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Blepharophimosis-impaired intellectual development syndrome(BIS)

MedGen UID:
1779966
Concept ID:
C5443984
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: BIS; BLEPHAROPHIMOSIS-IMPAIRED INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT SYNDROME
 
Gene (location): SMARCA2 (9p24.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0859139
OMIM®: 619293

Definition

Blepharophimosis-impaired intellectual development syndrome (BIS) is a congenital disorder characterized by a distinct facial appearance with blepharophimosis and global development delay. Affected individuals have delayed motor skills, sometimes with inability to walk, and impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech; some patients show behavioral abnormalities. There are recognizable facial features, including epicanthal folds, sparse eyebrows, broad nasal bridge, short nose with downturned tip, and open mouth with thin upper lip. Other more variable features include distal skeletal anomalies, feeding difficulties with poor growth, respiratory infections, and hypotonia with peripheral spasticity (summary by Cappuccio et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Enuresis
MedGen UID:
8649
Concept ID:
C0014394
Disease or Syndrome
Lack of the ability to control the urinary bladder leading to involuntary urination at an age where control of the bladder should already be possible.
Recurrent urinary tract infections
MedGen UID:
120466
Concept ID:
C0262655
Disease or Syndrome
Repeated infections of the urinary tract.
Hypospadias
MedGen UID:
163083
Concept ID:
C0848558
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormal position of urethral meatus on the ventral penile shaft (underside) characterized by displacement of the urethral meatus from the tip of the glans penis to the ventral surface of the penis, scrotum, or perineum.
Labial hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
342473
Concept ID:
C1850325
Finding
Clubfoot
MedGen UID:
3130
Concept ID:
C0009081
Congenital Abnormality
Clubfoot is a congenital limb deformity defined as fixation of the foot in cavus, adductus, varus, and equinus (i.e., inclined inwards, axially rotated outwards, and pointing downwards) with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities (Cardy et al., 2007). Clubfoot may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome (e.g., diastrophic dysplasia, 222600). Clubfoot has been reported with deficiency of long bones and mirror-image polydactyly (Gurnett et al., 2008; Klopocki et al., 2012).
Pes planus
MedGen UID:
42034
Concept ID:
C0016202
Anatomical Abnormality
A foot where the longitudinal arch of the foot is in contact with the ground or floor when the individual is standing; or, in a patient lying supine, a foot where the arch is in contact with the surface of a flat board pressed against the sole of the foot by the examiner with a pressure similar to that expected from weight bearing; or, the height of the arch is reduced.
Tapered finger
MedGen UID:
98098
Concept ID:
C0426886
Finding
The gradual reduction in girth of the finger from proximal to distal.
Short distal phalanx of finger
MedGen UID:
326590
Concept ID:
C1839829
Finding
Short distance from the end of the finger to the most distal interphalangeal crease or the distal interphalangeal joint flexion point. That is, hypoplasia of one or more of the distal phalanx of finger.
Clinodactyly of the 5th finger
MedGen UID:
340456
Concept ID:
C1850049
Congenital Abnormality
Clinodactyly refers to a bending or curvature of the fifth finger in the radial direction (i.e., towards the 4th finger).
Patent ductus arteriosus
MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
In utero, the ductus arteriosus (DA) serves to divert ventricular output away from the lungs and toward the placenta by connecting the main pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the first 3 days of life is a physiologic shunt in healthy term and preterm newborn infants, and normally is substantially closed within about 24 hours after bith and completely closed after about three weeks. Failure of physiologcal closure is referred to a persistent or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Depending on the degree of left-to-right shunting, PDA can have clinical consequences.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Gastroesophageal reflux
MedGen UID:
1368658
Concept ID:
C4317146
Finding
A condition in which the stomach contents leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus through the lower esophageal sphincter.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
96566
Concept ID:
C0431478
Congenital Abnormality
A type of abnormal location of the ears in which the position of the ears is characterized by posterior rotation (the superior part of the ears is rotated towards the back of the head, and the inferior part of the ears towards the front).
Chiari malformation
MedGen UID:
2065
Concept ID:
C0003803
Congenital Abnormality
Chiari malformation consists of a downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils and the medulla through the foramen magnum, sometimes causing hydrocephalus as a result of obstruction of CSF outflow.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Motor stereotypies
MedGen UID:
21318
Concept ID:
C0038271
Individual Behavior
Use of the same abnormal action in response to certain triggers or at random. They may be used as a way to regulate one's internal state but must otherwise have no apparent functional purpose.
Delayed ability to walk
MedGen UID:
66034
Concept ID:
C0241726
Finding
A failure to achieve the ability to walk at an appropriate developmental stage. Most children learn to walk in a series of stages, and learn to walk short distances independently between 12 and 15 months.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Low frustration tolerance
MedGen UID:
108189
Concept ID:
C0548883
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
