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Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 6(MRD6)

MedGen UID:
462761
Concept ID:
C3151411
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Synonyms: INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER, AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT 6, WITH OR WITHOUT SEIZURES; MRD6
 
Gene (location): GRIN2B (12p13.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0013509
OMIM®: 613970

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: GRIN2B-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder
GRIN2B-related neurodevelopmental disorder is characterized by mild to profound developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID) in all affected individuals. Muscle tone abnormalities (spasticity and/or hypotonia, occasionally associated with feeding difficulties), as well as epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) / behavioral issues, are common. Other infantile- or childhood-onset findings include microcephaly; dystonic, dyskinetic, or choreiform movement disorder; and/or cortical visual impairment. Brain MRI reveals a malformation of cortical development in a minority of affected individuals. To date, fewer than 100 individuals with GRIN2B-related neurodevelopmental disorder have been reported. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Konrad Platzer  |  Johannes R Lemke   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
MRD6 is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development and intellectual disability of variable severity. Additional features may include seizures, hypotonia, abnormal movements, such as dystonia, and autistic features. Some patients may have structural malformations of cortical development on brain imaging. The phenotype is highly variable and reflects a spectrum of neurodevelopmental abnormalities that range from mild intellectual disability without seizures to an encephalopathy (summary by Platzer et al., 2017).  http://www.omim.org/entry/613970
From MedlinePlus Genetics
GRIN2B-related neurodevelopmental disorder is a condition that affects the nervous system. Neurodevelopmental disorders result from impaired growth and development of the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord, and the nerves connecting them. These disorders often affect learning ability, memory, and behavior and can be associated with other neurological problems.

Individuals with GRIN2B-related neurodevelopmental disorder have mild to profound intellectual disability and delayed development of speech and motor skills, such as sitting and walking. Some affected individuals never develop speech or the ability to walk on their own. Many people with this condition have weak muscle tone (hypotonia), which can contribute to the problems developing motor skills and lead to difficulty eating. Some affected individuals have abnormal muscle stiffness (spasticity), which can also cause problems with movement.

Less common features of GRIN2B-related neurodevelopmental disorder include structural brain abnormalities, an unusually small head size (microcephaly), impaired vision, and involuntary muscle movements.

Recurrent seizures (epilepsy) occur in about half of people with GRIN2B-related neurodevelopmental disorder. About one-quarter of affected individuals have features of autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction. Affected individuals may also be hyperactive, impulsive, or easily distractible, and some are described as being overly friendly. Sleeping difficulties can also occur in this condition.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/grin2b-related-neurodevelopmental-disorder

