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Premature ventricular contraction

MedGen UID:
56236
Concept ID:
C0151636
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Ventricular extrasystoles
SNOMED CT: Premature ventricular complex (251175005); Ventricular premature complex (251175005); Ventricular ectopic complex (251175005); Ventricular premature depolarization (251175005); Ventricular premature beat (251175005); Ventricular extrasystole (251175005); Ventricular premature contraction (251175005); Ventricular ectopic beat (251175005); PVC - premature ventricular complex (251175005); PVC - premature ventricular contraction (251175005); VPB - ventricular premature beat (251175005); VPC - ventricular premature complex (251175005)
 
HPO: HP:0006682

Definition

Premature ventricular contractions (PVC) or ventricular extrasystoles are premature contractions of the heart that arise in response to an impulse in the ventricles rather than the normal impulse from the sinoatrial (SA) node. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Marshall-Smith syndrome
MedGen UID:
75551
Concept ID:
C0265211
Disease or Syndrome
The Marshall-Smith syndrome (MRSHSS) is a malformation syndrome characterized by accelerated skeletal maturation, relative failure to thrive, respiratory difficulties, mental retardation, and unusual facies, including prominent forehead, shallow orbits, blue sclerae, depressed nasal bridge, and micrognathia (Adam et al., 2005).
Carnitine acylcarnitine translocase deficiency
MedGen UID:
91000
Concept ID:
C0342791
Disease or Syndrome
Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) is a critical component of the carnitine shuttle, which facilitates the transfer of long-chain fatty acylcarnitines across the inner mitochondrial membrane. CACT deficiency causes a defect in mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid ß-oxidation, with variable clinical severity. Severe neonatal-onset disease is most common, with symptoms evident within two days after birth; attenuated cases may present in the first months of life. Hyperammonemia and cardiac arrhythmia are prominent in early-onset disease, with high rates of cardiac arrest. Other clinical features are typical for disorders of long-chain fatty acid oxidation: poor feeding, lethargy, hypoketotic hypoglycemia, hypotonia, transaminitis, liver dysfunction with hepatomegaly, and rhabdomyolysis. Univentricular or biventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, ranging from mild to severe, may respond to appropriate dietary and medical therapies. Hyperammonemia is difficult to treat and is an important determinant of long-term neurocognitive outcome. Affected individuals with early-onset disease typically experience brain injury at presentation, and have recurrent hyperammonemia leading to developmental delay / intellectual disability. Affected individuals with later-onset disease have milder symptoms and are less likely to experience recurrent hyperammonemia, allowing a better developmental outcome. Prompt treatment of the presenting episode to prevent hypoglycemic, hypoxic, or hyperammonemic brain injury may allow normal growth and development.
Naxos disease
MedGen UID:
321991
Concept ID:
C1832600
Disease or Syndrome
Naxos disease (NXD) is characterized by arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy associated with abnormalities of the skin, hair, and nails. The ectodermal features are evident from birth or early childhood, whereas the cardiac symptoms develop in young adulthood or later. Clinical variability of ectodermal features has been observed, with hair anomalies ranging from woolly hair to alopecia, and skin abnormalities ranging from mild focal palmoplantar keratoderma to generalized skin fragility or even lethal neonatal epidermolysis bullosa (Protonotarios et al., 1986; Cabral et al., 2010; Pigors et al., 2011; Erken et al., 2011; Sen-Chowdhry and McKenna, 2014). Another syndrome involving cardiomyopathy, woolly hair, and keratoderma (DCWHK; 605676) is caused by mutation in the desmoplakin gene (DSP; 125647). Also see 610476 for a similar disorder caused by homozygous mutation in the DSC2 gene (125645).
Dilated cardiomyopathy 1E
MedGen UID:
331341
Concept ID:
C1832680
Disease or Syndrome
Any familial isolated dilated cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SCN5A gene.
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 9
MedGen UID:
373205
Concept ID:
C1836906
Disease or Syndrome
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years).
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 8
MedGen UID:
336069
Concept ID:
C1843896
Disease or Syndrome
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years).
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 10
MedGen UID:
347543
Concept ID:
C1857777
Disease or Syndrome
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years).
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 6
MedGen UID:
346892
Concept ID:
C1858378
Disease or Syndrome
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years).
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 5
MedGen UID:
346805
Concept ID:
C1858379
Disease or Syndrome
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years).
Ventricular extrasystoles with syncopal episodes-perodactyly-robin sequence syndrome
MedGen UID:
395493
Concept ID:
C1860471
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome is characterized by cardiac arrhythmias (ventricular extrasystoles manifesting as bigeminy or multifocal tachycardia with syncopal episodes), perodactyly (hypoplasia and/or agenesis of the distal phalanges of the toes) and Pierre-Robin sequence (see this term).
Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
394108
Concept ID:
C2676723
Disease or Syndrome
Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome (JLNS) is characterized by congenital profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and long QTc, usually >500 msec. Prolongation of the QTc interval is associated with tachyarrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia, episodes of torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation, which may culminate in syncope or sudden death. Iron-deficient anemia and elevated levels of gastrin are also frequent features of JLNS. The classic presentation of JLNS is a deaf child who experiences syncopal episodes during periods of stress, exercise, or fright. Fifty percent of individuals with JLNS had cardiac events before age three years. More than half of untreated children with JLNS die before age 15 years.
Ventricular fibrillation, paroxysmal familial, 2
MedGen UID:
442823
Concept ID:
C2751829
Disease or Syndrome
Any ventricular fibrillation in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the DPP6 gene.
Myotonic dystrophy type 2
MedGen UID:
419137
Concept ID:
C2931689
Disease or Syndrome
Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is characterized by myotonia and muscle dysfunction (proximal and axial weakness, myalgia, and stiffness), and less commonly by posterior subcapsular cataracts, cardiac conduction defects, insulin-insensitive type 2 diabetes mellitus, and other endocrine abnormalities. While myotonia (involuntary muscle contraction with delayed relaxation) has been reported during the first decade, onset is typically in the third to fourth decade, most commonly with fluctuating or episodic muscle pain that can be debilitating and proximal and axial weakness of the neck flexors and the hip flexors. Subsequently, weakness occurs in the elbow extensors and finger flexors. Facial weakness and weakness of the ankle dorsiflexors are less common. Myotonia rarely causes severe symptoms. In a subset of individuals, calf hypertrophy in combination with brisk reflexes is notable.
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 3
MedGen UID:
462813
Concept ID:
C3151463
Disease or Syndrome
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is characterized by episodic syncope occurring during exercise or acute emotion. The underlying cause of these episodes is the onset of fast ventricular tachycardia (bidirectional or polymorphic). Spontaneous recovery may occur when these arrhythmias self-terminate. In other instances, ventricular tachycardia may degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and cause sudden death if cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not readily available. The mean onset of symptoms (usually a syncopal episode) is between age seven and 12 years; onset as late as the fourth decade of life has been reported. If untreated, CPVT is highly lethal, as approximately 30% of affected individuals experience at least one cardiac arrest and up to 80% have one or more syncopal spells. Sudden death may be the first manifestation of the disease.
Ogden syndrome
MedGen UID:
477078
Concept ID:
C3275447
Disease or Syndrome
Ogden syndrome (OGDNS) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by postnatal growth failure, severely delayed psychomotor development, variable dysmorphic features, and hypotonia. Many patients also have cardiac malformations or arrhythmias (summary by Popp et al., 2015).
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 4
MedGen UID:
766961
Concept ID:
C3554047
Disease or Syndrome
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is characterized by episodic syncope occurring during exercise or acute emotion. The underlying cause of these episodes is the onset of fast ventricular tachycardia (bidirectional or polymorphic). Spontaneous recovery may occur when these arrhythmias self-terminate. In other instances, ventricular tachycardia may degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and cause sudden death if cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not readily available. The mean onset of symptoms (usually a syncopal episode) is between age seven and 12 years; onset as late as the fourth decade of life has been reported. If untreated, CPVT is highly lethal, as approximately 30% of affected individuals experience at least one cardiac arrest and up to 80% have one or more syncopal spells. Sudden death may be the first manifestation of the disease.
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 5
MedGen UID:
815866
Concept ID:
C3809536
Disease or Syndrome
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is characterized by episodic syncope occurring during exercise or acute emotion. The underlying cause of these episodes is the onset of fast ventricular tachycardia (bidirectional or polymorphic). Spontaneous recovery may occur when these arrhythmias self-terminate. In other instances, ventricular tachycardia may degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and cause sudden death if cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not readily available. The mean onset of symptoms (usually a syncopal episode) is between age seven and 12 years; onset as late as the fourth decade of life has been reported. If untreated, CPVT is highly lethal, as approximately 30% of affected individuals experience at least one cardiac arrest and up to 80% have one or more syncopal spells. Sudden death may be the first manifestation of the disease.
Atrial conduction disease
MedGen UID:
863722
Concept ID:
C4015285
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic cardiac disease characterized by variably expressed atrial tachyarrhythmia (such as atrial flutter, paroxysmal or chronic atrial fibrillation, ectopic atrial tachycardia, or multifocal atrial tachycardia), infra-Hisian conduction system disease, and vulnerability to dilated cardiomyopathy. Age of onset ranges between childhood and adulthood.
Long QT syndrome 15
MedGen UID:
864132
Concept ID:
C4015695
Disease or Syndrome