The feeling of frustration can be defined as an emotional reaction that occurs when a desired goal is not achieved. Frustration intolerance is defined as an age-inappropriate response to frustration, characterized by crying or temper tantrums in children, or aggressive or other undesirable behaviors.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Autistic behavior
MedGen UID:
163547
Concept ID:
C0856975
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Persistent deficits in social interaction and communication and interaction as well as a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest as well as repetitive patterns of behavior.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an inability to be calm and stay still (hyperactivity), and poor impulse control (impulsivity). Some people with ADHD have problems with only inattention or with hyperactivity and impulsivity, but most have problems related to all three features.\n\nIn people with ADHD, the characteristic behaviors are frequent and severe enough to interfere with the activities of daily living such as school, work, and relationships with others. Because of an inability to stay focused on tasks, people with inattention may be easily distracted, forgetful, avoid tasks that require sustained attention, have difficulty organizing tasks, or frequently lose items.\n\nImpulsivity can result in hasty actions without thought for the consequences. Individuals with poor impulse control may have difficulty waiting for their turn, deferring to others, or considering their actions before acting.\n\nHyperactivity is usually shown by frequent movement. Individuals with this feature often fidget or tap their foot when seated, leave their seat when it is inappropriate to do so (such as in the classroom), or talk a lot and interrupt others.\n\nMore than two-thirds of all individuals with ADHD have additional conditions, including insomnia, mood or anxiety disorders, learning disorders, or substance use disorders. Affected individuals may also have autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction, or Tourette syndrome, which is a disorder characterized by repetitive and involuntary movements or noises called tics.\n\nIn most affected individuals, ADHD continues throughout life, but in about one-third of individuals, signs and symptoms of ADHD go away by adulthood.
Hypoplasia of the pons
MedGen UID:
341246
Concept ID:
C1848529
Finding
Underdevelopment of the pons.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Overfriendliness
MedGen UID:
867995
Concept ID:
C4022386
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A form of hypersociability that presents as mostly inappropriate people-orientation and friendliness towards others on an inadequate level which might go as far as being dangerous considering for example young children following strangers without restriction.
Thin corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
1785336
Concept ID:
C5441562
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormally thin corpus callous, due to atrophy, hypoplasia or agenesis. This term is intended to be used in situations where it is not known if thinning of the corpus callosum (for instance, as visualized by magnetic resonance tomography) is due to abnormal development (e.g. a leukodystrophy) or atrophy following normal development (e.g. neurodegeneration).
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Frontal bossing
MedGen UID:
67453
Concept ID:
C0221354
Congenital Abnormality
Bilateral bulging of the lateral frontal bone prominences with relative sparing of the midline.
Flexion contracture
MedGen UID:
83069
Concept ID:
C0333068
Anatomical Abnormality
A flexion contracture is a bent (flexed) joint that cannot be straightened actively or passively. It is thus a chronic loss of joint motion due to structural changes in muscle, tendons, ligaments, or skin that prevents normal movement of joints.
Delayed skeletal maturation
MedGen UID:
108148
Concept ID:
C0541764
Finding
A decreased rate of skeletal maturation. Delayed skeletal maturation can be diagnosed on the basis of an estimation of the bone age from radiographs of specific bones in the human body.
Joint hypermobility
MedGen UID:
336793
Concept ID:
C1844820
Finding
The capability that a joint (or a group of joints) has to move, passively and/or actively, beyond normal limits along physiological axes.
Plagiocephaly
MedGen UID:
1825944
Concept ID:
C2081594
Finding
Asymmetric head shape, which is usually a combination of unilateral occipital flattening with ipsilateral frontal prominence, leading to rhomboid cranial shape.
Developmental dysplasia of the hip
MedGen UID:
1640560
Concept ID:
C4551649
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital dysplasia of the hip (CDH) is an abnormality of the seating of the femoral head in the acetabulum. Its severity ranges from mild instability of the femoral head with slight capsular laxity, through moderate lateral displacement of the femoral head, without loss of contact of the head with the acetabulum, up to complete dislocation of the femoral head from the acetabulum. It is one of the most common skeletal congenital anomalies (summary by Sollazzo et al., 2000). Acetabular dysplasia is an idiopathic, localized developmental dysplasia of the hip that is characterized by a shallow hip socket and decreased coverage of the femoral head. Its radiologic criteria include the center-edge angle of Wiberg, the Sharp angle, and the acetabular roof obliquity. Most patients with acetabular dysplasia develop osteoarthritis (165720) after midlife, and even mild acetabular dysplasia can cause hip osteoarthritis (summary by Mabuchi et al., 2006). CDH occurs as an isolated anomaly or with more general disorders represented by several syndromes and with chromosomal abnormalities such as trisomy 18 (Wynne-Davies, 1970). Genetic Heterogeneity of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Developmental dysplasia of the hip-1 (DDH1) maps to chromosome 13q22; DDH2 (615612) maps to chromosome 3p21. DDH3 (620690) is caused by mutation in the LRP1 gene (107770) on chromosome 12q13.
Recurrent pneumonia
MedGen UID:
