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Erythroderma

MedGen UID:
3767
Concept ID:
C0011606
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Exfoliative dermatitis
SNOMED CT: Erythroderma (399992009); Erythrodermic eczema (400005007); Exfoliative dermatitis (399992009); Erythrodermatitis (399992009); Pityriasis rubra (Hebra) (200948000); Generalized exfoliative dermatitis (399992009)
 
HPO: HP:0001019
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0043233

Definition

An inflammatory exfoliative dermatosis involving nearly all of the surface of the skin. Erythroderma develops suddenly. A patchy erythema may generalize and spread to affect most of the skin. Scaling may appear in 2-6 days and be accompanied by hot, red, dry skin, malaise, and fever. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Chondrodysplasia punctata 2 X-linked dominant
MedGen UID:
79381
Concept ID:
C0282102
Disease or Syndrome
The findings in X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata 2 (CDPX2) range from fetal demise with multiple malformations and severe growth retardation to much milder manifestations, including females with no recognizable physical abnormalities. At least 95% of live-born individuals with CDPX2 are female. Characteristic features include growth deficiency; distinctive craniofacial appearance; chondrodysplasia punctata (stippling of the epiphyses of the long bones, vertebrae, trachea, and distal ends of the ribs); often asymmetric rhizomelic shortening of limbs; scoliosis; linear or blotchy scaling ichthyosis in the newborn; later appearance of linear or whorled atrophic patches involving hair follicles (follicular atrophoderma); coarse hair with scarring alopecia; and cataracts.
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus secretory diarrhea syndrome
MedGen UID:
83339
Concept ID:
C0342288
Disease or Syndrome
IPEX (immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked) syndrome is characterized by systemic autoimmunity, typically beginning in the first year of life. Presentation is most commonly the clinical triad of watery diarrhea, endocrinopathy (most commonly insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), and eczematous dermatitis. Most children have other autoimmune phenomena including cytopenias, autoimmune hepatitis, or nephropathy; lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, alopecia, arthritis, and lung disease related to immune dysregulation have all been observed. Fetal presentation of IPEX includes hydrops, echogenic bowel, skin desquamation, IUGR, and fetal akinesia. Without aggressive immunosuppression or bone marrow transplantation, the majority of affected males die within the first one to two years of life from metabolic derangements, severe malabsorption, or sepsis; a few with a milder phenotype have survived into the second or third decade of life.
Autosomal recessive keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
224809
Concept ID:
C1275089
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome (KIDAR) is characterized by neonatal-onset ichthyotic erythroderma and profound sensorineural deafness, with failure to thrive and developmental delay in childhood. Severe corneal scarring with vision loss has been observed in adulthood. Low plasma copper and ceruloplasmin levels have been reported in some patients (Alsaif et al., 2019; Boyden et al., 2019). An autosomal dominant form of KID syndrome (KIDAD; 148210) is caused by mutation in the GJB2 gene (121011) on chromosome 13q12. Mutation in the AP1S1 gene (603531) causes a disorder with overlapping features (MEDNIK; 609313).
MPDU1-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
322968
Concept ID:
C1836669
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are metabolic deficiencies in glycoprotein biosynthesis that usually cause severe mental and psychomotor retardation. Different forms of CDGs can be recognized by altered isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns of serum transferrin. For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG Ia (212065) and CDG Ib (602579).
Ichthyosis prematurity syndrome
MedGen UID:
324839
Concept ID:
C1837610
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) encompasses several forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis. Although most neonates with ARCI are collodion babies, the clinical presentation and severity of ARCI may vary significantly, ranging from harlequin ichthyosis, the most severe and often fatal form, to lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and (nonbullous) congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE). These phenotypes are now recognized to fall on a continuum; however, the phenotypic descriptions are clinically useful for clarification of prognosis and management. Infants with harlequin ichthyosis are usually born prematurely and are encased in thick, hard, armor-like plates of cornified skin that severely restrict movement. Life-threatening complications in the immediate postnatal period include respiratory distress, feeding problems, and systemic infection. Collodion babies are born with a taut, shiny, translucent or opaque membrane that encases the entire body and lasts for days to weeks. LI and CIE are seemingly distinct phenotypes: classic, severe LI with dark brown, plate-like scale with no erythroderma and CIE with finer whiter scale and underlying generalized redness of the skin. Affected individuals with severe involvement can have ectropion, eclabium, scarring alopecia involving the scalp and eyebrows, and palmar and plantar keratoderma. Besides these major forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis, a few rare subtypes have been recognized, such as bathing suit ichthyosis, self-improving collodion ichthyosis, or ichthyosis-prematurity syndrome.
