-0. PMID: 37620080
Weidauer S, Neuhaus E, Hattingen E
Clin Neuroradiol 2023 Jun;33(2):293-306. Epub 2022 Nov 28 doi: 10.1007/s00062-022-01231-5. PMID: 36443509Free PMC Article
Schaefer J, Saak A, Bönnemann CG, Jackson S
Curr Opin Neurol 2021 Oct 1;34(5):706-713. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000976. PMID: 34292195
Louis ED
Handb Clin Neurol 2011;100:433-48. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52014-2.00033-1. PMID: 21496600
Sethi KD
Curr Opin Neurol 2003 Aug;16(4):481-5. doi: 10.1097/01.wco.0000084226.82329.e7. PMID: 12869807

Therapy

Winnubst ME, de Almeida Leme RJ
Perm J 2022 Jun 29;26(2):132-137. Epub 2022 Jun 15 doi: 10.7812/TPP/20.260. PMID: 35933673Free PMC Article
Grajny K, Durphy J, Adam O, Azher S, Gupta M, Molho E
Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov (N Y) 2020 Oct 6;10:37. doi: 10.5334/tohm.431. PMID: 33101763Free PMC Article
Josephs KA, Matsumoto JY, Ahlskog JE
Arch Neurol 2006 Mar;63(3):354-7. doi: 10.1001/archneur.63.3.354. PMID: 16533962
Cersosimo MG, Koller WC
Neurotoxicology 2006 May;27(3):340-6. Epub 2005 Dec 1 doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2005.10.006. PMID: 16325915
Sethi KD
Curr Opin Neurol 2003 Aug;16(4):481-5. doi: 10.1097/01.wco.0000084226.82329.e7. PMID: 12869807

Prognosis

Witek N, Hawkins J, Hall D
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2021 Feb 26;21(3):13. doi: 10.1007/s11910-021-01092-4. PMID: 33638050
Manto M
Handb Clin Neurol 2018;154:151-166. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-63956-1.00009-6. PMID: 29903437
Foote M, Arque G, Berman RF, Santos M
Cerebellum 2016 Oct;15(5):611-22. doi: 10.1007/s12311-016-0797-6. PMID: 27255703Free PMC Article
Crowell JL, Shah BB
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2016 Mar;16(3):22. doi: 10.1007/s11910-016-0627-8. PMID: 26838349
Manto MU
Cerebellum 2005;4(1):2-6. doi: 10.1080/14734220510007914. PMID: 15895552

Clinical prediction guides

Budini F, Mocnik R, Tilp M, Crognale D
Eur J Appl Physiol 2022 Dec;122(12):2661-2671. Epub 2022 Sep 19 doi: 10.1007/s00421-022-05039-6. PMID: 36121480Free PMC Article
Loesch DZ, Duffy DL, Martin NG, Tassone F, Atkinson A, Storey E
Twin Res Hum Genet 2021 Apr;24(2):95-102. Epub 2021 Mar 24 doi: 10.1017/thg.2021.10. PMID: 33757613
Manto M
Handb Clin Neurol 2018;154:151-166. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-63956-1.00009-6. PMID: 29903437
Louis ED, Wise A, Alcalay RN, Rao AK, Factor-Litvak P
J Neurol Sci 2016 Jul 15;366:47-51. Epub 2016 Apr 23 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2016.04.040. PMID: 27288775Free PMC Article
Foote M, Arque G, Berman RF, Santos M
Cerebellum 2016 Oct;15(5):611-22. doi: 10.1007/s12311-016-0797-6. PMID: 27255703Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Carvalho V, Ferreira JJ, Correia Guedes L
Mov Disord 2021 Sep;36(9):2017-2025. Epub 2021 May 31 doi: 10.1002/mds.28663. PMID: 34056754
Zappia M, Albanese A, Bruno E, Colosimo C, Filippini G, Martinelli P, Nicoletti A, Quattrocchi G, Abbruzzese G, Berardelli A, Allegra R, Aniello MS, Elia AE, Martino D, Murgia D, Picillo M, Squintani G
J Neurol 2013 Mar;260(3):714-40. Epub 2012 Aug 11 doi: 10.1007/s00415-012-6628-x. PMID: 22886006

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Consumer resources

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...