195802
Concept ID:
C0694550
Disease or Syndrome
An increased susceptibility to pneumonia as manifested by a history of recurrent episodes of pneumonia.
Recurrent bronchitis
MedGen UID:
148159
Concept ID:
C0741796
Disease or Syndrome
An increased susceptibility to bronchitis as manifested by a history of recurrent bronchitis.
Blepharophimosis
MedGen UID:
2670
Concept ID:
C0005744
Congenital Abnormality
A fixed reduction in the vertical distance between the upper and lower eyelids with short palpebral fissures.
Enamel hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
3730
Concept ID:
C0011351
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental hypoplasia of the dental enamel.
Drooling
MedGen UID:
8484
Concept ID:
C0013132
Finding
Habitual flow of saliva out of the mouth.
Wide mouth
MedGen UID:
44238
Concept ID:
C0024433
Congenital Abnormality
Distance between the oral commissures more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased width of the oral aperture (subjective).
Dental malocclusion
MedGen UID:
9869
Concept ID:
C0024636
Anatomical Abnormality
Dental malocclusion refers to an abnormality of the occlusion, or alignment, of the teeth and the way the upper and lower teeth fit together, resulting in overcrowding of teeth or in abnormal bite patterns.
Microdontia
MedGen UID:
66008
Concept ID:
C0240340
Congenital Abnormality
Decreased size of the teeth, which can be defined as a mesiodistal tooth diameter (width) more than 2 SD below mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased maximum width of tooth.
Wide nose
MedGen UID:
140869
Concept ID:
C0426421
Finding
Interalar distance more than two standard deviations above the mean for age, i.e., an apparently increased width of the nasal base and alae.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Sparse eyebrow
MedGen UID:
371332
Concept ID:
C1832446
Finding
Decreased density/number of eyebrow hairs.
Underdeveloped nasal alae
MedGen UID:
322332
Concept ID:
C1834055
Congenital Abnormality
Thinned, deficient, or excessively arched ala nasi.
Narrow nasal ridge
MedGen UID:
373404
Concept ID:
C1837761
Finding
Decreased width of the nasal ridge.
Anteverted nares
MedGen UID:
326648
Concept ID:
C1840077
Finding
Anteriorly-facing nostrils viewed with the head in the Frankfurt horizontal and the eyes of the observer level with the eyes of the subject. This gives the appearance of an upturned nose (upturned nasal tip).
Low anterior hairline
MedGen UID:
331280
Concept ID:
C1842366
Finding
Distance between the hairline (trichion) and the glabella (the most prominent point on the frontal bone above the root of the nose), in the midline, more than two SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased distance between the hairline and the glabella.
Widely spaced teeth
MedGen UID:
337093
Concept ID:
C1844813
Finding
Increased spaces (diastemata) between most of the teeth in the same dental arch.
Wide nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
341441
Concept ID:
C1849367
Finding
Increased breadth of the nasal bridge (and with it, the nasal root).
Exaggerated cupid bow
MedGen UID:
376842
Concept ID:
C1850629
Finding
More pronounced paramedian peaks and median notch of the Cupid's bow.
Flat face
MedGen UID:
342829
Concept ID:
C1853241
Finding
Absence of concavity or convexity of the face when viewed in profile.
Thick eyebrow
MedGen UID:
377914
Concept ID:
C1853487
Finding
Increased density/number and/or increased diameter of eyebrow hairs.
Sparse scalp hair
MedGen UID:
346499
Concept ID:
C1857042
Finding
Decreased number of hairs per unit area of skin of the scalp.
Short philtrum
MedGen UID:
350006
Concept ID:
C1861324
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Thin upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
355352
Concept ID:
C1865017
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the midline more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Highly arched eyebrow
MedGen UID:
358357
Concept ID:
C1868571
Finding
Increased height of the central portion of the eyebrow, forming a crescent, semicircular, or inverted U shape.
Narrow palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
382506
Concept ID:
C2675021
Finding
Reduction in the vertical distance between the upper and lower eyelids.
Dimple chin
MedGen UID:
1370532
Concept ID:
C4317152
Anatomical Abnormality
A persistent midline depression of the skin over the fat pad of the chin.
Synophrys
MedGen UID:
98132
Concept ID:
C0431447
Congenital Abnormality
Meeting of the medial eyebrows in the midline.
Sparse eyelashes
MedGen UID:
375151
Concept ID:
C1843300
Finding
Decreased density/number of eyelashes.
Long eyelashes
MedGen UID:
342955
Concept ID:
C1853738
Finding
Mid upper eyelash length >10 mm or increased length of the eyelashes (subjective).
Aplastic/hypoplastic toenail
MedGen UID:
347294
Concept ID:
C1856749
Finding
Absence or underdevelopment of the toenail.
Ptosis
MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Disease or Syndrome
The upper eyelid margin is positioned 3 mm or more lower than usual and covers the superior portion of the iris (objective); or, the upper lid margin obscures at least part of the pupil (subjective).
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Häberle J, Burlina A, Chakrapani A, Dixon M, Karall D, Lindner M, Mandel H, Martinelli D, Pintos-Morell G, Santer R, Skouma A, Servais A, Tal G, Rubio V, Huemer M, Dionisi-Vici C
J Inherit Metab Dis 2019 Nov;42(6):1192-1230. Epub 2019 May 15 doi: 10.1002/jimd.12100. PMID: 30982989
Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, Beam C, Birtcher KK, Blumenthal RS, Braun LT, de Ferranti S, Faiella-Tommasino J, Forman DE, Goldberg R, Heidenreich PA, Hlatky MA, Jones DW, Lloyd-Jones D, Lopez-Pajares N, Ndumele CE, Orringer CE, Peralta CA, Saseen JJ, Smith SC Jr, Sperling L, Virani SS, Yeboah J
Circulation 2019 Jun 18;139(25):e1082-e1143. Epub 2018 Nov 10 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000625. PMID: 30586774Free PMC Article
Sanchack KE, Thomas CA
Am Fam Physician 2016 Dec 15;94(12):972-979. PMID: 28075089

