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MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Mental Process
Synonym: Hostilities
SNOMED CT: Hostile behavior (79351003); Hostility (79351003)
HPO: HP:0031473


Persistent or frequent feelings of anger; anger or irritability in response to minor slights and insults. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Lubs type
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
MECP2 duplication syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by early-onset hypotonia, feeding difficulty, gastrointestinal manifestations including gastroesophageal reflux and constipation, delayed psychomotor development leading to severe intellectual disability, poor speech development, progressive spasticity, recurrent respiratory infections (in ~75% of affected individuals), and seizures (in ~50%). MECP2 duplication syndrome is 100% penetrant in males. Occasionally females have been described with a MECP2 duplication and a range of findings from mild intellectual disability to a phenotype similar to that seen in males. In addition to the core features, autistic behaviors, nonspecific neuroradiologic findings on brain MRI, mottled skin, and urogenital anomalies have been observed in several affected boys.

Professional guidelines


Joseph DB, Baum MA, Tanaka ST, Frimberger DC, Misseri R, Khavari R, Baillie S, Yerkes EB, Wood H
J Pediatr Rehabil Med 2020;13(4):479-489. doi: 10.3233/PRM-200712. PMID: 33252091Free PMC Article
Griffin S, Tan J, Perrin PB, Williams AB, Smith ER, Rybarczyk B
Pain Res Manag 2020;2020:5932018. Epub 2020 Apr 29 doi: 10.1155/2020/5932018. PMID: 32399128Free PMC Article
Lindenmayer JP
Psychiatr Q 2000 Winter;71(4):373-84. doi: 10.1023/a:1004640408501. PMID: 11025914

Recent systematic reviews

Akram U, Stevenson JC, Gardani M, Allen S, Johann AF
J Sleep Res 2023 Dec;32(6):e14031. Epub 2023 Sep 1 doi: 10.1111/jsr.14031. PMID: 37654128
Valdivieso-Jiménez G, Pino-Zavaleta DA, Campos-Rodriguez SK, Ortiz-Saavedra B, Fernández MF, Benites-Zapata VA
Psychiatr Q 2023 Dec;94(4):541-557. Epub 2023 Aug 11 doi: 10.1007/s11126-023-10045-8. PMID: 37566261
Van Veen MM, Lancel M, Şener O, Verkes RJ, Bouman EJ, Rutters F
Sleep Med Rev 2022 Aug;64:101661. Epub 2022 Aug 12 doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2022.101661. PMID: 36064210
De Rossi G, Georgiades A
Early Interv Psychiatry 2022 Dec;16(12):1278-1296. Epub 2022 Apr 9 doi: 10.1111/eip.13292. PMID: 35396904Free PMC Article
Van Veen MM, Lancel M, Beijer E, Remmelzwaal S, Rutters F
Sleep Med Rev 2021 Oct;59:101500. Epub 2021 May 12 doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2021.101500. PMID: 34058519

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