Peeling skin syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
336530
Concept ID:
C1849193
Disease or Syndrome
A group of rare autosomal recessive forms of ichthyosis with clinical characteristics of superficial, asymptomatic, spontaneous peeling of the skin and histologically by a shedding of the outer layers of the epidermis. Presents with either an acral or a generalised distribution.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 34
MedGen UID:
338703
Concept ID:
C1851481
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-34 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia. The age at onset is usually during the young adult years, and most patients remain ambulatory until late in life. One family with SCA34 also had onset of erythema and hyperkeratosis in early childhood (Cadieux-Dion et al., 2014), whereas other families have additional neurologic signs, including ocular movement disturbances and pyramidal tract signs (Ozaki et al., 2015). For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, see SCA1 (164400).
Immunodeficiency due to CD25 deficiency
MedGen UID:
377894
Concept ID:
C1853392
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-41 is an autosomal recessive complex disorder of immune dysregulation. Affected individuals present in infancy with recurrent viral, fungal, and bacterial infections, lymphadenopathy, and variable autoimmune features, such as autoimmune enteropathy and eczematous skin lesions. Immunologic studies show a defect in T-cell regulation (summary by Goudy et al., 2013).
Immunodeficiency 25
MedGen UID:
346666
Concept ID:
C1857798
Disease or Syndrome
Any severe combined immunodeficiency in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CD247 gene.
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis 5
MedGen UID:
347628
Concept ID:
C1858133
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a heterogeneous group of disorders of keratinization characterized primarily by abnormal skin scaling over the whole body. These disorders are limited to skin, with approximately two-thirds of patients presenting severe symptoms. The main skin phenotypes are lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NCIE), although phenotypic overlap within the same patient or among patients from the same family can occur (summary by Fischer, 2009). Neither histopathologic findings nor ultrastructural features clearly distinguish between NCIE and LI. In addition, mutations in several genes have been shown to cause both lamellar and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythrodermal phenotypes (Akiyama et al., 2003). At the First Ichthyosis Consensus Conference in Soreze in 2009, the term 'autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis' (ARCI) was designated to encompass LI, NCIE, and harlequin ichthyosis (ARCI4B; 242500) (Oji et al., 2010). NCIE is characterized by prominent erythroderma and fine white, superficial, semiadherent scales. Most patients present with collodion membrane at birth and have palmoplantar keratoderma, often with painful fissures, digital contractures, and loss of pulp volume. In half of the cases, a nail dystrophy including ridging, subungual hyperkeratosis, or hypoplasia has been described. Ectropion, eclabium, scalp involvement, and loss of eyebrows and lashes seem to be more frequent in NCIE than in lamellar ichthyosis (summary by Fischer et al., 2000). In LI, the scales are large, adherent, dark, and pigmented with no skin erythema. Overlapping phenotypes may depend on the age of the patient and the region of the body. The terminal differentiation of the epidermis is perturbed in both forms, leading to a reduced barrier function and defects of lipid composition in the stratum corneum (summary by Lefevre et al., 2006). In later life, the skin in ARCI may have scales that cover the entire body surface, including the flexural folds, and the scales are highly variable in size and color. Erythema may be very mild and almost invisible. Some affected persons exhibit scarring alopecia, and many have secondary anhidrosis (summary by Eckl et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis, see ARCI1 (242300).
Ichthyosis, hystrix-like, with hearing loss
MedGen UID:
355410
Concept ID:
C1865234
Disease or Syndrome
Hystrix-like ichthyosis with deafness (HID) is a disorder characterized by dry, scaly skin (ichthyosis) and hearing loss that is usually profound. Hystrix-like means resembling a porcupine; in this type of ichthyosis, the scales may be thick and spiky, giving the appearance of porcupine quills.\n\nNewborns with HID typically develop reddened skin. The skin abnormalities worsen over time, and the ichthyosis eventually covers most of the body, although the palms of the hands and soles of the feet are usually only mildly affected. Breaks in the skin may occur and in severe cases can lead to life-threatening infections. Affected individuals have an increased risk of developing a type of skin cancer called squamous cell carcinoma, which can also affect mucous membranes such as the inner lining of the mouth. People with HID may also have patchy hair loss caused by scarring on particular areas of skin.
