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Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 74(EIEE74; DEE74)

MedGen UID:
1680535
Concept ID:
C5193074
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY, EARLY INFANTILE, 74
 
Gene (location): GABRG2 (5q34)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0032725
OMIM®: 618396

Definition

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-74 (DEE74) is neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory seizures in the first months of life. Seizure types are variable and include infantile spasms, myoclonic, tonic, atonic, and absence, often with secondary generalization. Affected individuals have severe global developmental delay with hypotonia, severe motor impairment, roving eye movements, and absent language (summary by Shen et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Choreoathetosis
MedGen UID:
39313
Concept ID:
C0085583
Disease or Syndrome
Involuntary movements characterized by both athetosis (inability to sustain muscles in a fixed position) and chorea (widespread jerky arrhythmic movements).
Focal impaired awareness seizure
MedGen UID:
543022
Concept ID:
C0270834
Disease or Syndrome
Focal impaired awareness seizure (or focal seizure with impaired or lost awareness) is a type of focal-onset seizure characterized by some degree (which may be partial) of impairment of the person's awareness of themselves or their surroundings at any point during the seizure.
Tonic seizure
MedGen UID:
82855
Concept ID:
C0270844
Disease or Syndrome
A tonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by unilateral or bilateral limb stiffening or elevation, often with neck stiffening.
Atonic seizure
MedGen UID:
78735
Concept ID:
C0270846
Disease or Syndrome
Atonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by a sudden loss or diminution of muscle tone without apparent preceding myoclonic or tonic event lasting about 1 to 2 seconds, involving head, trunk, jaw, or limb musculature.
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
141670
Concept ID:
C0494475
Sign or Symptom
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure is a seizure defined by a tonic (bilateral increased tone, lasting seconds to minutes) and then a clonic (bilateral sustained rhythmic jerking) phase.
Epileptic encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
452596
Concept ID:
C0543888
Disease or Syndrome
A condition in which epileptiform abnormalities are believed to contribute to the progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Epileptic encephalaopathy is characterized by (1) electrographic EEG paroxysmal activity that is often aggressive, (2) seizures that are usually multiform and intractable, (3) cognitive, behavioral and neurological deficits that may be relentless, and (4) sometimes early death.
Atypical absence seizure
MedGen UID:
108888
Concept ID:
C0595948
Disease or Syndrome
An atypical absence seizure is a type of generalized non-motor (absence) seizure characterized by interruption of ongoing activities and reduced responsiveness. In comparison to a typical absence seizure, changes in tone may be more pronounced, onset and/or cessation may be less abrupt, and the duration of the ictus and post-ictal recovery may be longer. Although not always available, an EEG often demonstrates slow (<3 Hz), irregular, generalized spike-wave activity.
Severe global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
332436
Concept ID:
C1837397
Finding
A severe delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child.
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Infantile spasms
MedGen UID:
854616
Concept ID:
C3887898
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile spasms represent a subset of "epileptic spasms". Infantile Spasms are epileptic spasms starting in the first year of life (infancy).
Delayed CNS myelination
MedGen UID:
867393
Concept ID:
C4021758
Anatomical Abnormality
Delayed myelination in the central nervous system.
Myoclonic seizure
MedGen UID:
1385980
Concept ID:
C4317123
Sign or Symptom
A myoclonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by sudden, brief (<100 ms) involuntary single or multiple contraction of muscles or muscle groups of variable topography (axial, proximal limb, distal). Myoclonus is less regularly repetitive and less sustained than is clonus.
Typical absence seizure
MedGen UID:
1790454
Concept ID:
C5551411
Disease or Syndrome
A typical absence seizure is a type of generalized non-motor (absence) seizure characterized by its sudden onset, interruption of ongoing activities, a blank stare, possibly a brief upward deviation of the eyes. Usually the patient will be unresponsive when spoken to. Duration is a few seconds to half a minute with very rapid recovery. Although not always available, an EEG would usually show 3 Hz generalized epileptiform discharges during the event.
Reduced cerebral white matter volume
MedGen UID:
1815057
Concept ID:
C5706151
Finding
An abnormally low volume of the white matter of the brain.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