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Pes planus
MedGen UID:
42034
Concept ID:
C0016202
Anatomical Abnormality
A foot where the longitudinal arch of the foot is in contact with the ground or floor when the individual is standing; or, in a patient lying supine, a foot where the arch is in contact with the surface of a flat board pressed against the sole of the foot by the examiner with a pressure similar to that expected from weight bearing; or, the height of the arch is reduced.
Chorea
MedGen UID:
3420
Concept ID:
C0008489
Disease or Syndrome
Chorea (Greek for 'dance') refers to widespread arrhythmic involuntary movements of a forcible, jerky and restless fashion. It is a random-appearing sequence of one or more discrete involuntary movements or movement fragments. Movements appear random because of variability in timing, duration or location. Each movement may have a distinct start and end. However, movements may be strung together and thus may appear to flow randomly from one muscle group to another. Chorea can involve the trunk, neck, face, tongue, and extremities.
Dyskinesia
MedGen UID:
8514
Concept ID:
C0013384
Disease or Syndrome
A movement disorder which consists of effects including diminished voluntary movements and the presence of involuntary movements.
Dystonic disorder
MedGen UID:
3940
Concept ID:
C0013421
Sign or Symptom
An abnormally increased muscular tone that causes fixed abnormal postures. There is a slow, intermittent twisting motion that leads to exaggerated turning and posture of the extremities and trunk.
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Status epilepticus
MedGen UID:
11586
Concept ID:
C0038220
Disease or Syndrome
Status epilepticus is a type of prolonged seizure resulting either from the failure of the mechanisms responsible for seizure termination or from the initiation of mechanisms which lead to abnormally prolonged seizures (after time point t1). It is a condition that can have long-term consequences (after time point t2), including neuronal death, neuronal injury, and alteration of neuronal networks, depending on the type and duration of seizures.
EEG abnormality
MedGen UID:
56235
Concept ID:
C0151611
Finding
Abnormality observed by electroencephalogram (EEG), which is used to record of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp.
Atypical behavior
MedGen UID:
535345
Concept ID:
C0233514
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Atypical behavior is an abnormality in a person's actions, which can be controlled or modulated by the will of the individual. While abnormal behaviors can be difficult to control, they are distinct from other abnormal actions that cannot be affected by the individual's will.
Focal impaired awareness seizure
MedGen UID:
543022
Concept ID:
C0270834
Disease or Syndrome
Focal impaired awareness seizure (or focal seizure with impaired or lost awareness) is a type of focal-onset seizure characterized by some degree (which may be partial) of impairment of the person's awareness of themselves or their surroundings at any point during the seizure.
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
141670
Concept ID:
C0494475
Sign or Symptom
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure is a seizure defined by a tonic (bilateral increased tone, lasting seconds to minutes) and then a clonic (bilateral sustained rhythmic jerking) phase.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Inguinal hernia
MedGen UID:
6817
Concept ID:
C0019294
Finding
Protrusion of the contents of the abdominal cavity through the inguinal canal.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Choanal atresia
MedGen UID:
3395
Concept ID:
C0008297
Congenital Abnormality
Absence or abnormal closure of the choana (the posterior nasal aperture). Most embryologists believe that posterior choanal atresia results from a failure of rupture between the 35th and 38th day of fetal life of the partition which separates the bucconasal or buccopharyngeal membranes. The resultant choanal atresia may be unilateral or bilateral, bony or membranous, complete or incomplete. In over 90 per cent of cases the obstruction is bony, while in the remainder it is membranous. The bony type of atresia is commonly located 1-2 mm. anterior to the posterior edge of the hard palate, and the osseous septum varies in thickness from 1 to 10 mm. In the membranous form of choanal atresia the obstruction usually occurs further posteriorly. In approximately one third of cases the atresia is bilateral.
Hypothyroidism
MedGen UID:
6991
Concept ID:
C0020676
Disease or Syndrome
Deficiency of thyroid hormone.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Langhammer F, Maroofian R, Badar R, Gregor A, Rochman M, Ratliff JB, Koopmans M, Herget T, Hempel M, Kortüm F, Heron D, Mignot C, Keren B, Brooks S, Botti C, Ben-Zeev B, Argilli E, Sherr EH, Gowda VK, Srinivasan VM, Bakhtiari S, Kruer MC, Salih MA, Kuechler A, Muller EA, Blocker K, Kuismin O, Park KL, Kochhar A, Brown K, Ramanathan S, Clark RD, Elgizouli M, Melikishvili G, Tabatadze N, Stark Z, Mirzaa GM, Ong J, Grasshoff U, Bevot A, von Wintzingerode L, Jamra RA, Hennig Y, Goldenberg P, Al Alam C, Charif M, Boulouiz R, Bellaoui M, Amrani R, Al Mutairi F, Tamim AM, Abdulwahab F, Alkuraya FS, Khouj EM, Alvi JR, Sultan T, Hashemi N, Karimiani EG, Ashrafzadeh F, Imannezhad S, Efthymiou S, Houlden H, Sticht H, Zweier C
Genet Med 2023 Aug;25(8):100885. Epub 2023 May 8 doi: 10.1016/j.gim.2023.100885. PMID: 37165955
Shang S, Mei Y, Wang T, Zheng X, Chen K, Xiong S, Dong Y, Chang Y, Wu X, Kong X, Tan M, Wu L, Zhang Y, Xiao Y, Xie Y, Cai G, Chen X, Li Q
Clin Nephrol 2022 Jun;97(6):328-338. doi: 10.5414/CN110476. PMID: 35142283
Gardella E, Møller RS
Epilepsia 2019 Dec;60 Suppl 3:S77-S85. doi: 10.1111/epi.16319. PMID: 31904124