Trichothiodystrophy 1, photosensitive
MedGen UID:
355730
Concept ID:
C1866504
Disease or Syndrome
Trichothiodystrophy is also associated with recurrent infections, particularly respiratory infections, which can be life-threatening. People with trichothiodystrophy may have abnormal red blood cells, including red blood cells that are smaller than normal. They may also have elevated levels of a type of hemoglobin called A2, which is a protein found in red blood cells. Other features of trichothiodystrophy can include dry, scaly skin (ichthyosis); abnormalities of the fingernails and toenails; clouding of the lens in both eyes from birth (congenital cataracts); poor coordination; and skeletal abnormalities including degeneration of both hips at an early age.\n\nAbout half of all people with trichothiodystrophy have a photosensitive form of the disorder, which causes them to be extremely sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) rays from sunlight. They develop a severe sunburn after spending just a few minutes in the sun. However, for reasons that are unclear, they do not develop other sun-related problems such as excessive freckling of the skin or an increased risk of skin cancer. Many people with trichothiodystrophy report that they do not sweat.\n\nIntellectual disability and delayed development are common in people with trichothiodystrophy, although most affected individuals are highly social with an outgoing and engaging personality. Some people with trichothiodystrophy have brain abnormalities that can be seen with imaging tests. A common neurological feature of this disorder is impaired myelin production (dysmyelination). Myelin is a fatty substance that insulates nerve cells and promotes the rapid transmission of nerve impulses.\n\nMothers of children with trichothiodystrophy may experience problems during pregnancy including pregnancy-induced high blood pressure (preeclampsia) and a related condition called HELLP syndrome that can damage the liver. Babies with trichothiodystrophy are at increased risk of premature birth, low birth weight, and slow growth. Most children with trichothiodystrophy have short stature compared to others their age. \n\nThe signs and symptoms of trichothiodystrophy vary widely. Mild cases may involve only the hair. More severe cases also cause delayed development, significant intellectual disability, and recurrent infections; severely affected individuals may survive only into infancy or early childhood.\n\nIn people with trichothiodystrophy, tests show that the hair is lacking sulfur-containing proteins that normally gives hair its strength. A cross section of a cut hair shows alternating light and dark banding that has been described as a "tiger tail."\n\nTrichothiodystrophy, commonly called TTD, is a rare inherited condition that affects many parts of the body. The hallmark of this condition is hair that is sparse and easily broken. 
Intellectual disability, FRA12A type
MedGen UID:
369613
Concept ID:
C1969893
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
FRA12A is a folate-sensitive chromosomal fragile site prone to breakage. No consistent phenotype has been observed with FRA12A, and it can be inherited without phenotypic effect (Berg et al., 2000). However, impaired intellectual development with or without other anomalies has been described in patients with over 40% of cells expressing FRA12A (Winnepenninckx et al., 2007).
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis 6
MedGen UID:
436851
Concept ID:
C2677065
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) encompasses several forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis. Although most neonates with ARCI are collodion babies, the clinical presentation and severity of ARCI may vary significantly, ranging from harlequin ichthyosis, the most severe and often fatal form, to lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and (nonbullous) congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE). These phenotypes are now recognized to fall on a continuum; however, the phenotypic descriptions are clinically useful for clarification of prognosis and management. Infants with harlequin ichthyosis are usually born prematurely and are encased in thick, hard, armor-like plates of cornified skin that severely restrict movement. Life-threatening complications in the immediate postnatal period include respiratory distress, feeding problems, and systemic infection. Collodion babies are born with a taut, shiny, translucent or opaque membrane that encases the entire body and lasts for days to weeks. LI and CIE are seemingly distinct phenotypes: classic, severe LI with dark brown, plate-like scale with no erythroderma and CIE with finer whiter scale and underlying generalized redness of the skin. Affected individuals with severe involvement can have ectropion, eclabium, scarring alopecia involving the scalp and eyebrows, and palmar and plantar keratoderma. Besides these major forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis, a few rare subtypes have been recognized, such as bathing suit ichthyosis, self-improving collodion ichthyosis, or ichthyosis-prematurity syndrome.
Histiocytic medullary reticulosis
MedGen UID:
398130
Concept ID:
C2700553
Disease or Syndrome
Omenn syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) associated with erythrodermia, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and alopecia. B cells are mostly absent, T-cell counts are normal to elevated, and T cells are frequently activated and express a restricted T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire (summary by Ege et al., 2005). Another distinct form of familial histiocytic reticulocytosis (267700) is caused by mutation in the perforin-1 gene (PRF1; 170280) on chromosome 10q22.
Inflammatory skin and bowel disease, neonatal, 1
MedGen UID:
482131
Concept ID:
C3280501
Disease or Syndrome
Any neonatal inflammatory skin and bowel disease in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ADAM17 gene.