D'Gama AM, Mulhern S, Sheidley BR, Boodhoo F, Buts S, Chandler NJ, Cobb J, Curtis M, Higginbotham EJ, Holland J, Khan T, Koh J, Liang NSY, McRae L, Nesbitt SE, Oby BT, Paternoster B, Patton A, Rose G, Scotchman E, Valentine R, Wiltrout KN; Gene-STEPS Study Group; IPCHiP Executive Committee, Hayeems RZ, Jain P, Lunke S, Marshall CR, Rockowitz S, Sebire NJ, Stark Z, White SM, Chitty LS, Cross JH, Scheffer IE, Chau V, Costain G, Poduri A, Howell KB, McTague A
Lancet Neurol 2023 Sep;22(9):812-825. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(23)00246-6. PMID: 37596007
Herzberg EM, Machie M, Glass HC, Shellhaas RA, Wusthoff CJ, Chang T, Abend NS, Chu CJ, Cilio MR, Bonifacio SL, Massey SL, McCulloch CE, Soul JS; Neonatal Seizure Registry study group
J Pediatr 2022 Mar;242:121-128.e1. Epub 2021 Nov 13 doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.11.012. PMID: 34780777
Bromley R, Weston J, Adab N, Greenhalgh J, Sanniti A, McKay AJ, Tudur Smith C, Marson AG
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014 Oct 30;2014(10):CD010236. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010236.pub2. PMID: 25354543Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

D'Gama AM, Mulhern S, Sheidley BR, Boodhoo F, Buts S, Chandler NJ, Cobb J, Curtis M, Higginbotham EJ, Holland J, Khan T, Koh J, Liang NSY, McRae L, Nesbitt SE, Oby BT, Paternoster B, Patton A, Rose G, Scotchman E, Valentine R, Wiltrout KN; Gene-STEPS Study Group; IPCHiP Executive Committee, Hayeems RZ, Jain P, Lunke S, Marshall CR, Rockowitz S, Sebire NJ, Stark Z, White SM, Chitty LS, Cross JH, Scheffer IE, Chau V, Costain G, Poduri A, Howell KB, McTague A
Lancet Neurol 2023 Sep;22(9):812-825. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(23)00246-6. PMID: 37596007
Hahn CD, Jiang Y, Villanueva V, Zolnowska M, Arkilo D, Hsiao S, Asgharnejad M, Dlugos D
Epilepsia 2022 Oct;63(10):2671-2683. Epub 2022 Aug 4 doi: 10.1111/epi.17367. PMID: 35841234Free PMC Article
Lagae L, Sullivan J, Knupp K, Laux L, Polster T, Nikanorova M, Devinsky O, Cross JH, Guerrini R, Talwar D, Miller I, Farfel G, Galer BS, Gammaitoni A, Mistry A, Morrison G, Lock M, Agarwal A, Lai WW, Ceulemans B; FAiRE DS Study Group
Lancet 2019 Dec 21;394(10216):2243-2254. Epub 2019 Dec 17 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32500-0. PMID: 31862249
Thiele EA, Marsh ED, French JA, Mazurkiewicz-Beldzinska M, Benbadis SR, Joshi C, Lyons PD, Taylor A, Roberts C, Sommerville K; GWPCARE4 Study Group
Lancet 2018 Mar 17;391(10125):1085-1096. Epub 2018 Jan 26 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30136-3. PMID: 29395273
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

D'Gama AM, Mulhern S, Sheidley BR, Boodhoo F, Buts S, Chandler NJ, Cobb J, Curtis M, Higginbotham EJ, Holland J, Khan T, Koh J, Liang NSY, McRae L, Nesbitt SE, Oby BT, Paternoster B, Patton A, Rose G, Scotchman E, Valentine R, Wiltrout KN; Gene-STEPS Study Group; IPCHiP Executive Committee, Hayeems RZ, Jain P, Lunke S, Marshall CR, Rockowitz S, Sebire NJ, Stark Z, White SM, Chitty LS, Cross JH, Scheffer IE, Chau V, Costain G, Poduri A, Howell KB, McTague A
Lancet Neurol 2023 Sep;22(9):812-825. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(23)00246-6. PMID: 37596007
Maroofian R, Kaiyrzhanov R, Cali E, Zamani M, Zaki MS, Ferla M, Tortora D, Sadeghian S, Saadi SM, Abdullah U, Karimiani EG, Efthymiou S, Yeşil G, Alavi S, Al Shamsi AM, Tajsharghi H, Abdel-Hamid MS, Saadi NW, Al Mutairi F, Alabdi L, Beetz C, Ali Z, Toosi MB, Rudnik-Schöneborn S, Babaei M, Isohanni P, Muhammad J, Khan S, Al Shalan M, Hickey SE, Marom D, Elhanan E, Kurian MA, Marafi D, Saberi A, Hamid M, Spaull R, Meng L, Lalani S, Maqbool S, Rahman F, Seeger J, Palculict TB, Lau T, Murphy D, Mencacci NE, Steindl K, Begemann A, Rauch A, Akbas S, Aslanger AD, Salpietro V, Yousaf H, Ben-Shachar S, Ejeskär K, Al Aqeel AI, High FA, Armstrong-Javors AE, Zahraei SM, Seifi T, Zeighami J, Shariati G, Sedaghat A, Asl SN, Shahrooei M, Zifarelli G, Burglen L, Ravelli C, Zschocke J, Schatz UA, Ghavideldarestani M, Kamel WA, Van Esch H, Hackenberg A, Taylor JC, Al-Gazali L, Bauer P, Gleeson JJ, Alkuraya FS, Lupski JR, Galehdari H, Azizimalamiri R, Chung WK, Baig SM, Houlden H, Severino M
Brain 2023 Dec 1;146(12):5031-5043. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad257. PMID: 37517035Free PMC Article
Berg AT, Palac H, Wilkening G, Zelko F, Schust Meyer L
Epilepsia 2021 Jan;62(1):258-268. Epub 2020 Nov 25 doi: 10.1111/epi.16750. PMID: 33236786
D'Antonio F, Pagani G, Familiari A, Khalil A, Sagies TL, Malinger G, Leibovitz Z, Garel C, Moutard ML, Pilu G, Bhide A, Acharya G, Leombroni M, Manzoli L, Papageorghiou A, Prefumo F
Pediatrics 2016 Sep;138(3) doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-0445. PMID: 27581855
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Therapy