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac electrophysiologic disorder, characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the EKG that are associated with tachyarrhythmias, typically the ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes (TdP). TdP is usually self-terminating, thus causing a syncopal event, the most common symptom in individuals with LQTS. Such cardiac events typically occur during exercise and emotional stress, less frequently during sleep, and usually without warning. In some instances, TdP degenerates to ventricular fibrillation and causes aborted cardiac arrest (if the individual is defibrillated) or sudden death. Approximately 50% of untreated individuals with a pathogenic variant in one of the genes associated with LQTS have symptoms, usually one to a few syncopal events. While cardiac events may occur from infancy through middle age, they are most common from the preteen years through the 20s. Some types of LQTS are associated with a phenotype extending beyond cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the prolonged QT interval, associations include muscle weakness and facial dysmorphism in Andersen-Tawil syndrome (LQTS type 7); hand/foot, facial, and neurodevelopmental features in Timothy syndrome (LQTS type 8); and profound sensorineural hearing loss in Jervell and Lange-Nielson syndrome.
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2Y
MedGen UID:
1385152
Concept ID:
C4511482
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive myopathy with rigid spine and distal joint contractures (MRRSDC) is characterized by onset of slowly progressive muscle weakness in the first or second decades of life. There is initial involvement of the proximal lower limbs, followed by distal upper and lower limb muscle weakness and atrophy. Other features include joint contractures, rigid spine, and restricted pulmonary function; some patients may have mild cardiac involvement (summary by Kayman-Kurekci et al., 2014).
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, familial, 14
MedGen UID:
1712001
Concept ID:
C5394505
Disease or Syndrome
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia-14 (ARVD14) is characterized by palpitations, chest pain, and presyncope. Electrocardiography shows epsilon waves, T-wave inversion across anterior leads, premature ventricular contractions, ventricular tachycardia, and left bundle branch block. Dilation of the right ventricle with hypokinesia and aneurysmal changes are seen on echocardiography. Cardiac MRI may show fibrofatty infiltration, which has been confirmed by endocardial biopsy in some patients. Sudden death may occur (Mayosi et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ARVD, see ARVD1 (107970).
Recurrent metabolic encephalomyopathic crises-rhabdomyolysis-cardiac arrhythmia-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
1798947
Concept ID:
C5567524
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with TANGO2-related metabolic encephalopathy and arrhythmias can present in acute metabolic crisis (hypoglycemia, elevated lactate, mild hyperammonemia) or with developmental delay, regression, and/or seizures. The acute presentation varies from profound muscle weakness, ataxia, and/or disorientation to a comatose state. Individuals can present with intermittent acute episodes of rhabdomyolysis. The first episode of myoglobinuria has been known to occur as early as age five months. Acute renal tubular damage due to myoglobinuria can result in acute kidney injury and renal failure. During acute illness, transient electrocardiogram changes can be seen; the most common is QT prolongation. Life-threatening recurrent ventricular tachycardia or torsade de pointes occurs primarily during times of acute illness. Individuals who do not present in metabolic crises may present with gait incoordination, progressively unsteady gait, difficulty with speech, or clumsiness. Intellectual disability of variable severity is observed in almost all individuals. Seizures are observed outside the periods of crises in more than 75% of individuals. Hypothyroidism has been reported in more than one third of individuals.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, cerebral atrophy, and visual impairment
MedGen UID:
1823998
Concept ID:
C5774225
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, cerebral atrophy, and visual impairment (NEDMVIC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, facial dysmorphism, and microcephaly (Ziegler et al., 2022).
Cardiomyopathy, dilated, 100
MedGen UID:
1840927
Concept ID:
C5830291
Disease or Syndrome
Dilated cardiomyopathy-1OO (CMD1OO) is characterized by enlarged left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, resulting in cardiac failure that may result in premature death. Some patients also exhibit second-degree atrioventricular block and premature ventricular beats (Shi et al., 2023). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of dilated cardiomyopathy, see CMD1A (115200).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 111
MedGen UID:
1846991
Concept ID:
C5882690
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-111 (DEE111) is an autosomal recessive severe neurologic disorder characterized by early-onset refractory seizures, global developmental delay, hypotonia, impaired gross motor development, impaired intellectual development, and absent speech. Most patients have macrocephaly. Brain imaging shows frontal, parietal, and perisylvian polymicrogyria, dysmorphic basal ganglia and corpus callosum, and hypoplastic pons. Additional features may include feeding difficulties, poor vision with ocular anomalies, congenital cardiac abnormalities, and recurrent infections associated with neutropenia. Death in early childhood may occur (Ververi et al., 2023). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Beyls C, Hermida A, Duchateau J, Maury P, Taieb J, Laurent G, Kubala M, Ben Amar A, Sacher F, Jais P, Hermida JS
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2019 Aug;30(8):1287-1293. Epub 2019 Jul 22 doi: 10.1111/jce.14050. PMID: 31240813
Geraghty L, Santangeli P, Tedrow UB, Shivkumar K, Kumar S
Heart Lung Circ 2019 Jan;28(1):123-133. Epub 2018 Oct 15 doi: 10.1016/j.hlc.2018.10.005. PMID: 30554598
Yamada T
J Cardiol 2016 Dec;68(6):463-471. Epub 2016 Jul 9 doi: 10.1016/j.jjcc.2016.06.001. PMID: 27401396