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Iulita MF, Garzón Chavez D, Klitgaard Christensen M, Valle Tamayo N, Plana-Ripoll O, Rasmussen SA, Roqué Figuls M, Alcolea D, Videla L, Barroeta I, Benejam B, Altuna M, Padilla C, Pegueroles J, Fernandez S, Belbin O, Carmona-Iragui M, Blesa R, Lleó A, Bejanin A, Fortea J
JAMA Netw Open 2022 May 2;5(5):e2212910. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.12910. PMID: 35604690Free PMC Article
Mohan P, Lemoine J, Trotter C, Rakova I, Billings P, Peacock S, Kao CY, Wang Y, Xia F, Eng CM, Benn P
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;59(1):33-39. doi: 10.1002/uog.23756. PMID: 34358384Free PMC Article
Parenti I, Lehalle D, Nava C, Torti E, Leitão E, Person R, Mizuguchi T, Matsumoto N, Kato M, Nakamura K, de Man SA, Cope H, Shashi V; Undiagnosed Diseases Network, Friedman J, Joset P, Steindl K, Rauch A, Muffels I, van Hasselt PM, Petit F, Smol T, Le Guyader G, Bilan F, Sorlin A, Vitobello A, Philippe C, van de Laar IMBH, van Slegtenhorst MA, Campeau PM, Au PYB, Nakashima M, Saitsu H, Yamamoto T, Nomura Y, Louie RJ, Lyons MJ, Dobson A, Plomp AS, Motazacker MM, Kaiser FJ, Timberlake AT, Fuchs SA, Depienne C, Mignot C
Hum Genet 2021 Jul;140(7):1109-1120. Epub 2021 May 4 doi: 10.1007/s00439-021-02283-2. PMID: 33944996Free PMC Article
Sheppard SE, Campbell IM, Harr MH, Gold N, Li D, Bjornsson HT, Cohen JS, Fahrner JA, Fatemi A, Harris JR, Nowak C, Stevens CA, Grand K, Au M, Graham JM Jr, Sanchez-Lara PA, Campo MD, Jones MC, Abdul-Rahman O, Alkuraya FS, Bassetti JA, Bergstrom K, Bhoj E, Dugan S, Kaplan JD, Derar N, Gripp KW, Hauser N, Innes AM, Keena B, Kodra N, Miller R, Nelson B, Nowaczyk MJ, Rahbeeni Z, Ben-Shachar S, Shieh JT, Slavotinek A, Sobering AK, Abbott MA, Allain DC, Amlie-Wolf L, Au PYB, Bedoukian E, Beek G, Barry J, Berg J, Bernstein JA, Cytrynbaum C, Chung BH, Donoghue S, Dorrani N, Eaton A, Flores-Daboub JA, Dubbs H, Felix CA, Fong CT, Fung JLF, Gangaram B, Goldstein A, Greenberg R, Ha TK, Hersh J, Izumi K, Kallish S, Kravets E, Kwok PY, Jobling RK, Knight Johnson AE, Kushner J, Lee BH, Levin B, Lindstrom K, Manickam K, Mardach R, McCormick E, McLeod DR, Mentch FD, Minks K, Muraresku C, Nelson SF, Porazzi P, Pichurin PN, Powell-Hamilton NN, Powis Z, Ritter A, Rogers C, Rohena L, Ronspies C, Schroeder A, Stark Z, Starr L, Stoler J, Suwannarat P, Velinov M, Weksberg R, Wilnai Y, Zadeh N, Zand DJ, Falk MJ, Hakonarson H, Zackai EH, Quintero-Rivera F
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Jun;185(6):1649-1665. Epub 2021 Mar 30 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62124. PMID: 33783954Free PMC Article
Vogel F
Hum Genet 1979 Nov 1;52(1):1-54. doi: 10.1007/BF00284597. PMID: 393614

