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Akinesia

MedGen UID:
43218
Concept ID:
C0085623
Finding
SNOMED CT: Akinesia (33994004)
 
HPO: HP:0002304

Definition

Inability to initiate changes in activity or movement and to perform ordinary volitional movements rapidly and easily. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Pigmentary pallidal degeneration
MedGen UID:
6708
Concept ID:
C0018523
Disease or Syndrome
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a type of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). The phenotypic spectrum of PKAN includes classic PKAN and atypical PKAN. Classic PKAN is characterized by early-childhood onset of progressive dystonia, dysarthria, rigidity, and choreoathetosis. Pigmentary retinal degeneration is common. Atypical PKAN is characterized by later onset (age >10 years), prominent speech defects, psychiatric disturbances, and more gradual progression of disease.
Supranuclear palsy, progressive, 2
MedGen UID:
324446
Concept ID:
C1836148
Disease or Syndrome
Gaucher disease perinatal lethal
MedGen UID:
374996
Concept ID:
C1842704
Disease or Syndrome
Gaucher disease (GD) encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from a perinatal lethal disorder to an asymptomatic type. The identification of three major clinical types (1, 2, and 3) and two other subtypes (perinatal-lethal and cardiovascular) is useful in determining prognosis and management. GD type 1 is characterized by the presence of clinical or radiographic evidence of bone disease (osteopenia, focal lytic or sclerotic lesions, and osteonecrosis), hepatosplenomegaly, anemia and thrombocytopenia, lung disease, and the absence of primary central nervous system disease. GD types 2 and 3 are characterized by the presence of primary neurologic disease; in the past, they were distinguished by age of onset and rate of disease progression, but these distinctions are not absolute. Disease with onset before age two years, limited psychomotor development, and a rapidly progressive course with death by age two to four years is classified as GD type 2. Individuals with GD type 3 may have onset before age two years, but often have a more slowly progressive course, with survival into the third or fourth decade. The perinatal-lethal form is associated with ichthyosiform or collodion skin abnormalities or with nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The cardiovascular form is characterized by calcification of the aortic and mitral valves, mild splenomegaly, corneal opacities, and supranuclear ophthalmoplegia. Cardiopulmonary complications have been described with all the clinical subtypes, although varying in frequency and severity.
Lethal congenital contracture syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
334413
Concept ID:
C1843478
Disease or Syndrome
Lethal congenital contracture syndrome-2 (LCCS2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe multiple congenital contractures with muscle wasting and atrophy. Micrognathia and other craniofacial anomalies, including cleft palate, as well as cardiac defects and enlarged urinary bladder at birth have also been reported. Hydrops fetalis and multiple pterygia are absent. Most patients have died in the neonatal period, although 2 survived to early adolescence (Landau et al., 2003). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of LCCS, see LCCS1 (253310).
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 21
MedGen UID:
375311
Concept ID:
C1843891
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-21 (SCA21) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by onset in the first decades of life of slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, which is associated with cognitive impairment in most patients (summary by Delplanque et al., 2014). For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, see SCA1 (164400).
Kufor-Rakeb syndrome
MedGen UID:
338281
Concept ID:
C1847640
Disease or Syndrome
Kufor-Rakeb syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive form of juvenile-onset atypical Parkinson disease (PARK9) associated with supranuclear gaze palsy, spasticity, and dementia. Some patients have neuroradiologic evidence of iron deposition in the basal ganglia, indicating that the pathogenesis of PARK9 can be considered among the syndromes of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA; see 234200) (summary by Bruggemann et al., 2010). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Parkinson disease (PD), see 168600. Biallelic mutation in the ATP13A2 gene also causes autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-78 (SPG78; 617225), an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder with overlapping features. Patients with SPG78 have later onset and prominent spasticity, but rarely parkinsonism. Loss of ATP13A2 function results in a multidimensional spectrum of neurologic features reflecting various regions of the brain and nervous system, including cortical, pyramidal, extrapyramidal, brainstem, cerebellar, and peripheral (summary by Estrada-Cuzcano et al., 2017).
Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome
MedGen UID:
381473
Concept ID:
C1854678
Disease or Syndrome
The two forms of multiple pterygium syndrome are differentiated by the severity of their symptoms. Multiple pterygium syndrome, Escobar type (sometimes referred to as Escobar syndrome) is the milder of the two types. Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is fatal before birth or very soon after birth.\n\nIn people with multiple pterygium syndrome, Escobar type, the webbing typically affects the skin of the neck, fingers, forearms, inner thighs, and backs of the knee. People with this type may also have arthrogryposis. A side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis) is sometimes seen. Affected individuals may also have respiratory distress at birth due to underdeveloped lungs (lung hypoplasia). People with multiple pterygium syndrome, Escobar type usually have distinctive facial features including droopy eyelids (ptosis), outside corners of the eyes that point downward (downslanting palpebral fissures), skin folds covering the inner corner of the eyes (epicanthal folds), a small jaw, and low-set ears. Males with this condition can have undescended testes (cryptorchidism). This condition does not worsen after birth, and affected individuals typically do not have muscle weakness later in life.\n\nLethal multiple pterygium syndrome has many of the same signs and symptoms as the Escobar type. In addition, affected fetuses may develop a buildup of excess fluid in the body (hydrops fetalis) or a fluid-filled sac typically found on the back of the neck (cystic hygroma). Individuals with this type have severe arthrogryposis. Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is associated with abnormalities such as underdevelopment (hypoplasia) of the heart, lung, or brain; twisting of the intestines (intestinal malrotation); kidney abnormalities; an opening in the roof of the mouth (a cleft palate); and an unusually small head size (microcephaly). Affected individuals may also develop a hole in the muscle that separates the abdomen from the chest cavity (the diaphragm), a condition called a congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Lethal multiple pterygium syndrome is typically fatal in the second or third trimester of pregnancy.\n\nMultiple pterygium syndrome is a condition that is evident before birth with webbing of the skin (pterygium) at the joints and a lack of muscle movement (akinesia) before birth. Akinesia frequently results in muscle weakness and joint deformities called contractures that restrict the movement of joints (arthrogryposis). As a result, multiple pterygium syndrome can lead to further problems with movement such as arms and legs that cannot fully extend.
Fowler syndrome
MedGen UID:
384026
Concept ID:
C1856972
Disease or Syndrome
The proliferative vasculopathy and hydranencephaly-hydrocephaly syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive, usually prenatally lethal disorder characterized by hydranencephaly, a distinctive glomerular vasculopathy in the central nervous system and retina, and diffuse ischemic lesions of the brain stem, basal ganglia, and spinal cord with calcifications. It is usually diagnosed by ultrasound between 26 and 33 weeks' gestation (summary by Meyer et al., 2010). Rarely, affected individuals may survive, but are severely impaired with almost no neurologic development (Kvarnung et al., 2016).
Perry syndrome
MedGen UID:
357007
Concept ID:
C1868594
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of DCTN1-related neurodegeneration includes Perry syndrome, distal hereditary motor neuronopathy type 7B (dHMN7B), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), motor neuron disease / amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and progressive supranuclear palsy. Some individuals present with overlapping phenotypes (e.g., FTD-ALS, Perry syndrome-dHMN7B). Perry syndrome (the most common of the phenotypes associated with DCTN1) is characterized by parkinsonism, neuropsychiatric symptoms, hypoventilation, and weight loss. The mean age of onset in those with Perry syndrome is 49 years (range: 35-70 years), and the mean disease duration is five years (range: 2-14 years). In most affected persons, the reported cause/circumstance of death relates to sudden death/hypoventilation or suicide.
Compton-North congenital myopathy
MedGen UID:
393406
Concept ID:
C2675527
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-12 (CMYP12) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe neonatal hypotonia resulting in feeding difficulties and respiratory failure within the first months of life. There is evidence of the disorder in utero, with decreased fetal movements and polyhydramnios. Additional features may include high-arched palate and contractures. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows myopathic changes with disrupted sarcomeres and minicore-like structures (Compton et al., 2008). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Parkinson disease 17
