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Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 84(EIEE84; DEE84)

MedGen UID:
1720141
Concept ID:
C5394081
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY, EARLY IFANTILE, 84
 
Gene (location): UGDH (4p14)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0032918
OMIM®: 618792

Definition

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-84 (DEE84) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in the first months or years of life. Affected individuals have severely impaired global development with impaired intellectual development, absent speech, and inability to walk. Other features include axial hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, feeding difficulties that sometimes necessitate tube feeding, and mild dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging may show nonspecific findings such as cerebral/cerebellar atrophy and/or hypomyelination. The severity of the disorder is variable (summary by Hengel et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Gastrostomy tube feeding in infancy
MedGen UID:
892362
Concept ID:
C4023342
Finding
Feeding problem necessitating gastrostomy tube feeding.
Large earlobe
MedGen UID:
334979
Concept ID:
C1844573
Finding
Increased volume of the earlobe, that is, abnormally prominent ear lobules.
Chorea
MedGen UID:
3420
Concept ID:
C0008489
Disease or Syndrome
Chorea (Greek for 'dance') refers to widespread arrhythmic involuntary movements of a forcible, jerky and restless fashion. It is a random-appearing sequence of one or more discrete involuntary movements or movement fragments. Movements appear random because of variability in timing, duration or location. Each movement may have a distinct start and end. However, movements may be strung together and thus may appear to flow randomly from one muscle group to another. Chorea can involve the trunk, neck, face, tongue, and extremities.
Dystonic disorder
MedGen UID:
3940
Concept ID:
C0013421
Sign or Symptom
An abnormally increased muscular tone that causes fixed abnormal postures. There is a slow, intermittent twisting motion that leads to exaggerated turning and posture of the extremities and trunk.
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Babinski sign
MedGen UID:
19708
Concept ID:
C0034935
Finding
Upturning of the big toe (and sometimes fanning of the other toes) in response to stimulation of the sole of the foot. If the Babinski sign is present it can indicate damage to the corticospinal tract.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Opisthotonus
MedGen UID:
56246
Concept ID:
C0151818
Sign or Symptom
Hyperreflexia
MedGen UID:
57738
Concept ID:
C0151889
Finding
Hyperreflexia is the presence of hyperactive stretch reflexes of the muscles.
Areflexia
MedGen UID:
115943
Concept ID:
C0234146
Finding
Absence of neurologic reflexes such as the knee-jerk reaction.
Epileptic encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
452596
Concept ID:
C0543888
Disease or Syndrome
A condition in which epileptiform abnormalities are believed to contribute to the progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Epileptic encephalaopathy is characterized by (1) electrographic EEG paroxysmal activity that is often aggressive, (2) seizures that are usually multiform and intractable, (3) cognitive, behavioral and neurological deficits that may be relentless, and (4) sometimes early death.
Hypsarrhythmia
MedGen UID:
195766
Concept ID:
C0684276
Finding
Hypsarrhythmia is abnormal interictal high amplitude waves and a background of irregular spikes. There is continuous (during wakefulness), high-amplitude (>200 Hz), generalized polymorphic slowing with no organized background and multifocal spikes demonstrated by electroencephalography (EEG).
Epileptic spasm
MedGen UID:
315948
Concept ID:
C1527366
Disease or Syndrome
A sudden flexion, extension, or mixed extension-flexion of predominantly proximal and truncal muscles that is usually more sustained than a myoclonic movement but not as sustained as a tonic seizure. Limited forms may occur
Severe global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
332436
Concept ID:
C1837397
Finding
A severe delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child.
EEG with burst suppression
MedGen UID:
369943
Concept ID:
C1969156
Finding
The burst suppression pattern in electroencephalography refers to a characteristic periodic pattern of low voltage (<10 microvolts) suppressed background and a relatively shorter pattern of higher amplitude slow, sharp, and spiking complexes.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Delayed CNS myelination
MedGen UID:
867393
Concept ID:
C4021758
Anatomical Abnormality
Delayed myelination in the central nervous system.