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Gómez-Roig MD, Pascal R, Cahuana MJ, García-Algar O, Sebastiani G, Andreu-Fernández V, Martínez L, Rodríguez G, Iglesia I, Ortiz-Arrabal O, Mesa MD, Cabero MJ, Guerra L, Llurba E, Domínguez C, Zanini MJ, Foraster M, Larqué E, Cabañas F, Lopez-Azorín M, Pérez A, Loureiro B, Pallás-Alonso CR, Escuder-Vieco D, Vento M
Fetal Diagn Ther 2021;48(4):245-257. Epub 2021 Mar 18 doi: 10.1159/000514884. PMID: 33735860
Zollino M, Zweier C, Van Balkom ID, Sweetser DA, Alaimo J, Bijlsma EK, Cody J, Elsea SH, Giurgea I, Macchiaiolo M, Smigiel R, Thibert RL, Benoist I, Clayton-Smith J, De Winter CF, Deckers S, Gandhi A, Huisman S, Kempink D, Kruisinga F, Lamacchia V, Marangi G, Menke L, Mulder P, Nordgren A, Renieri A, Routledge S, Saunders CJ, Stembalska A, Van Balkom H, Whalen S, Hennekam RC
Clin Genet 2019 Apr;95(4):462-478. Epub 2019 Feb 18 doi: 10.1111/cge.13506. PMID: 30677142
Niturad CE, Lev D, Kalscheuer VM, Charzewska A, Schubert J, Lerman-Sagie T, Kroes HY, Oegema R, Traverso M, Specchio N, Lassota M, Chelly J, Bennett-Back O, Carmi N, Koffler-Brill T, Iacomino M, Trivisano M, Capovilla G, Striano P, Nawara M, Rzonca S, Fischer U, Bienek M, Jensen C, Hu H, Thiele H, Altmüller J, Krause R, May P, Becker F; EuroEPINOMICS Consortium, Balling R, Biskup S, Haas SA, Nürnberg P, van Gassen KLI, Lerche H, Zara F, Maljevic S, Leshinsky-Silver E
Brain 2017 Nov 1;140(11):2879-2894. doi: 10.1093/brain/awx236. PMID: 29053855
Grieco J, Pulsifer M, Seligsohn K, Skotko B, Schwartz A
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2015 Jun;169(2):135-49. Epub 2015 May 18 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31439. PMID: 25989505
Troiano M
Nurs Clin North Am 2011 Dec;46(4):413-22, v. doi: 10.1016/j.cnur.2011.08.009. PMID: 22055898