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Gunay T, Oztas SC
Kardiologiia 2023 Nov 8;63(10):84-90. doi: 10.18087/cardio.2023.10.n2567. PMID: 37970860
Steinberg C
Card Electrophysiol Clin 2023 Sep;15(3):331-341. Epub 2023 Jun 18 doi: 10.1016/j.ccep.2023.05.004. PMID: 37558303
Bennett R, Campbell T, Kumar S
Heart Lung Circ 2020 Apr;29(4):594-606. Epub 2020 Jan 3 doi: 10.1016/j.hlc.2019.12.009. PMID: 32014423
Corrado D, Drezner JA, D'Ascenzi F, Zorzi A
Br J Sports Med 2020 Oct;54(19):1142-1148. Epub 2019 Sep 3 doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2018-100529. PMID: 31481389Free PMC Article
Geraghty L, Santangeli P, Tedrow UB, Shivkumar K, Kumar S
Heart Lung Circ 2019 Jan;28(1):123-133. Epub 2018 Oct 15 doi: 10.1016/j.hlc.2018.10.005. PMID: 30554598

Diagnosis

Gunay T, Oztas SC
Kardiologiia 2023 Nov 8;63(10):84-90. doi: 10.18087/cardio.2023.10.n2567. PMID: 37970860
Steinberg C
Card Electrophysiol Clin 2023 Sep;15(3):331-341. Epub 2023 Jun 18 doi: 10.1016/j.ccep.2023.05.004. PMID: 37558303
Saclova L, Nemcova A, Smisek R, Smital L, Vitek M, Ronzhina M
Sci Rep 2022 Apr 21;12(1):6589. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-10656-4. PMID: 35449228Free PMC Article
Ponomartseva DA, Derevitskii IV, Kovalchuk SV, Babenko AY
BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Jul 11;21(1):150. doi: 10.1186/s12902-021-00809-3. PMID: 34246271Free PMC Article
Corrado D, Drezner JA, D'Ascenzi F, Zorzi A
Br J Sports Med 2020 Oct;54(19):1142-1148. Epub 2019 Sep 3 doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2018-100529. PMID: 31481389Free PMC Article