Delayed ability to sit
MedGen UID:
1368737
Concept ID:
C4476710
Finding
A failure to achieve the ability to sit at an appropriate developmental stage. Most children sit with support at 6 months of age and sit steadily without support at 9 months of age.
Axial hypotonia
MedGen UID:
342959
Concept ID:
C1853743
Finding
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) affecting the musculature of the trunk.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Plagiocephaly
MedGen UID:
1825944
Concept ID:
C2081594
Finding
Asymmetric head shape, which is usually a combination of unilateral occipital flattening with ipsilateral frontal prominence, leading to rhomboid cranial shape.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Blepharophimosis
MedGen UID:
2670
Concept ID:
C0005744
Congenital Abnormality
A fixed reduction in the vertical distance between the upper and lower eyelids with short palpebral fissures.
Short palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98067
Concept ID:
C0423112
Finding
Distance between the medial and lateral canthi is more than 2 SD below the mean for age (objective); or, apparently reduced length of the palpebral fissures.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Smooth philtrum
MedGen UID:
222980
Concept ID:
C1142533
Finding
Flat skin surface, with no ridge formation in the central region of the upper lip between the nasal base and upper vermilion border.
Thick lower lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
326567
Concept ID:
C1839739
Finding
Increased thickness of the lower lip, leading to a prominent appearance of the lower lip. The height of the vermilion of the lower lip in the midline is more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased height of the vermilion of the lower lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Pointed chin
MedGen UID:
336193
Concept ID:
C1844505
Finding
A marked tapering of the lower face to the chin.
Synophrys
MedGen UID:
98132
Concept ID:
C0431447
Congenital Abnormality
Meeting of the medial eyebrows in the midline.
Ptosis
MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Disease or Syndrome
The upper eyelid margin is positioned 3 mm or more lower than usual and covers the superior portion of the iris (objective); or, the upper lid margin obscures at least part of the pupil (subjective).
Deeply set eye
MedGen UID:
473112
Concept ID:
C0423224
Finding
An eye that is more deeply recessed into the plane of the face than is typical.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Reilly C, Jette N, Johnson EC, Kariuki SM, Meredith F, Wirrell E, Mula M, Smith ML, Walsh S, Fong CY, Wilmshurst JM, Kerr M, Valente K, Auvin S
Epilepsia 2023 Dec;64(12):3160-3195. Epub 2023 Oct 7 doi: 10.1111/epi.17768. PMID: 37804168
Thiel M, Bamborschke D, Janzarik WG, Assmann B, Zittel S, Patzer S, Auhuber A, Opp J, Matzker E, Bevot A, Seeger J, van Baalen A, Stüve B, Brockmann K, Cirak S, Koy A
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2023 Oct;94(10):806-815. Epub 2023 May 24 doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2022-330261. PMID: 37225406
Leal-Pardinas F, Truty R, McKnight DA, Johnson B, Morales A, Bristow SL, Yar Pang T, Cohen-Pfeffer J, Izzo E, Sankar R, Koh S, Wirrell EC, Millichap JJ, Aradhya S