MedGen UID:
481763
Concept ID:
C3280133
Disease or Syndrome
VPS35-related Parkinson disease (VPS35-PD) is defined as Parkinson disease caused by heterozygous VPS35 pathogenic variants. Currently, the only known VPS35 variant with confirmed pathogenicity is c.1858G>A (p.Asp620Asn). Except for a younger age of onset, VPS35-PD is clinically indistinguishable from Parkinson disease of unknown cause (so-called sporadic Parkinson disease). Variability among 50 individuals reported with molecularly confirmed VPS35-PD includes age of onset (mean: 51.0±8.7 years; range: 34-68 years), Parkinson subtype (tremor, akinetic rigid, mixed), first motor symptom, course of the disease (unilateral onset and slow disease progression are typical; dyskinesia and motor fluctuations may occur), and presence/absence of neuropsychiatric manifestations (including depression, schizophrenia, learning difficulties, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia).
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 5
MedGen UID:
763887
Concept ID:
C3550973
Disease or Syndrome
Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN) is typically characterized by early-onset seizures, infantile-onset developmental delay, intellectual disability, absent-to-limited expressive language, motor dysfunction (ataxia), and abnormal behaviors often similar to autism spectrum disorder. Seizure types including generalized (absence, tonic, atonic, tonic-clonic and myoclonic), focal with impaired consciousness, and epileptic spasms, as well as epileptic syndromes (West syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome) can be seen. With age seizures tend to resolve or become less prominent, whereas cognitive decline and movement disorders (progressive parkinsonism and dystonia) emerge as characteristic findings.
Autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson disease 23
MedGen UID:
896607
Concept ID:
C4225186
Disease or Syndrome
Parkinson disease-23 is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by young-adult onset of parkinsonism associated with progressive cognitive impairment leading to dementia and dysautonomia. Some individuals have additional motor abnormalities. Affected individuals become severely disabled within a few decades (summary by Lesage et al., 2016).
Supranuclear palsy, progressive, 1
MedGen UID:
1640811
Concept ID:
C4551863
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of clinical manifestations of MAPT-related frontotemporal dementia (MAPT-FTD) has expanded from its original description of frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonian manifestations to include changes in behavior, motor function, memory, and/or language. A recent retrospective study suggested that the majority of affected individuals have either behavioral changes consistent with a diagnosis of behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) or, less commonly, a parkinsonian syndrome (i.e., progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal syndrome, or Parkinson disease). Fewer than 5% of people with MAPT-FTD have primary progressive aphasia or Alzheimer disease. Clinical presentation may differ between and within families with the same MAPT variant. MAPT-FTD is a progressive disorder that commonly ends with a relatively global dementia in which some affected individuals become mute. Progression of motor impairment in affected individuals results in some becoming chairbound and others bedbound. Mean disease duration is 9.3 (SD: 6.4) years but is individually variable and can be more than 30 years in some instances.
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 28
MedGen UID:
1648493
Concept ID:
C4748827
Disease or Syndrome
Myopathy, congenital, with respiratory insufficiency and bone fractures
MedGen UID:
1718097
Concept ID:
C5394189
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-9A (CMYP9A) is an autosomal recessive early-onset severe muscular disorder resulting in early death. Affected individuals present at birth with neonatal hypotonia, poor feeding, fractures of the long bones, and respiratory insufficiency. Laboratory investigations are consistent with a defect in early muscle development (summary by Estan et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 5
MedGen UID:
1731112
Concept ID:
C5436453
Disease or Syndrome
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita-5 (AMC5) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe joint contractures apparent at birth. Affected individuals usually have hypertonia and abnormal movements suggestive of dystonia, as well as feeding and/or breathing difficulties. More variable features may include poor overall growth, strabismus, dysmorphic facies, and global developmental delay with impaired speech (summary by Kariminejad et al., 2017).
Leukoencephalopathy, progressive, infantile-onset, with or without deafness
MedGen UID:
1779519
Concept ID:
C5542996