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis 7
MedGen UID:
767262
Concept ID:
C3554348
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a heterogeneous group of disorders of keratinization characterized primarily by abnormal skin scaling over the whole body. These disorders are limited to skin, with approximately two-thirds of patients presenting severe symptoms. The main skin phenotypes are lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NCIE), although phenotypic overlap within the same patient or among patients from the same family can occur (summary by Fischer, 2009). Neither histopathologic findings nor ultrastructural features clearly distinguish between NCIE and LI. In addition, mutations in several genes have been shown to cause both lamellar and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythrodermal phenotypes (Akiyama et al., 2003). At the First Ichthyosis Consensus Conference in Soreze in 2009, the term 'autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis' (ARCI) was designated to encompass LI, NCIE, and harlequin ichthyosis (ARCI4B; 242500) (Oji et al., 2010). NCIE is characterized by prominent erythroderma and fine white, superficial, semiadherent scales. Most patients present with collodion membrane at birth and have palmoplantar keratoderma, often with painful fissures, digital contractures, and loss of pulp volume. In half of the cases, a nail dystrophy including ridging, subungual hyperkeratosis, or hypoplasia has been described. Ectropion, eclabium, scalp involvement, and loss of eyebrows and lashes seem to be more frequent in NCIE than in lamellar ichthyosis (summary by Fischer et al., 2000). In LI, the scales are large, adherent, dark, and pigmented with no skin erythema. Overlapping phenotypes may depend on the age of the patient and the region of the body. The terminal differentiation of the epidermis is perturbed in both forms, leading to a reduced barrier function and defects of lipid composition in the stratum corneum (summary by Lefevre et al., 2006). In later life, the skin in ARCI may have scales that cover the entire body surface, including the flexural folds, and the scales are highly variable in size and color. Erythema may be very mild and almost invisible. Some affected persons exhibit scarring alopecia, and many have secondary anhidrosis (summary by Eckl et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis, see ARCI1 (242300).
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis 9
MedGen UID:
767263
Concept ID:
C3554349
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) encompasses several forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis. Although most neonates with ARCI are collodion babies, the clinical presentation and severity of ARCI may vary significantly, ranging from harlequin ichthyosis, the most severe and often fatal form, to lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and (nonbullous) congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE). These phenotypes are now recognized to fall on a continuum; however, the phenotypic descriptions are clinically useful for clarification of prognosis and management. Infants with harlequin ichthyosis are usually born prematurely and are encased in thick, hard, armor-like plates of cornified skin that severely restrict movement. Life-threatening complications in the immediate postnatal period include respiratory distress, feeding problems, and systemic infection. Collodion babies are born with a taut, shiny, translucent or opaque membrane that encases the entire body and lasts for days to weeks. LI and CIE are seemingly distinct phenotypes: classic, severe LI with dark brown, plate-like scale with no erythroderma and CIE with finer whiter scale and underlying generalized redness of the skin. Affected individuals with severe involvement can have ectropion, eclabium, scarring alopecia involving the scalp and eyebrows, and palmar and plantar keratoderma. Besides these major forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis, a few rare subtypes have been recognized, such as bathing suit ichthyosis, self-improving collodion ichthyosis, or ichthyosis-prematurity syndrome.
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis 10
MedGen UID:
767269
Concept ID:
C3554355
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a heterogeneous group of disorders of keratinization characterized primarily by abnormal skin scaling over the whole body. These disorders are limited to skin, with approximately two-thirds of patients presenting severe symptoms. The main skin phenotypes are lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NCIE), although phenotypic overlap within the same patient or among patients from the same family can occur (summary by Fischer, 2009). Neither histopathologic findings nor ultrastructural features clearly distinguish between NCIE and LI. In addition, mutations in several genes have been shown to cause both lamellar and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythrodermal phenotypes (Akiyama et al., 2003). At the First Ichthyosis Consensus Conference in Soreze in 2009, the term 'autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis' (ARCI) was designated to encompass LI, NCIE, and harlequin ichthyosis (ARCI4B; 242500) (Oji et al., 2010). NCIE is characterized by prominent erythroderma and fine white, superficial, semiadherent scales. Most patients present with collodion membrane at birth and have palmoplantar keratoderma, often with painful fissures, digital contractures, and loss of pulp volume. In half of the cases, a nail dystrophy including ridging, subungual hyperkeratosis, or hypoplasia has been described. Ectropion, eclabium, scalp involvement, and loss of eyebrows and lashes seem to be more frequent in NCIE than in lamellar ichthyosis (summary by Fischer et al., 2000). In LI, the scales are large, adherent, dark, and pigmented with no skin erythema. Overlapping phenotypes may depend on the age of the patient and the region of the body. The terminal differentiation of the epidermis is perturbed in both forms, leading to a reduced barrier function and defects of lipid composition in the stratum corneum (summary by Lefevre et al., 2006). In later life, the skin in ARCI may have scales that cover the entire body surface, including the flexural folds, and the scales are highly variable in size and color. Erythema may be very mild and almost invisible. Some affected persons exhibit scarring alopecia, and many have secondary anhidrosis (summary by Eckl et al., 2005). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis, see ARCI1 (242300).
