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Alopecia-intellectual disability syndrome 4(APMR4)

MedGen UID:
1713432
Concept ID:
C5394241
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Alopecia-mental retardation syndrome 4
 
Gene (location): LSS (21q22.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0030009
OMIM®: 618840

Definition

Alopecia-intellectual disability syndrome-4 (APMR4) is characterized by alopecia universalis, scaly skin, and psychomotor retardation of varying degrees (Besnard et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of alopecia-intellectual disability syndrome, see APMR1 (203650). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Bilateral cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
96568
Concept ID:
C0431663
Congenital Abnormality
Absence of both testes from the scrotum owing to failure of the testis or testes to descend through the inguinal canal to the scrotum.
Hypospadias
MedGen UID:
163083
Concept ID:
C0848558
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormal position of urethral meatus on the ventral penile shaft (underside) characterized by displacement of the urethral meatus from the tip of the glans penis to the ventral surface of the penis, scrotum, or perineum.
Micropenis
MedGen UID:
1633603
Concept ID:
C4551492
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally small penis. At birth, the normal penis is about 3 cm (stretched length from pubic tubercle to tip of penis) with micropenis less than 2.0-2.5 cm.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Agitation
MedGen UID:
88447
Concept ID:
C0085631
Sign or Symptom
A state of extreme restlessness and excessive motor activity is associated with mental distress or a feeling of inner tension.
Delayed ability to walk
MedGen UID:
66034
Concept ID:
C0241726
Finding
A failure to achieve the ability to walk at an appropriate developmental stage. Most children learn to walk in a series of stages, and learn to walk short distances independently between 12 and 15 months.
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Autistic behavior
MedGen UID:
163547
Concept ID:
C0856975
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Persistent deficits in social interaction and communication and interaction as well as a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest as well as repetitive patterns of behavior.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Erythroderma
MedGen UID:
3767
Concept ID:
C0011606
Disease or Syndrome
An inflammatory exfoliative dermatosis involving nearly all of the surface of the skin. Erythroderma develops suddenly. A patchy erythema may generalize and spread to affect most of the skin. Scaling may appear in 2-6 days and be accompanied by hot, red, dry skin, malaise, and fever.
Alopecia
MedGen UID:
7982
Concept ID:
C0002170
Finding
A noncongenital process of hair loss, which may progress to partial or complete baldness.
Ichthyosis
MedGen UID:
7002
Concept ID:
C0020757
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of the skin characterized the presence of excessive amounts of dry surface scales on the skin resulting from an abnormality of keratinization.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Matza Porges S, Mor-Shaked H, Shaag A, Porat S, Daum H
Eur J Med Genet 2023 Oct;66(10):104825. Epub 2023 Sep 1 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2023.104825. PMID: 37659595

Recent clinical studies

Diagnosis

Elaraby NM, Ahmed HA, Ashaat NA, Tawfik S, Ahmed MKH, Hassib NF, Ashaat EA
J Mol Neurosci 2022 Nov;72(11):2242-2251. Epub 2022 Oct 17 doi: 10.1007/s12031-022-02074-y. PMID: 36251212Free PMC Article

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