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Oculocerebrodental syndrome(OCSKD)

MedGen UID:
1674537
Concept ID:
C5193101
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: CATARACTS, EARLY-ONSET, WITH SKELETAL AND DENTAL ANOMALIES; OCSKD; OCULOSKELETODENTAL SYNDROME
SNOMED CT: Oculocerebrodental syndrome (1255268002); Oculo-cerebro-dental syndrome (1255268002)
 
Gene (location): PIK3C2A (11p15.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0034145
OMIM®: 618440

Definition

Oculoskeletodental syndrome (OCSKD) is characterized by congenital cataract, short stature and various skeletal anomalies, dysmorphic facial features and dental anomalies, developmental delay, and stroke. Other recurrent features include hearing loss, secondary glaucoma, and nephrocalcinosis (Tiosano et al., 2019). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Hypercalciuria
MedGen UID:
43775
Concept ID:
C0020438
Finding
Abnormally high level of calcium in the urine.
Renal agenesis
MedGen UID:
154237
Concept ID:
C0542519
Congenital Abnormality
Agenesis, that is, failure of the kidney to develop during embryogenesis and development.
Mucopolysacchariduria
MedGen UID:
870284
Concept ID:
C4024726
Finding
Excessive amounts of mucopolysaccharide in the urine.
Small for gestational age
MedGen UID:
65920
Concept ID:
C0235991
Finding
Smaller than normal size according to sex and gestational age related norms, defined as a weight below the 10th percentile for the gestational age.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Hepatomegaly
MedGen UID:
42428
Concept ID:
C0019209
Finding
Abnormally increased size of the liver.
Protein-losing enteropathy
MedGen UID:
19522
Concept ID:
C0033680
Disease or Syndrome
Complement hyperactivation, angiopathic thrombosis, and protein-losing enteropathy (CHAPLE) is characterized by abdominal pain and diarrhea, primary intestinal lymphangiectasia, hypoproteinemic edema, and malabsorption. Some patients also exhibit bowel inflammation, recurrent infections associated with hypogammaglobulinemia, and/or angiopathic thromboembolic disease. Patient T lymphocytes show increased complement activation, causing surface deposition of complement and generating soluble C5a (Ozen et al., 2017).
Hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
235586
Concept ID:
C1384666
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased magnitude of the sensory perception of sound.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Lacunar stroke
MedGen UID:
465269
Concept ID:
C3178801
Disease or Syndrome
A stroke related to a small infarct (2-20 mm in diameter) in the deep cerebral white matter, basal ganglia, or pons, that is presumed to result from the occlusion of a single small perforating artery supplying the subcortical areas of the brain.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Elbow flexion contracture
MedGen UID:
98367
Concept ID:
C0409338
Acquired Abnormality
An elbow contracture that limits the ability of the elbow joint to be extended (straightened), meaning that the elbow is fixed in an flexed (bent) position.
Delayed skeletal maturation
MedGen UID:
108148
Concept ID:
C0541764
Finding
A decreased rate of skeletal maturation. Delayed skeletal maturation can be diagnosed on the basis of an estimation of the bone age from radiographs of specific bones in the human body.
Thoracic kyphosis
MedGen UID:
263148
Concept ID:
C1184919
Finding
Over curvature of the thoracic region, leading to a round back or if sever to a hump.
Short femoral neck
MedGen UID:
373033
Concept ID:
C1836184
Finding
An abnormally short femoral neck (which is the process of bone, connecting the femoral head with the femoral shaft).
Thoracic hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
373339
Concept ID:
C1837482
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormal sternum morphology
MedGen UID:
349830
Concept ID:
C1860493
Anatomical Abnormality
An anomaly of the sternum, also known as the breastbone.
Splenomegaly
MedGen UID:
52469
Concept ID:
C0038002
Finding
Abnormal increased size of the spleen.
Hypercalcemia
MedGen UID:
5686
Concept ID:
C0020437
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormally increased calcium concentration in the blood.
Hypocalcemia
MedGen UID:
5705
Concept ID:
C0020598
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormally decreased calcium concentration in the blood.
Macroglossia
MedGen UID:
44236
Concept ID:
C0024421
Disease or Syndrome
Increased length and width of the tongue.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Low anterior hairline
MedGen UID:
331280
Concept ID:
C1842366
Finding
Distance between the hairline (trichion) and the glabella (the most prominent point on the frontal bone above the root of the nose), in the midline, more than two SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased distance between the hairline and the glabella.
Coarse facial features
MedGen UID:
335284
Concept ID:
C1845847
Finding
Absence of fine and sharp appearance of brows, nose, lips, mouth, and chin, usually because of rounded and heavy features or thickened skin with or without thickening of subcutaneous and bony tissues.
Wide nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
341441
Concept ID:
C1849367
Finding
Increased breadth of the nasal bridge (and with it, the nasal root).
Broad columella
MedGen UID:
376932
Concept ID:
C1851059
Finding
Increased width of the columella.
Low posterior hairline
MedGen UID:
383755
Concept ID:
C1855728
Finding
Hair on the neck extends more inferiorly than usual.
Oligodontia
MedGen UID:
904670
Concept ID:
C4082304
Congenital Abnormality
The absence of six or more teeth from the normal series by a failure to develop.
Hypothyroidism
MedGen UID:
6991
Concept ID:
C0020676
Disease or Syndrome
Deficiency of thyroid hormone.
Developmental cataract
MedGen UID:
3202
Concept ID:
C0009691
Congenital Abnormality
A cataract that occurs congenitally as the result of a developmental defect, in contrast to the majority of cataracts that occur in adulthood as the result of degenerative changes of the lens.
Glaucoma
MedGen UID:
42224
Concept ID:
C0017601
Disease or Syndrome
Glaucoma refers loss of retinal ganglion cells in a characteristic pattern of optic neuropathy usually associated with increased intraocular pressure.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

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Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Varagur K, Sanka SA, Strahle JM
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Diagnosis

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Therapy

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Prognosis

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