Diagnosis

Levy T, Siper PM, Lerman B, Halpern D, Zweifach J, Belani P, Thurm A, Kleefstra T, Berry-Kravis E, Buxbaum JD, Grice DE
Pediatr Neurol 2023 Jan;138:87-94. Epub 2022 Oct 27 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2022.10.009. PMID: 36434914
Urakami T
Minerva Pediatr 2020 Dec;72(6):472-483. Epub 2020 Aug 4 doi: 10.23736/S0026-4946.20.05971-X. PMID: 32748612
Aref-Eshghi E, Kerkhof J, Pedro VP; Groupe DI France, Barat-Houari M, Ruiz-Pallares N, Andrau JC, Lacombe D, Van-Gils J, Fergelot P, Dubourg C, Cormier-Daire V, Rondeau S, Lecoquierre F, Saugier-Veber P, Nicolas G, Lesca G, Chatron N, Sanlaville D, Vitobello A, Faivre L, Thauvin-Robinet C, Laumonnier F, Raynaud M, Alders M, Mannens M, Henneman P, Hennekam RC, Velasco G, Francastel C, Ulveling D, Ciolfi A, Pizzi S, Tartaglia M, Heide S, Héron D, Mignot C, Keren B, Whalen S, Afenjar A, Bienvenu T, Campeau PM, Rousseau J, Levy MA, Brick L, Kozenko M, Balci TB, Siu VM, Stuart A, Kadour M, Masters J, Takano K, Kleefstra T, de Leeuw N, Field M, Shaw M, Gecz J, Ainsworth PJ, Lin H, Rodenhiser DI, Friez MJ, Tedder M, Lee JA, DuPont BR, Stevenson RE, Skinner SA, Schwartz CE, Genevieve D, Sadikovic B
Am J Hum Genet 2020 Mar 5;106(3):356-370. Epub 2020 Feb 27 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.01.019. PMID: 32109418Free PMC Article
Harris J
Int Rev Psychiatry 2018 Feb;30(1):3-17. Epub 2018 Apr 18 doi: 10.1080/09540261.2018.1455646. PMID: 29667863
Garavelli L, Mainardi PC
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Oct 24;2:42. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-42. PMID: 17958891Free PMC Article