Epilepsia 2022 Jul;63(7):e68-e73. Epub 2022 May 10 doi: 10.1111/epi.17269. PMID: 35474188Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Donnan AM, Schneider AL, Russ-Hall S, Churilov L, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2023 Apr 18;100(16):e1712-e1722. Epub 2023 Feb 7 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207080. PMID: 36750385Free PMC Article
Poke G, Stanley J, Scheffer IE, Sadleir LG
Neurology 2023 Mar 28;100(13):e1363-e1375. Epub 2022 Dec 29 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000206758. PMID: 36581463Free PMC Article
Pisani F, Spagnoli C
Handb Clin Neurol 2019;162:401-414. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-64029-1.00019-9. PMID: 31324322
Mulhern MS, Stumpel C, Stong N, Brunner HG, Bier L, Lippa N, Riviello J, Rouhl RPW, Kempers M, Pfundt R, Stegmann APA, Kukolich MK, Telegrafi A, Lehman A; CAUSES study, Lopez-Rangel E, Houcinat N, Barth M, den Hollander N, Hoffer MJV, Weckhuysen S; EuroEPINOMICS-RES-MAE working group, Roovers J, Djemie T, Barca D, Ceulemans B, Craiu D, Lemke JR, Korff C, Mefford HC, Meyers CT, Siegler Z, Hiatt SM, Cooper GM, Bebin EM, Snijders Blok L, Veenstra-Knol HE, Baugh EH, Brilstra EH, Volker-Touw CML, van Binsbergen E, Revah-Politi A, Pereira E, McBrian D, Pacault M, Isidor B, Le Caignec C, Gilbert-Dussardier B, Bilan F, Heinzen EL, Goldstein DB, Stevens SJC, Sands TT
Ann Neurol 2018 Nov;84(5):788-795. Epub 2018 Oct 25 doi: 10.1002/ana.25350. PMID: 30269351Free PMC Article
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Donnan AM, Schneider AL, Russ-Hall S, Churilov L, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2023 Apr 18;100(16):e1712-e1722. Epub 2023 Feb 7 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207080. PMID: 36750385Free PMC Article
Poke G, Stanley J, Scheffer IE, Sadleir LG
Neurology 2023 Mar 28;100(13):e1363-e1375. Epub 2022 Dec 29 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000206758. PMID: 36581463Free PMC Article
Courage C, Oliver KL, Park EJ, Cameron JM, Grabińska KA, Muona M, Canafoglia L, Gambardella A, Said E, Afawi Z, Baykan B, Brandt C, di Bonaventura C, Chew HB, Criscuolo C, Dibbens LM, Castellotti B, Riguzzi P, Labate A, Filla A, Giallonardo AT, Berecki G, Jackson CB, Joensuu T, Damiano JA, Kivity S, Korczyn A, Palotie A, Striano P, Uccellini D, Giuliano L, Andermann E, Scheffer IE, Michelucci R, Bahlo M, Franceschetti S, Sessa WC, Berkovic SF, Lehesjoki AE
Am J Hum Genet 2021 Apr 1;108(4):722-738. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.03.013. PMID: 33798445Free PMC Article
D'Antonio F, Pagani G, Familiari A, Khalil A, Sagies TL, Malinger G, Leibovitz Z, Garel C, Moutard ML, Pilu G, Bhide A, Acharya G, Leombroni M, Manzoli L, Papageorghiou A, Prefumo F
Pediatrics 2016 Sep;138(3) doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-0445. PMID: 27581855
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Therapy

Reilly C, Jette N, Johnson EC, Kariuki SM, Meredith F, Wirrell E, Mula M, Smith ML, Walsh S, Fong CY, Wilmshurst JM, Kerr M, Valente K, Auvin S
Epilepsia 2023 Dec;64(12):3160-3195. Epub 2023 Oct 7 doi: 10.1111/epi.17768. PMID: 37804168
Baumer FM, Mytinger JR, Neville K, Briscoe Abath C, Gutierrez CA, Numis AL, Harini C, He Z, Hussain SA, Berg AT, Chu CJ, Gaillard WD, Loddenkemper T, Pasupuleti A, Samanta D, Singh RK, Singhal NS, Wusthoff CJ, Wirrell EC, Yozawitz E, Knupp KG, Shellhaas RA, Grinspan ZM; Pediatric Epilepsy Research Consortium; National Infantile Spasms Consortium
Ann Neurol 2022 Jul;92(1):32-44. Epub 2022 Apr 28 doi: 10.1002/ana.26363. PMID: 35388521Free PMC Article