Diagnosis

Iulita MF, Garzón Chavez D, Klitgaard Christensen M, Valle Tamayo N, Plana-Ripoll O, Rasmussen SA, Roqué Figuls M, Alcolea D, Videla L, Barroeta I, Benejam B, Altuna M, Padilla C, Pegueroles J, Fernandez S, Belbin O, Carmona-Iragui M, Blesa R, Lleó A, Bejanin A, Fortea J
JAMA Netw Open 2022 May 2;5(5):e2212910. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.12910. PMID: 35604690Free PMC Article
Mohan P, Lemoine J, Trotter C, Rakova I, Billings P, Peacock S, Kao CY, Wang Y, Xia F, Eng CM, Benn P
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;59(1):33-39. doi: 10.1002/uog.23756. PMID: 34358384Free PMC Article
Sheppard SE, Campbell IM, Harr MH, Gold N, Li D, Bjornsson HT, Cohen JS, Fahrner JA, Fatemi A, Harris JR, Nowak C, Stevens CA, Grand K, Au M, Graham JM Jr, Sanchez-Lara PA, Campo MD, Jones MC, Abdul-Rahman O, Alkuraya FS, Bassetti JA, Bergstrom K, Bhoj E, Dugan S, Kaplan JD, Derar N, Gripp KW, Hauser N, Innes AM, Keena B, Kodra N, Miller R, Nelson B, Nowaczyk MJ, Rahbeeni Z, Ben-Shachar S, Shieh JT, Slavotinek A, Sobering AK, Abbott MA, Allain DC, Amlie-Wolf L, Au PYB, Bedoukian E, Beek G, Barry J, Berg J, Bernstein JA, Cytrynbaum C, Chung BH, Donoghue S, Dorrani N, Eaton A, Flores-Daboub JA, Dubbs H, Felix CA, Fong CT, Fung JLF, Gangaram B, Goldstein A, Greenberg R, Ha TK, Hersh J, Izumi K, Kallish S, Kravets E, Kwok PY, Jobling RK, Knight Johnson AE, Kushner J, Lee BH, Levin B, Lindstrom K, Manickam K, Mardach R, McCormick E, McLeod DR, Mentch FD, Minks K, Muraresku C, Nelson SF, Porazzi P, Pichurin PN, Powell-Hamilton NN, Powis Z, Ritter A, Rogers C, Rohena L, Ronspies C, Schroeder A, Stark Z, Starr L, Stoler J, Suwannarat P, Velinov M, Weksberg R, Wilnai Y, Zadeh N, Zand DJ, Falk MJ, Hakonarson H, Zackai EH, Quintero-Rivera F
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Jun;185(6):1649-1665. Epub 2021 Mar 30 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62124. PMID: 33783954Free PMC Article
Zhao M, Chen YJ, Wang MW, Lin XH, Dong EL, Chen WJ, Wang N, Lin X
Mol Diagn Ther 2019 Dec;23(6):781-789. doi: 10.1007/s40291-019-00426-w. PMID: 31630374
Cheung SW, Bi W
Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2018 Jun;18(6):531-542. Epub 2018 May 31 doi: 10.1080/14737159.2018.1479253. PMID: 29848116