Hahn CD, Jiang Y, Villanueva V, Zolnowska M, Arkilo D, Hsiao S, Asgharnejad M, Dlugos D
Epilepsia 2022 Oct;63(10):2671-2683. Epub 2022 Aug 4 doi: 10.1111/epi.17367. PMID: 35841234Free PMC Article
Berg AT, Palac H, Wilkening G, Zelko F, Schust Meyer L
Epilepsia 2021 Jan;62(1):258-268. Epub 2020 Nov 25 doi: 10.1111/epi.16750. PMID: 33236786
Lagae L, Sullivan J, Knupp K, Laux L, Polster T, Nikanorova M, Devinsky O, Cross JH, Guerrini R, Talwar D, Miller I, Farfel G, Galer BS, Gammaitoni A, Mistry A, Morrison G, Lock M, Agarwal A, Lai WW, Ceulemans B; FAiRE DS Study Group
Lancet 2019 Dec 21;394(10216):2243-2254. Epub 2019 Dec 17 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32500-0. PMID: 31862249
Thiele EA, Marsh ED, French JA, Mazurkiewicz-Beldzinska M, Benbadis SR, Joshi C, Lyons PD, Taylor A, Roberts C, Sommerville K; GWPCARE4 Study Group
Lancet 2018 Mar 17;391(10125):1085-1096. Epub 2018 Jan 26 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30136-3. PMID: 29395273
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Prognosis