Congenital reticular ichthyosiform erythroderma
MedGen UID:
777141
Concept ID:
C3665704
Disease or Syndrome
Ichthyosis with confetti (IWC), also known as congenital reticular ichthyosiform erythroderma (CRIE), is a rare skin condition characterized by slowly enlarging islands of normal skin surrounded by erythematous ichthyotic patches in a reticulated pattern. The condition starts in infancy as a lamellar ichthyosis, with small islands of normal skin resembling confetti appearing in late childhood and at puberty. Histopathologic findings include band-like parakeratosis, psoriasiform acanthosis, and vacuolization of keratinocytes with binucleated cells in the upper epidermis, sometimes associated with amyloid deposition in the dermis. Ultrastructural abnormalities include perinuclear shells formed from a network of fine filaments in the upper epidermis (summary by Krunic et al., 2003).
Severe dermatitis-multiple allergies-metabolic wasting syndrome
MedGen UID:
816049
Concept ID:
C3809719
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic epidermal disorder with characteristics of congenital erythroderma with severe psoriasiform dermatitis, ichthyosis, severe palmoplantar keratoderma, yellow keratosis on the hands and feet, elevated immunoglobulin E, multiple food allergies, and metabolic wasting. Other variable features may include hypotrichosis, nail dystrophy, recurrent infections, mild global developmental delay, eosinophilia, nystagmus, growth impairment and cardiac defects.
Polyglucosan body myopathy type 1
MedGen UID:
863042
Concept ID:
C4014605
Disease or Syndrome
Polyglucosan body myopathy-1 (PGBM1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset in childhood of progressive proximal muscle weakness, resulting in difficulties in ambulation. Most patients also develop progressive dilated cardiomyopathy, which may necessitate cardiac transplant in severe cases. A small subset of patients present with severe immunodeficiency and a hyperinflammatory state in very early childhood (summary by Boisson et al., 2012 and Nilsson et al., 2013). Genetic Heterogeneity of Polyglucosan Body Myopathy See also PGBM2 (616199), caused by mutation in the GYG1 gene (603942) on chromosome 3q24.
Immunoskeletal dysplasia with neurodevelopmental abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1381460
Concept ID:
C4479452
Disease or Syndrome
Erythrokeratodermia variabilis et progressiva 1
MedGen UID:
1633225
Concept ID:
C4551486
Disease or Syndrome
Erythrokeratodermia variabilis et progressiva (EKVP) is a skin disorder that is present at birth or becomes apparent in infancy. Although its signs and symptoms vary, the condition is characterized by two major features. The first is hyperkeratosis, which is rough, thickened skin. These patches are usually reddish-brown and can either affect many parts of the body or occur in only a small area. They tend to be fixed, meaning they rarely spread or go away. However, the patches can vary in size and shape, and in some affected people they get larger over time. The areas of hyperkeratosis are generally symmetric, which means they occur in the same places on the right and left sides of the body.\n\nThe second major feature of EKVP is patches of reddened skin called erythematous areas. Unlike the hyperkeratosis that occurs in this disorder, the erythematous areas are usually transient, which means they come and go. They vary in size, shape, and location, and can occur anywhere on the body. The redness is more common in childhood and can be triggered by sudden changes in temperature, emotional stress, or trauma or irritation to the area. It usually fades within hours to days.
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis 1
MedGen UID:
1635401
Concept ID:
C4551630
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) encompasses several forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis. Although most neonates with ARCI are collodion babies, the clinical presentation and severity of ARCI may vary significantly, ranging from harlequin ichthyosis, the most severe and often fatal form, to lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and (nonbullous) congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE). These phenotypes are now recognized to fall on a continuum; however, the phenotypic descriptions are clinically useful for clarification of prognosis and management. Infants with harlequin ichthyosis are usually born prematurely and are encased in thick, hard, armor-like plates of cornified skin that severely restrict movement. Life-threatening complications in the immediate postnatal period include respiratory distress, feeding problems, and systemic infection. Collodion babies are born with a taut, shiny, translucent or opaque membrane that encases the entire body and lasts for days to weeks. LI and CIE are seemingly distinct phenotypes: classic, severe LI with dark brown, plate-like scale with no erythroderma and CIE with finer whiter scale and underlying generalized redness of the skin. Affected individuals with severe involvement can have ectropion, eclabium, scarring alopecia involving the scalp and eyebrows, and palmar and plantar keratoderma. Besides these major forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis, a few rare subtypes have been recognized, such as bathing suit ichthyosis, self-improving collodion ichthyosis, or ichthyosis-prematurity syndrome.