Therapy

Iulita MF, Garzón Chavez D, Klitgaard Christensen M, Valle Tamayo N, Plana-Ripoll O, Rasmussen SA, Roqué Figuls M, Alcolea D, Videla L, Barroeta I, Benejam B, Altuna M, Padilla C, Pegueroles J, Fernandez S, Belbin O, Carmona-Iragui M, Blesa R, Lleó A, Bejanin A, Fortea J
JAMA Netw Open 2022 May 2;5(5):e2212910. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.12910. PMID: 35604690Free PMC Article
Kluz A, Gozdowska J, Domagała P, Durlik M
Transplant Proc 2022 May;54(4):1148-1151. Epub 2022 Apr 14 doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2022.02.055. PMID: 35430095
Gonda K, Akama T, Nakamura T, Hashimoto E, Kyoya N, Rokkaku Y, Maejima Y, Horita S, Tachibana K, Abe N, Ohtake T, Shimomura K, Kono K, Saji S, Takenoshita S, Higashihara E
J Med Case Rep 2019 Dec 24;13(1):381. doi: 10.1186/s13256-019-2274-6. PMID: 31870441Free PMC Article
Schrauwen I, Melegh BI, Chakchouk I, Acharya A, Nasir A, Poston A, Cornejo-Sanchez DM, Szabo Z, Karosi T, Bene J, Melegh B, Leal SM
Eur J Hum Genet 2019 Jun;27(6):869-878. Epub 2019 Mar 14 doi: 10.1038/s41431-019-0372-y. PMID: 30872814Free PMC Article
Srivastava S, Cohen JS, Vernon H, Barañano K, McClellan R, Jamal L, Naidu S, Fatemi A
Ann Neurol 2014 Oct;76(4):473-83. Epub 2014 Aug 30 doi: 10.1002/ana.24251. PMID: 25131622

Prognosis

Iulita MF, Garzón Chavez D, Klitgaard Christensen M, Valle Tamayo N, Plana-Ripoll O, Rasmussen SA, Roqué Figuls M, Alcolea D, Videla L, Barroeta I, Benejam B, Altuna M, Padilla C, Pegueroles J, Fernandez S, Belbin O, Carmona-Iragui M, Blesa R, Lleó A, Bejanin A, Fortea J
JAMA Netw Open 2022 May 2;5(5):e2212910. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.12910. PMID: 35604690Free PMC Article
Shang S, Mei Y, Wang T, Zheng X, Chen K, Xiong S, Dong Y, Chang Y, Wu X, Kong X, Tan M, Wu L, Zhang Y, Xiao Y, Xie Y, Cai G, Chen X, Li Q
Clin Nephrol 2022 Jun;97(6):328-338. doi: 10.5414/CN110476. PMID: 35142283
Peng JH, Tu HP, Hong CH
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Aug 3;16(1):335. doi: 10.1186/s13023-021-01974-3. PMID: 34344419Free PMC Article
Park H, Kim MS, Kim J, Jang JH, Choi JM, Lee SM, Cho SY, Jin DK
Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2021 Jan;41(6):285-289. PMID: 33714239
Hennekam RC, Stevens CA, Van de Kamp JJ
Am J Med Genet Suppl 1990;6:56-64. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.1320370610. PMID: 2118780