D'Gama AM, Mulhern S, Sheidley BR, Boodhoo F, Buts S, Chandler NJ, Cobb J, Curtis M, Higginbotham EJ, Holland J, Khan T, Koh J, Liang NSY, McRae L, Nesbitt SE, Oby BT, Paternoster B, Patton A, Rose G, Scotchman E, Valentine R, Wiltrout KN; Gene-STEPS Study Group; IPCHiP Executive Committee, Hayeems RZ, Jain P, Lunke S, Marshall CR, Rockowitz S, Sebire NJ, Stark Z, White SM, Chitty LS, Cross JH, Scheffer IE, Chau V, Costain G, Poduri A, Howell KB, McTague A
Lancet Neurol 2023 Sep;22(9):812-825. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(23)00246-6. PMID: 37596007
Ayoub D, Al-Hajje A, Salameh P, Jost J, Hmaimess G, Nasreddine W, Jaafar F, Wazne J, Bitar R, Sabbagh S, Boumediene F, Beydoun A
Seizure 2023 Aug;110:69-77. Epub 2023 Jun 10 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2023.06.007. PMID: 37327752
Rossi A, Blok LS, Neuser S, Klöckner C, Platzer K, Faivre LO, Weigand H, Dentici ML, Tartaglia M, Niceta M, Alfieri P, Srivastava S, Coulter D, Smith L, Vinorum K, Cappuccio G, Brunetti-Pierri N, Torun D, Arslan M, Lauridsen MF, Murch O, Irving R, Lynch SA, Mehta SG, Carmichael J, Zonneveld-Huijssoon E, de Vries B, Kleefstra T, Johannesen KM, Westphall IT, Hughes SS, Smithson S, Evans J, Dudding-Byth T, Simon M, van Binsbergen E, Herkert JC, Beunders G, Oppermann H, Bakal M, Møller RS, Rubboli G, Bayat A
Clin Genet 2023 Aug;104(2):186-197. Epub 2023 May 10 doi: 10.1111/cge.14353. PMID: 37165752Free PMC Article
Kaczmarek I, Starczewska M, Wiktor AW, Steinborn B
Seizure 2020 Aug;80:278-280. Epub 2020 May 18 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2020.05.012. PMID: 32553886
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Maroofian R, Kaiyrzhanov R, Cali E, Zamani M, Zaki MS, Ferla M, Tortora D, Sadeghian S, Saadi SM, Abdullah U, Karimiani EG, Efthymiou S, Yeşil G, Alavi S, Al Shamsi AM, Tajsharghi H, Abdel-Hamid MS, Saadi NW, Al Mutairi F, Alabdi L, Beetz C, Ali Z, Toosi MB, Rudnik-Schöneborn S, Babaei M, Isohanni P, Muhammad J, Khan S, Al Shalan M, Hickey SE, Marom D, Elhanan E, Kurian MA, Marafi D, Saberi A, Hamid M, Spaull R, Meng L, Lalani S, Maqbool S, Rahman F, Seeger J, Palculict TB, Lau T, Murphy D, Mencacci NE, Steindl K, Begemann A, Rauch A, Akbas S, Aslanger AD, Salpietro V, Yousaf H, Ben-Shachar S, Ejeskär K, Al Aqeel AI, High FA, Armstrong-Javors AE, Zahraei SM, Seifi T, Zeighami J, Shariati G, Sedaghat A, Asl SN, Shahrooei M, Zifarelli G, Burglen L, Ravelli C, Zschocke J, Schatz UA, Ghavideldarestani M, Kamel WA, Van Esch H, Hackenberg A, Taylor JC, Al-Gazali L, Bauer P, Gleeson JJ, Alkuraya FS, Lupski JR, Galehdari H, Azizimalamiri R, Chung WK, Baig SM, Houlden H, Severino M
Brain 2023 Dec 1;146(12):5031-5043. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad257. PMID: 37517035Free PMC Article
Rossi A, Blok LS, Neuser S, Klöckner C, Platzer K, Faivre LO, Weigand H, Dentici ML, Tartaglia M, Niceta M, Alfieri P, Srivastava S, Coulter D, Smith L, Vinorum K, Cappuccio G, Brunetti-Pierri N, Torun D, Arslan M, Lauridsen MF, Murch O, Irving R, Lynch SA, Mehta SG, Carmichael J, Zonneveld-Huijssoon E, de Vries B, Kleefstra T, Johannesen KM, Westphall IT, Hughes SS, Smithson S, Evans J, Dudding-Byth T, Simon M, van Binsbergen E, Herkert JC, Beunders G, Oppermann H, Bakal M, Møller RS, Rubboli G, Bayat A
Clin Genet 2023 Aug;104(2):186-197. Epub 2023 May 10 doi: 10.1111/cge.14353. PMID: 37165752Free PMC Article
Hahn CD, Jiang Y, Villanueva V, Zolnowska M, Arkilo D, Hsiao S, Asgharnejad M, Dlugos D
Epilepsia 2022 Oct;63(10):2671-2683. Epub 2022 Aug 4 doi: 10.1111/epi.17367. PMID: 35841234Free PMC Article
Lagae L, Sullivan J, Knupp K, Laux L, Polster T, Nikanorova M, Devinsky O, Cross JH, Guerrini R, Talwar D, Miller I, Farfel G, Galer BS, Gammaitoni A, Mistry A, Morrison G, Lock M, Agarwal A, Lai WW, Ceulemans B; FAiRE DS Study Group
Lancet 2019 Dec 21;394(10216):2243-2254. Epub 2019 Dec 17 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32500-0. PMID: 31862249
D'Antonio F, Pagani G, Familiari A, Khalil A, Sagies TL, Malinger G, Leibovitz Z, Garel C, Moutard ML, Pilu G, Bhide A, Acharya G, Leombroni M, Manzoli L, Papageorghiou A, Prefumo F
Pediatrics 2016 Sep;138(3) doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-0445. PMID: 27581855

Recent systematic reviews

Iranmehr A, Dabbagh Ohadi MA, Chavoshi M, Jahanbakhshi A, Slavin KV
Neurosurg Focus 2022 Oct;53(4):E8. doi: 10.3171/2022.7.FOCUS22296. PMID: 36183177
Bromley R, Weston J, Adab N, Greenhalgh J, Sanniti A, McKay AJ, Tudur Smith C, Marson AG
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014 Oct 30;2014(10):CD010236. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010236.pub2. PMID: 25354543Free PMC Article

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