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile-onset progressive leukoencephalopathy with or without deafness (LEPID) is an autosomal recessive complex neurodegenerative disorder with onset of symptoms in infancy or early childhood. Most patients present with sensorineural deafness or hypoacousia and global developmental delay. Affected individuals show episodic regression with progressive motor deterioration resulting in spastic tetraplegia and loss of ambulation, as well as impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech. Additional more variable features may include poor overall growth with microcephaly, seizures, visual loss, microcytic anemia, and hepatic enlargement or abnormal liver enzymes. Brain imaging shows deep white matter abnormalities consistent with a progressive leukoencephalopathy. The brain and spinal cord are usually both involved; calcifications of these regions are often observed. Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and deficiencies of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, consistent with global mitochondrial dysfunction. Early death often occurs (summary by Itoh et al., 2019).
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 6
MedGen UID:
1786758
Concept ID:
C5543431
Disease or Syndrome
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita-6 (AMC6) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder of skeletal muscle with onset of symptoms in utero. The pregnancies are usually complicated by polyhydramnios and reduced fetal movements. Affected individuals have congenital joint contractures, dysmorphic facial features, distal skeletal anomalies with clenched hands and clubfeet, and edema with fetal hydrops. Fetal demise or termination of pregnancy often occurs after ultrasound detection of abnormalities. Those that survive to birth have significant hypotonia with absent spontaneous movements, respiratory insufficiency, arthrogryposis, and multiple pterygia. Skeletal muscle is hypoplastic, immature, and underdeveloped, with nemaline rods, poorly developed sarcomeres, and poor cross-striation. Death in infancy usually occurs (summary by Ahmed et al., 2018, Rocha et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of AMC, see AMC1 (617468).
Intellectual developmental disorder with language impairment and early-onset DOPA-responsive dystonia-parkinsonism
MedGen UID:
1805453
Concept ID:
C5677001
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with language impairment and early-onset dopa-responsive dystonia-parkinsonism (IDLDP) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay affecting motor, cognitive, and speech domains apparent in early childhood or infancy. Some patients may have normal early development in infancy before symptom onset. There is phenotypic heterogeneity and the severity is highly variable; less severely affected individuals have only mild deficits and are able to attend special schools. About half of patients develop various types of seizures that may be refractory or responsive to treatment. Most patients also show movement abnormalities, often hypotonia early in the disease course with later development of dopa-responsive dystonia or parkinsonism (Ramos et al., 2019, Wirth et al., 2020; Singh et al., 2020).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Ravenscroft G, Clayton JS, Faiz F, Sivadorai P, Milnes D, Cincotta R, Moon P, Kamien B, Edwards M, Delatycki M, Lamont PJ, Chan SH, Colley A, Ma A, Collins F, Hennington L, Zhao T, McGillivray G, Ghedia S, Chao K, O'Donnell-Luria A, Laing NG, Davis MR
J Med Genet 2021 Sep;58(9):609-618. Epub 2020 Oct 15 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-106901. PMID: 33060286Free PMC Article
Buhmann C, Kassubek J, Jost WH
J Parkinsons Dis 2020;10(s1):S37-S48. doi: 10.3233/JPD-202069. PMID: 32568113Free PMC Article
Höglinger GU, Respondek G, Stamelou M, Kurz C, Josephs KA, Lang AE, Mollenhauer B, Müller U, Nilsson C, Whitwell JL, Arzberger T, Englund E, Gelpi E, Giese A, Irwin DJ, Meissner WG, Pantelyat A, Rajput A, van Swieten JC, Troakes C, Antonini A, Bhatia KP, Bordelon Y, Compta Y, Corvol JC, Colosimo C, Dickson DW, Dodel R, Ferguson L, Grossman M, Kassubek J, Krismer F, Levin J, Lorenzl S, Morris HR, Nestor P, Oertel WH, Poewe W, Rabinovici G, Rowe JB, Schellenberg GD, Seppi K, van Eimeren T, Wenning GK, Boxer AL, Golbe LI, Litvan I; Movement Disorder Society-endorsed PSP Study Group
Mov Disord 2017 Jun;32(6):853-864. Epub 2017 May 3 doi: 10.1002/mds.26987. PMID: 28467028Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Filges I, Jünemann S, Viehweger E, Tercanli S
Prenat Diagn 2023 Jun;43(6):798-805. Epub 2023 Jan 12 doi: 10.1002/pd.6299. PMID: 36588183
Jellinger KA
J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2022 Jun;129(5-6):521-543. Epub 2021 Aug 7 doi: 10.1007/s00702-021-02392-2. PMID: 34363531
Balestrino R, Schapira AHV
Eur J Neurol 2020 Jan;27(1):27-42. Epub 2019 Nov 27 doi: 10.1111/ene.14108. PMID: 31631455
Rose O
Med Monatsschr Pharm 2016 Jul;39(7):277-81. PMID: 29953178
Hammond E, Donnenfeld AE
Obstet Gynecol Surv 1995 Mar;50(3):240-9. doi: 10.1097/00006254-199503000-00028. PMID: 7739837