Therapy

Liu QF, Tian Y, Tian LH, Jing H
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2023 Sep;34(9):1843-1849. Epub 2023 Aug 26 doi: 10.1111/jce.16042. PMID: 37632286
Apte N, Kalra DK
Cardiology 2023;148(2):119-130. Epub 2023 Mar 6 doi: 10.1159/000529670. PMID: 36878200
Taylor A, Yang J, Dubin A, Chubb MH, Motonaga K, Goodyer W, Giacone H, Peng L, Romfh A, McElhinney D, Ceresnak S
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2022 Nov;100(5):766-773. Epub 2022 Oct 5 doi: 10.1002/ccd.30393. PMID: 36198126
Aidi S, Daneshpazhooh M, Eslami M, Azizpour A, Toosi R, Mollazadeh R
Dermatol Ther 2020 Nov;33(6):e14299. Epub 2020 Sep 20 doi: 10.1111/dth.14299. PMID: 32916030
van der Bijl P, Delgado V, Bax JJ
Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2019 May-Jun;62(3):205-211. Epub 2019 May 2 doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2019.04.005. PMID: 31054859

Prognosis

Ivora A, Viscor I, Nejedly P, Smisek R, Koscova Z, Bulkova V, Halamek J, Jurak P, Plesinger F
Sci Rep 2022 Jul 25;12(1):12641. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-16517-4. PMID: 35879331Free PMC Article
Mohagheghian F, Han D, Peitzsch A, Nishita N, Ding E, Dickson EL, DiMezza D, Otabil EM, Noorishirazi K, Scott J, Lessard D, Wang Z, Whitcomb C, Tran KV, Fitzgibbons TP, McManus DD, Chon KH
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2022 Sep;69(9):2982-2993. Epub 2022 Aug 19 doi: 10.1109/TBME.2022.3158582. PMID: 35275809Free PMC Article
Ponomartseva DA, Derevitskii IV, Kovalchuk SV, Babenko AY
BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Jul 11;21(1):150. doi: 10.1186/s12902-021-00809-3. PMID: 34246271Free PMC Article
Corrado D, Drezner JA, D'Ascenzi F, Zorzi A
Br J Sports Med 2020 Oct;54(19):1142-1148. Epub 2019 Sep 3 doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2018-100529. PMID: 31481389Free PMC Article
Saurav A, Smer A, Abuzaid A, Bansal O, Abuissa H
Clin Cardiol 2015 Apr;38(4):251-8. Epub 2015 Feb 10 doi: 10.1002/clc.22371. PMID: 25678299Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Shin K, Kim H, Seo WY, Kim HS, Shin JM, Kim DK, Park YS, Kim SH, Kim N
Comput Biol Med 2023 Nov;166:107532. Epub 2023 Oct 4 doi: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2023.107532. PMID: 37816272
George SA, Brennan-McLean JA, Trampel KA, Rytkin E, Faye NR, Knollmann BC, Efimov IR
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2023 Oct 1;325(4):H720-H728. Epub 2023 Aug 11 doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00103.2023. PMID: 37566110
Apte N, Kalra DK
Cardiology 2023;148(2):119-130. Epub 2023 Mar 6 doi: 10.1159/000529670. PMID: 36878200
Saurav A, Smer A, Abuzaid A, Bansal O, Abuissa H
Clin Cardiol 2015 Apr;38(4):251-8. Epub 2015 Feb 10 doi: 10.1002/clc.22371. PMID: 25678299Free PMC Article
Santoro F, Di Biase L, Hranitzky P, Sanchez JE, Santangeli P, Perini AP, Burkhardt JD, Natale A
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2014 Nov;25(11):1158-64. Epub 2014 Jul 23 doi: 10.1111/jce.12478. PMID: 24946987

Recent systematic reviews

Ahn JY, Chu H, Leem J, Yun JM
Medicine (Baltimore) 2024 Jun 7;103(23):e38441. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000038441. PMID: 38847675Free PMC Article
Deng JH, Jia B, Yao YT; Evidence in Cardiovascular Anesthesia (EICA) Group
J Cardiothorac Surg 2024 May 3;19(1):274. doi: 10.1186/s13019-024-02732-9. PMID: 38702789Free PMC Article
Purohith AN, Vaidyanathan S, Udupa ST, Munoli RN, Agarwal S, Prabhu MA, Praharaj SK
J ECT 2023 Mar 1;39(1):46-52. Epub 2022 Apr 26 doi: 10.1097/YCT.0000000000000851. PMID: 35482902Free PMC Article
Gong H, Liu X, Cheng F
J Int Med Res 2021 Sep;49(9):3000605211047074. doi: 10.1177/03000605211047074. PMID: 34590877Free PMC Article
Liu W, Xiong X, Feng B, Yuan R, Chu F, Liu H
Complement Ther Med 2015 Feb;23(1):100-15. Epub 2015 Jan 6 doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2014.12.008. PMID: 25637158

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