Alopecia-intellectual disability syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
1713432
Concept ID:
C5394241
Disease or Syndrome
Alopecia-intellectual disability syndrome-4 (APMR4) is characterized by alopecia universalis, scaly skin, and psychomotor retardation of varying degrees (Besnard et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of alopecia-intellectual disability syndrome, see APMR1 (203650).
IFAP syndrome 1, with or without BRESHECK syndrome
MedGen UID:
1746744
Concept ID:
C5399971
Disease or Syndrome
The IFAP/BRESHECK syndrome is an X-linked multiple congenital anomaly disorder with variable severity. The classic triad, which defines IFAP, is ichthyosis follicularis, atrichia, and photophobia. Some patients have additional features, including mental retardation, brain anomalies, Hirschsprung disease, corneal opacifications, kidney dysplasia, cryptorchidism, cleft palate, and skeletal malformations, particularly of the vertebrae, which constitutes BRESHECK syndrome (summary by Naiki et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of IFAP Syndrome IFAP syndrome-2 (IFAP2; 619016) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the SREBF1 gene (184756) on chromosome 17p11.
Immunodeficiency 85 and autoimmunity
MedGen UID:
1794186
Concept ID:
C5561976
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-85 and autoimmunity (IMD85) is an autosomal dominant immunologic disorder characterized by onset of atopic eczema and recurrent respiratory infections in the first decade of life. Affected individuals also develop autoimmune enteropathy with vomiting, diarrhea, and poor overall growth. More variable features may include autoimmune oligoarthritis, interstitial pneumonitis, and EBV viremia. Laboratory studies show hypogammaglobulinemia and abnormal T-cell function, consistent with a combined immunodeficiency (Keskitalo et al., 2019).
Netherton syndrome
MedGen UID:
1802991
Concept ID:
C5574950
Disease or Syndrome
Netherton syndrome (NETH) is a rare and severe autosomal recessive skin disorder characterized by congenital erythroderma, a specific hair-shaft abnormality, and atopic manifestations with high IgE levels. Generalized scaly erythroderma is apparent at or soon after birth and usually persists. Scalp hair is sparse and brittle with a characteristic 'bamboo' shape under light microscopic examination due to invagination of the distal part of the hair shaft to its proximal part. Atopic manifestations include eczema-like rashes, atopic dermatitis, pruritus, hay fever, angioedema, urticaria, high levels of IgE in the serum, and hypereosinophilia. Life-threatening complications are frequent during the neonatal period, including hypernatremic dehydration, hypothermia, extreme weight loss, bronchopneumonia, and sepsis. During childhood, failure to thrive is common as a result of malnutrition, metabolic disorders, chronic erythroderma, persistent cutaneous infections, or enteropathy (summary by Bitoun et al., 2002).
Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis 1
MedGen UID:
1826137
Concept ID:
C5781874
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis-1 (EHK1) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of cornification. The disorder usually presents at birth with erythema and blistering and is characterized in adulthood by warty flexural hyperkeratosis with fewer erosions and blisters. Ultrastructural analysis reveals clumping of the intermediate filaments within keratinocytes of the spinous and granular layers (summary by Whittock et al., 2001). A form of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis that is limited to the palms and soles, designated palmoplantar keratoderma (EPPK; 144200), can also be caused by mutation in KRT1, as well KRT9 (607606). Genetic Heterogeneity of Epidermolytic Hyperkeratosis Mutation in the KRT10 gene (148080) results in both autosomal dominant (EHK2A; 620150) and autosomal recessive (EHK2B; 620707) forms of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis.
Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis 2
MedGen UID:
1831005
Concept ID:
C5781877
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant epidermolytic hyperkeratosis-2A (EHK2A) is a skin disorder characterized by blistering, keratoderma, and erythroderma. Severity and body involvement show clinical heterogeneity (summary by Syder et al., 1994). While the neonatal presentation is often blistering and redness, the primary features of the disorder are hyperkeratosis (thickening of the uppermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum) and blistering (summary by Chipev et al., 1994). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, see EHK1 (113800).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Cuperus E, Bygum A, Boeckmann L, Bodemer C, Bolling MC, Caproni M, Diociaiuti A, Emmert S, Fischer J, Gostynski A, Guez S, van Gijn ME, Hannulla-Jouppi K, Has C, Hernández-Martín A, Martinez AE, Mazereeuw-Hautier J, Medvecz M, Neri I, Sigurdsson V, Suessmuth K, Traupe H, Oji V, Pasmans SGMA
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2022 Jul;36(7):973-986. Epub 2022 Mar 15 doi: 10.1111/jdv.18043. PMID: 35238435Free PMC Article
Leung AKC, Barankin B, Leong KF
World J Pediatr 2018 Apr;14(2):116-120. Epub 2018 Mar 5 doi: 10.1007/s12519-018-0150-x. PMID: 29508362
Gottlieb M, Long B, Koyfman A
J Emerg Med 2018 Jun;54(6):807-814. Epub 2018 Jan 20 doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2017.12.048. PMID: 29366615

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Cuperus E, Bygum A, Boeckmann L, Bodemer C, Bolling MC, Caproni M, Diociaiuti A, Emmert S, Fischer J, Gostynski A, Guez S, van Gijn ME, Hannulla-Jouppi K, Has C, Hernández-Martín A, Martinez AE, Mazereeuw-Hautier J, Medvecz M, Neri I, Sigurdsson V, Suessmuth K, Traupe H, Oji V, Pasmans SGMA
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2022 Jul;36(7):973-986. Epub 2022 Mar 15 doi: 10.1111/jdv.18043. PMID: 35238435Free PMC Article
Wick MR, Patterson JW
Semin Diagn Pathol 2019 Jul;36(4):211-228. Epub 2019 Jan 31 doi: 10.1053/j.semdp.2019.01.001. PMID: 30736994
Leung AKC, Barankin B, Leong KF
World J Pediatr 2018 Apr;14(2):116-120. Epub 2018 Mar 5 doi: 10.1007/s12519-018-0150-x. PMID: 29508362
Takeichi T, Akiyama M
J Dermatol 2016 Mar;43(3):242-51. doi: 10.1111/1346-8138.13243. PMID: 26945532
Sohn A, Frankel A, Patel RV, Goldenberg G
Mt Sinai J Med 2011 Sep-Oct;78(5):730-9. doi: 10.1002/msj.20289. PMID: 21913202

Diagnosis

Cuperus E, Bygum A, Boeckmann L, Bodemer C, Bolling MC, Caproni M, Diociaiuti A, Emmert S, Fischer J, Gostynski A, Guez S, van Gijn ME, Hannulla-Jouppi K, Has C, Hernández-Martín A, Martinez AE, Mazereeuw-Hautier J, Medvecz M, Neri I, Sigurdsson V, Suessmuth K, Traupe H, Oji V, Pasmans SGMA
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2022 Jul;36(7):973-986. Epub 2022 Mar 15 doi: 10.1111/jdv.18043. PMID: 35238435Free PMC Article
Tso S, Satchwell F, Moiz H, Hari T, Dhariwal S, Barlow R, Forbat E, Randeva H, Tan YT, Ilchyshyn A, Kwok MM, Barber TM, Thind C, Tso ACY
Clin Exp Dermatol 2021 Aug;46(6):1001-1010. Epub 2021 May 1 doi: 10.1111/ced.14625. PMID: 33639006
Cutts L, Bakshi A, Walsh M, Parslew R, Eustace K
Pediatr Dermatol 2021 Mar;38(2):541-543. Epub 2021 Jan 29 doi: 10.1111/pde.14401. PMID: 33511666
Takeichi T, Akiyama M
J Dermatol 2016 Mar;43(3):242-51. doi: 10.1111/1346-8138.13243. PMID: 26945532
Fraitag S, Bodemer C
Curr Opin Pediatr 2010 Aug;22(4):438-44. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0b013e32833bc396. PMID: 20616730

Therapy

Lefferdink R, Rangel SM, Chima M, Ibler E, Pavel AB, Kim H, Wu B, Abu-Zayed H, Wu J, Jackson K, Singer G, Choate KA, Guttman-Yassky E, Paller AS