Diagnosis

Ravenscroft G, Clayton JS, Faiz F, Sivadorai P, Milnes D, Cincotta R, Moon P, Kamien B, Edwards M, Delatycki M, Lamont PJ, Chan SH, Colley A, Ma A, Collins F, Hennington L, Zhao T, McGillivray G, Ghedia S, Chao K, O'Donnell-Luria A, Laing NG, Davis MR
J Med Genet 2021 Sep;58(9):609-618. Epub 2020 Oct 15 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-106901. PMID: 33060286Free PMC Article
Buhmann C, Kassubek J, Jost WH
J Parkinsons Dis 2020;10(s1):S37-S48. doi: 10.3233/JPD-202069. PMID: 32568113Free PMC Article
Balestrino R, Schapira AHV
Eur J Neurol 2020 Jan;27(1):27-42. Epub 2019 Nov 27 doi: 10.1111/ene.14108. PMID: 31631455
Giagkou N, Höglinger GU, Stamelou M
Int Rev Neurobiol 2019;149:49-86. Epub 2019 Nov 21 doi: 10.1016/bs.irn.2019.10.013. PMID: 31779824
Kubsik-Gidlewska AM, Klimkiewicz P, Klimkiewicz R, Janczewska K, Woldańska-Okońska M
Adv Clin Exp Med 2017 Jul;26(4):709-715. doi: 10.17219/acem/62329. PMID: 28691412

Therapy

Monsour M, Lee JY, Borlongan CV
Neurotherapeutics 2023 Oct;20(6):1446-1456. Epub 2023 Aug 28 doi: 10.1007/s13311-023-01419-8. PMID: 37639189Free PMC Article
Gómez-Revuelta M, Pelayo-Terán JM, Juncal-Ruiz M, Vázquez-Bourgon J, Suárez-Pinilla P, Romero-Jiménez R, Setién Suero E, Ayesa-Arriola R, Crespo-Facorro B
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2020 Apr 23;23(4):217-229. doi: 10.1093/ijnp/pyaa004. PMID: 31974576Free PMC Article
Jean YK, Kam D, Gayer S, Palte HD, Stein ALS
Anesth Analg 2020 May;130(5):1351-1363. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000004012. PMID: 30676353
Santos L, Fernandez-Rio J, Winge K, Barragán-Pérez B, González-Gómez L, Rodríguez-Pérez V, González-Díez V, Lucía A, Iglesias-Soler E, Dopico-Calvo X, Fernández-Del-Olmo M, Del-Valle M, Blanco-Traba M, Suman OE, Rodríguez-Gómez J
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2017 Oct;53(5):651-663. Epub 2017 Mar 13 doi: 10.23736/S1973-9087.17.04572-5. PMID: 28290191
Schilder JC, Overmars SS, Marinus J, van Hilten JJ, Koehler PJ
Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2017 Apr;37:27-35. Epub 2017 Jan 22 doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2017.01.010. PMID: 28153525