Clinical prediction guides

Langhammer F, Maroofian R, Badar R, Gregor A, Rochman M, Ratliff JB, Koopmans M, Herget T, Hempel M, Kortüm F, Heron D, Mignot C, Keren B, Brooks S, Botti C, Ben-Zeev B, Argilli E, Sherr EH, Gowda VK, Srinivasan VM, Bakhtiari S, Kruer MC, Salih MA, Kuechler A, Muller EA, Blocker K, Kuismin O, Park KL, Kochhar A, Brown K, Ramanathan S, Clark RD, Elgizouli M, Melikishvili G, Tabatadze N, Stark Z, Mirzaa GM, Ong J, Grasshoff U, Bevot A, von Wintzingerode L, Jamra RA, Hennig Y, Goldenberg P, Al Alam C, Charif M, Boulouiz R, Bellaoui M, Amrani R, Al Mutairi F, Tamim AM, Abdulwahab F, Alkuraya FS, Khouj EM, Alvi JR, Sultan T, Hashemi N, Karimiani EG, Ashrafzadeh F, Imannezhad S, Efthymiou S, Houlden H, Sticht H, Zweier C
Genet Med 2023 Aug;25(8):100885. Epub 2023 May 8 doi: 10.1016/j.gim.2023.100885. PMID: 37165955
Mohan P, Lemoine J, Trotter C, Rakova I, Billings P, Peacock S, Kao CY, Wang Y, Xia F, Eng CM, Benn P
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2022 Jan;59(1):33-39. doi: 10.1002/uog.23756. PMID: 34358384Free PMC Article
Parenti I, Lehalle D, Nava C, Torti E, Leitão E, Person R, Mizuguchi T, Matsumoto N, Kato M, Nakamura K, de Man SA, Cope H, Shashi V; Undiagnosed Diseases Network, Friedman J, Joset P, Steindl K, Rauch A, Muffels I, van Hasselt PM, Petit F, Smol T, Le Guyader G, Bilan F, Sorlin A, Vitobello A, Philippe C, van de Laar IMBH, van Slegtenhorst MA, Campeau PM, Au PYB, Nakashima M, Saitsu H, Yamamoto T, Nomura Y, Louie RJ, Lyons MJ, Dobson A, Plomp AS, Motazacker MM, Kaiser FJ, Timberlake AT, Fuchs SA, Depienne C, Mignot C
Hum Genet 2021 Jul;140(7):1109-1120. Epub 2021 May 4 doi: 10.1007/s00439-021-02283-2. PMID: 33944996Free PMC Article
Sheppard SE, Campbell IM, Harr MH, Gold N, Li D, Bjornsson HT, Cohen JS, Fahrner JA, Fatemi A, Harris JR, Nowak C, Stevens CA, Grand K, Au M, Graham JM Jr, Sanchez-Lara PA, Campo MD, Jones MC, Abdul-Rahman O, Alkuraya FS, Bassetti JA, Bergstrom K, Bhoj E, Dugan S, Kaplan JD, Derar N, Gripp KW, Hauser N, Innes AM, Keena B, Kodra N, Miller R, Nelson B, Nowaczyk MJ, Rahbeeni Z, Ben-Shachar S, Shieh JT, Slavotinek A, Sobering AK, Abbott MA, Allain DC, Amlie-Wolf L, Au PYB, Bedoukian E, Beek G, Barry J, Berg J, Bernstein JA, Cytrynbaum C, Chung BH, Donoghue S, Dorrani N, Eaton A, Flores-Daboub JA, Dubbs H, Felix CA, Fong CT, Fung JLF, Gangaram B, Goldstein A, Greenberg R, Ha TK, Hersh J, Izumi K, Kallish S, Kravets E, Kwok PY, Jobling RK, Knight Johnson AE, Kushner J, Lee BH, Levin B, Lindstrom K, Manickam K, Mardach R, McCormick E, McLeod DR, Mentch FD, Minks K, Muraresku C, Nelson SF, Porazzi P, Pichurin PN, Powell-Hamilton NN, Powis Z, Ritter A, Rogers C, Rohena L, Ronspies C, Schroeder A, Stark Z, Starr L, Stoler J, Suwannarat P, Velinov M, Weksberg R, Wilnai Y, Zadeh N, Zand DJ, Falk MJ, Hakonarson H, Zackai EH, Quintero-Rivera F
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Jun;185(6):1649-1665. Epub 2021 Mar 30 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62124. PMID: 33783954Free PMC Article
Vogel F
Hum Genet 1979 Nov 1;52(1):1-54. doi: 10.1007/BF00284597. PMID: 393614

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