Therapy

DiSilvestro P, Banerjee S, Colombo N, Scambia G, Kim BG, Oaknin A, Friedlander M, Lisyanskaya A, Floquet A, Leary A, Sonke GS, Gourley C, Oza A, González-Martín A, Aghajanian C, Bradley W, Mathews C, Liu J, McNamara J, Lowe ES, Ah-See ML, Moore KN; SOLO1 Investigators
J Clin Oncol 2023 Jan 20;41(3):609-617. Epub 2022 Sep 9 doi: 10.1200/JCO.22.01549. PMID: 36082969Free PMC Article
Morris EC, Neelapu SS, Giavridis T, Sadelain M
Nat Rev Immunol 2022 Feb;22(2):85-96. Epub 2021 May 17 doi: 10.1038/s41577-021-00547-6. PMID: 34002066Free PMC Article
Samanta D
Pediatr Neurol 2020 Apr;105:3-9. Epub 2019 Nov 30 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2019.10.009. PMID: 32057594
Sanchack KE, Thomas CA
Am Fam Physician 2016 Dec 15;94(12):972-979. PMID: 28075089
Colver A, Fairhurst C, Pharoah PO
Lancet 2014 Apr 5;383(9924):1240-9. Epub 2013 Nov 20 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61835-8. PMID: 24268104

Prognosis

DiSilvestro P, Banerjee S, Colombo N, Scambia G, Kim BG, Oaknin A, Friedlander M, Lisyanskaya A, Floquet A, Leary A, Sonke GS, Gourley C, Oza A, González-Martín A, Aghajanian C, Bradley W, Mathews C, Liu J, McNamara J, Lowe ES, Ah-See ML, Moore KN; SOLO1 Investigators
J Clin Oncol 2023 Jan 20;41(3):609-617. Epub 2022 Sep 9 doi: 10.1200/JCO.22.01549. PMID: 36082969Free PMC Article
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Blood Cancer J 2022 Feb 24;12(2):32. doi: 10.1038/s41408-022-00629-1. PMID: 35210399Free PMC Article
Strosberg JR, Caplin ME, Kunz PL, Ruszniewski PB, Bodei L, Hendifar A, Mittra E, Wolin EM, Yao JC, Pavel ME, Grande E, Van Cutsem E, Seregni E, Duarte H, Gericke G, Bartalotta A, Mariani MF, Demange A, Mutevelic S, Krenning EP; NETTER-1 investigators
Lancet Oncol 2021 Dec;22(12):1752-1763. Epub 2021 Nov 15 doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00572-6. PMID: 34793718
Roddie C, Dias J, O'Reilly MA, Abbasian M, Cadinanos-Garai A, Vispute K, Bosshard-Carter L, Mitsikakou M, Mehra V, Roddy H, Hartley JA, Spanswick V, Lowe H, Popova B, Clifton-Hadley L, Wheeler G, Olejnik J, Bloor A, Irvine D, Wood L, Marzolini MAV, Domning S, Farzaneh F, Lowdell MW, Linch DC, Pule MA, Peggs KS
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Brunklaus A, Pérez-Palma E, Ghanty I, Xinge J, Brilstra E, Ceulemans B, Chemaly N, de Lange I, Depienne C, Guerrini R, Mei D, Møller RS, Nabbout R, Regan BM, Schneider AL, Scheffer IE, Schoonjans AS, Symonds JD, Weckhuysen S, Kattan MW, Zuberi SM, Lal D
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Recent systematic reviews

Baxter NN, Kennedy EB, Bergsland E, Berlin J, George TJ, Gill S, Gold PJ, Hantel A, Jones L, Lieu C, Mahmoud N, Morris AM, Ruiz-Garcia E, You YN, Meyerhardt JA
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