Prognosis

Gómez-Revuelta M, Pelayo-Terán JM, Juncal-Ruiz M, Vázquez-Bourgon J, Suárez-Pinilla P, Romero-Jiménez R, Setién Suero E, Ayesa-Arriola R, Crespo-Facorro B
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2020 Apr 23;23(4):217-229. doi: 10.1093/ijnp/pyaa004. PMID: 31974576Free PMC Article
Balestrino R, Schapira AHV
Eur J Neurol 2020 Jan;27(1):27-42. Epub 2019 Nov 27 doi: 10.1111/ene.14108. PMID: 31631455
Gupta S, Gupta MM
Indian Heart J 2018 Jan-Feb;70(1):165-174. Epub 2017 Sep 13 doi: 10.1016/j.ihj.2017.09.005. PMID: 29455773Free PMC Article
Kubsik-Gidlewska AM, Klimkiewicz P, Klimkiewicz R, Janczewska K, Woldańska-Okońska M
Adv Clin Exp Med 2017 Jul;26(4):709-715. doi: 10.17219/acem/62329. PMID: 28691412
Höglinger GU, Respondek G, Stamelou M, Kurz C, Josephs KA, Lang AE, Mollenhauer B, Müller U, Nilsson C, Whitwell JL, Arzberger T, Englund E, Gelpi E, Giese A, Irwin DJ, Meissner WG, Pantelyat A, Rajput A, van Swieten JC, Troakes C, Antonini A, Bhatia KP, Bordelon Y, Compta Y, Corvol JC, Colosimo C, Dickson DW, Dodel R, Ferguson L, Grossman M, Kassubek J, Krismer F, Levin J, Lorenzl S, Morris HR, Nestor P, Oertel WH, Poewe W, Rabinovici G, Rowe JB, Schellenberg GD, Seppi K, van Eimeren T, Wenning GK, Boxer AL, Golbe LI, Litvan I; Movement Disorder Society-endorsed PSP Study Group
Mov Disord 2017 Jun;32(6):853-864. Epub 2017 May 3 doi: 10.1002/mds.26987. PMID: 28467028Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Thompson AE, Thompson PD
Handb Clin Neurol 2023;196:443-455. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-323-98817-9.00008-9. PMID: 37620084
Ravenscroft G, Clayton JS, Faiz F, Sivadorai P, Milnes D, Cincotta R, Moon P, Kamien B, Edwards M, Delatycki M, Lamont PJ, Chan SH, Colley A, Ma A, Collins F, Hennington L, Zhao T, McGillivray G, Ghedia S, Chao K, O'Donnell-Luria A, Laing NG, Davis MR
J Med Genet 2021 Sep;58(9):609-618. Epub 2020 Oct 15 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-106901. PMID: 33060286Free PMC Article
Spay C, Meyer G, Welter ML, Lau B, Boulinguez P, Ballanger B
Neuroimage Clin 2019;21:101644. Epub 2018 Dec 18 doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2018.101644. PMID: 30584015Free PMC Article
Santos L, Fernandez-Rio J, Winge K, Barragán-Pérez B, González-Gómez L, Rodríguez-Pérez V, González-Díez V, Lucía A, Iglesias-Soler E, Dopico-Calvo X, Fernández-Del-Olmo M, Del-Valle M, Blanco-Traba M, Suman OE, Rodríguez-Gómez J
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2017 Oct;53(5):651-663. Epub 2017 Mar 13 doi: 10.23736/S1973-9087.17.04572-5. PMID: 28290191
Stover NP, Watts RL
Semin Neurol 2001;21(1):49-58. doi: 10.1055/s-2001-13119. PMID: 11346025

Recent systematic reviews

Bodenbender JP, Eberhart L, Paul C, Wiesmann T, Schubert F, Schubert AK, Dinges HC
Am J Ophthalmol 2023 Aug;252:26-44. Epub 2023 Mar 9 doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2023.02.023. PMID: 36906095
Rüschen H, Aravinth K, Bunce C, Bokre D
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Mar 2;3(3):CD010368. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010368.pub2. PMID: 29498413Free PMC Article
Respondek G, Kurz C, Arzberger T, Compta Y, Englund E, Ferguson LW, Gelpi E, Giese A, Irwin DJ, Meissner WG, Nilsson C, Pantelyat A, Rajput A, van Swieten JC, Troakes C, Josephs KA, Lang AE, Mollenhauer B, Müller U, Whitwell JL, Antonini A, Bhatia KP, Bordelon Y, Corvol JC, Colosimo C, Dodel R, Grossman M, Kassubek J, Krismer F, Levin J, Lorenzl S, Morris H, Nestor P, Oertel WH, Rabinovici GD, Rowe JB, van Eimeren T, Wenning GK, Boxer A, Golbe LI, Litvan I, Stamelou M, Höglinger GU; Movement Disorder Society-Endorsed PSP Study Group
Mov Disord 2017 Jul;32(7):995-1005. Epub 2017 May 13 doi: 10.1002/mds.27034. PMID: 28500752Free PMC Article
Alhassan MB, Kyari F, Ejere HO
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015 Jul 2;2015(7):CD004083. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004083.pub3. PMID: 26133124Free PMC Article
Alhassan MB, Kyari F, Ejere HO
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008 Jul 16;(3):CD004083. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004083.pub2. PMID: 18646099

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