Kuersten M, Tacke M, Gerstl L, Hoelz H, Stülpnagel CV, Borggraefe I
Eur J Med Genet 2020 Jan;63(1):103628. Epub 2019 Feb 14 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2019.02.001. PMID: 30771507
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article
von Rosenstiel P
Neurotherapeutics 2007 Jan;4(1):84-7. doi: 10.1016/j.nurt.2006.11.004. PMID: 17199019Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Cloppenborg T, van Schooneveld M, Hagemann A, Hopf JL, Kalbhenn T, Otte WM, Polster T, Bien CG, Braun KPJ
Neurology 2022 Jan 18;98(3):e225-e235. Epub 2021 Nov 18 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000013065. PMID: 34795046
İpek R, Makharoblidze K, Polat BG, Direk MÇ, Yıldırım DD, Kömür M, Okuyaz Ç
Turk J Pediatr 2021;63(4):602-611. doi: 10.24953/turkjped.2021.04.007. PMID: 34449142
Kuersten M, Tacke M, Gerstl L, Hoelz H, Stülpnagel CV, Borggraefe I
Eur J Med Genet 2020 Jan;63(1):103628. Epub 2019 Feb 14 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2019.02.001. PMID: 30771507
Pisani F, Spagnoli C
Handb Clin Neurol 2019;162:401-414. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-64029-1.00019-9. PMID: 31324322
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Donnan AM, Schneider AL, Russ-Hall S, Churilov L, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2023 Apr 18;100(16):e1712-e1722. Epub 2023 Feb 7 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207080. PMID: 36750385Free PMC Article
Cloppenborg T, van Schooneveld M, Hagemann A, Hopf JL, Kalbhenn T, Otte WM, Polster T, Bien CG, Braun KPJ
Neurology 2022 Jan 18;98(3):e225-e235. Epub 2021 Nov 18 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000013065. PMID: 34795046
Pisani F, Spagnoli C
Handb Clin Neurol 2019;162:401-414. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-64029-1.00019-9. PMID: 31324322
D'Antonio F, Pagani G, Familiari A, Khalil A, Sagies TL, Malinger G, Leibovitz Z, Garel C, Moutard ML, Pilu G, Bhide A, Acharya G, Leombroni M, Manzoli L, Papageorghiou A, Prefumo F
Pediatrics 2016 Sep;138(3) doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-0445. PMID: 27581855
von Rosenstiel P
Neurotherapeutics 2007 Jan;4(1):84-7. doi: 10.1016/j.nurt.2006.11.004. PMID: 17199019Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Reilly C, Jette N, Johnson EC, Kariuki SM, Meredith F, Wirrell E, Mula M, Smith ML, Walsh S, Fong CY, Wilmshurst JM, Kerr M, Valente K, Auvin S
Epilepsia 2023 Dec;64(12):3160-3195. Epub 2023 Oct 7 doi: 10.1111/epi.17768. PMID: 37804168
Yates CF, Malone S, Riney K, Shah U, Wood MJ
Pediatr Neurosurg 2023;58(1):18-28. Epub 2023 Jan 13 doi: 10.1159/000529098. PMID: 36693334Free PMC Article
Englman C, Malpas CB, Harvey AS, Maixner WJ, Yang JY
J Clin Neurosci 2021 Sep;91:1-8. Epub 2021 Jun 27 doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2021.06.035. PMID: 34373012
Kuersten M, Tacke M, Gerstl L, Hoelz H, Stülpnagel CV, Borggraefe I
Eur J Med Genet 2020 Jan;63(1):103628. Epub 2019 Feb 14 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2019.02.001. PMID: 30771507
Bromley R, Weston J, Adab N, Greenhalgh J, Sanniti A, McKay AJ, Tudur Smith C, Marson AG
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014 Oct 30;2014(10):CD010236. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010236.pub2. PMID: 25354543Free PMC Article

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