Arch Dermatol Res 2023 Mar;315(2):305-315. Epub 2022 Feb 26 doi: 10.1007/s00403-022-02325-3. PMID: 35218370Free PMC Article
Dogra S, Mehta H
Expert Opin Biol Ther 2022 Dec;22(12):1531-1543. Epub 2022 Sep 28 doi: 10.1080/14712598.2022.2128669. PMID: 36154361
Leung AKC, Barankin B, Leong KF
World J Pediatr 2018 Apr;14(2):116-120. Epub 2018 Mar 5 doi: 10.1007/s12519-018-0150-x. PMID: 29508362
Gottlieb M, Long B, Koyfman A
J Emerg Med 2018 Jun;54(6):807-814. Epub 2018 Jan 20 doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2017.12.048. PMID: 29366615
Pai SB, Sudershan B, Kuruvilla M, Kamath A, Suresh PK
Indian J Pharmacol 2017 Jan-Feb;49(1):132-134. doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.201027. PMID: 28458440Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Cuperus E, Bygum A, Boeckmann L, Bodemer C, Bolling MC, Caproni M, Diociaiuti A, Emmert S, Fischer J, Gostynski A, Guez S, van Gijn ME, Hannulla-Jouppi K, Has C, Hernández-Martín A, Martinez AE, Mazereeuw-Hautier J, Medvecz M, Neri I, Sigurdsson V, Suessmuth K, Traupe H, Oji V, Pasmans SGMA
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2022 Jul;36(7):973-986. Epub 2022 Mar 15 doi: 10.1111/jdv.18043. PMID: 35238435Free PMC Article
Rindler K, Jonak C, Alkon N, Thaler FM, Kurz H, Shaw LE, Stingl G, Weninger W, Halbritter F, Bauer WM, Farlik M, Brunner PM
Mol Cancer 2021 Sep 28;20(1):124. doi: 10.1186/s12943-021-01419-2. PMID: 34583709Free PMC Article
Tso S, Satchwell F, Moiz H, Hari T, Dhariwal S, Barlow R, Forbat E, Randeva H, Tan YT, Ilchyshyn A, Kwok MM, Barber TM, Thind C, Tso ACY
Clin Exp Dermatol 2021 Aug;46(6):1001-1010. Epub 2021 May 1 doi: 10.1111/ced.14625. PMID: 33639006
Leung AKC, Barankin B, Leong KF
World J Pediatr 2018 Apr;14(2):116-120. Epub 2018 Mar 5 doi: 10.1007/s12519-018-0150-x. PMID: 29508362
Gottlieb M, Long B, Koyfman A
J Emerg Med 2018 Jun;54(6):807-814. Epub 2018 Jan 20 doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2017.12.048. PMID: 29366615

Clinical prediction guides

Lefferdink R, Rangel SM, Chima M, Ibler E, Pavel AB, Kim H, Wu B, Abu-Zayed H, Wu J, Jackson K, Singer G, Choate KA, Guttman-Yassky E, Paller AS
Arch Dermatol Res 2023 Mar;315(2):305-315. Epub 2022 Feb 26 doi: 10.1007/s00403-022-02325-3. PMID: 35218370Free PMC Article
Rindler K, Jonak C, Alkon N, Thaler FM, Kurz H, Shaw LE, Stingl G, Weninger W, Halbritter F, Bauer WM, Farlik M, Brunner PM
Mol Cancer 2021 Sep 28;20(1):124. doi: 10.1186/s12943-021-01419-2. PMID: 34583709Free PMC Article
Hung CT, Tsai TF, Chen JS, Hsieh MS
BMJ Case Rep 2019 Aug 2;12(8) doi: 10.1136/bcr-2018-229163. PMID: 31377716Free PMC Article
Fraitag S, Bodemer C
Curr Opin Pediatr 2010 Aug;22(4):438-44. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0b013e32833bc396. PMID: 20616730
Ofuji S, Furukawa F, Miyachi Y, Ohno S
Dermatologica 1984;169(3):125-30. doi: 10.1159/000249586. PMID: 6148269

Recent systematic reviews

Jfri A, Smith JS, Larocca C
J Am Acad Dermatol 2023 May;88(5):1164-1166. Epub 2022 Dec 5 doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2022.12.001. PMID: 36481378
Wu PC, Huang IH, Wang CW, Tsai CC, Chung WH, Chen CB
Am J Clin Dermatol 2022 Nov;23(6):775-799. Epub 2022 Sep 1 doi: 10.1007/s40257-022-00721-z. PMID: 36048409Free PMC Article
Mashayekhi F, Seirafianpour F, Pour Mohammad A, Goodarzi A
Int J Clin Pract 2021 Dec;75(12):e14720. Epub 2021 Sep 28 doi: 10.1111/ijcp.14720. PMID: 34411409Free PMC Article
Yew YW, Thyssen JP, Silverberg JI
J Am Acad Dermatol 2019 Feb;80(2):390-401. Epub 2018 Oct 1 doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2018.09.035. PMID: 30287309
Hernández-Martín A, González-Sarmiento R
Curr Opin Pediatr 2015 Aug;27(4):473-9. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000239. PMID: 26164154

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