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Irritability

MedGen UID:
397841
Concept ID:
C2700617
Mental Process
Synonyms: Irritable; Irritable mood; Irritation
 
HPO: HP:0000737

Definition

A proneness to anger, i.e., a tendency to become easily bothered or annoyed. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Behcet disease
MedGen UID:
2568
Concept ID:
C0004943
Disease or Syndrome
Behçet disease is an inflammatory condition that affects many parts of the body. The health problems associated with Behçet disease result from widespread inflammation of blood vessels (vasculitis). This inflammation most commonly affects small blood vessels in the mouth, genitals, skin, and eyes.\n\nPainful mouth sores called aphthous ulcers are usually the first sign of Behçet disease. These sores can occur on the lips, tongue, inside the cheeks, the roof of the mouth, the throat, and the tonsils. The ulcers look like common canker sores, and they typically heal within one to two weeks. About 75 percent of all people with Behçet disease develop similar ulcers on the genitals. These ulcers occur most frequently on the scrotum in men and on the labia in women.\n\nBehçet disease can also cause painful bumps and sores on the skin. Most affected individuals develop pus-filled bumps that resemble acne. These bumps can occur anywhere on the body. Some affected people also have red, tender nodules called erythema nodosum. These nodules usually develop on the legs but can also occur on the arms, face, and neck.\n\nAn inflammation of the eye called uveitis is found in more than half of people with Behçet disease. Eye problems are more common in younger people with the disease and affect men more often than women. Uveitis can result in blurry vision and an extreme sensitivity to light (photophobia). Rarely, inflammation can also cause eye pain and redness. If untreated, the eye problems associated with Behçet disease can lead to blindness.\n\nJoint involvement is also common in Behçet disease. Often this affects one joint at a time, with each affected joint becoming swollen and painful and then getting better.\n\nLess commonly, Behçet disease can affect the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system), gastrointestinal tract, large blood vessels, heart, lungs, and kidneys. Central nervous system abnormalities can lead to headaches, confusion, personality changes, memory loss, impaired speech, and problems with balance and movement. Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract can lead to a hole in the wall of the intestine (intestinal perforation), which can cause serious infection and may be life-threatening.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of Behçet disease usually begin in a person's twenties or thirties, although they can appear at any age. Some affected people have relatively mild symptoms that are limited to sores in the mouth and on the genitals. Others have more severe symptoms affecting various parts of the body, including the eyes and the vital organs. The features of Behçet disease typically come and go over a period of months or years. In most affected individuals, the health problems associated with this disorder improve with age.
Fructose-biphosphatase deficiency
MedGen UID:
42106
Concept ID:
C0016756
Disease or Syndrome
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1) deficiency is characterized by episodic acute crises of lactic acidosis and ketotic hypoglycemia, manifesting as hyperventilation, apneic spells, seizures, and/or coma. Acute crises are most common in early childhood; nearly half of affected children have hypoglycemia in the neonatal period (especially the first 4 days) resulting from deficient glycogen stores. Factors known to trigger episodes include fever, fasting, decreased oral intake, vomiting, infections, and ingestion of large amounts of fructose. In untreated individuals, symptoms worsen progressively as continued catabolism leads to multiorgan failure (especially liver, brain, and later heart). Morbidity and mortality are high. Sepsis, blindness, and Reye syndrome-like presentation have been reported. In between acute episodes, children are asymptomatic. While the majority of affected children have normal growth and psychomotor development, a few have intellectual disability, presumably due to early and prolonged hypoglycemia.
Letterer-Siwe disease
MedGen UID:
7311
Concept ID:
C0023381
Disease or Syndrome
A multifocal, multisystem form of Langerhans-cell histiocytosis. There is involvement of multiple organ systems including the bones, skin, liver, spleen, and lymph nodes. Patients are usually infants presenting with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, bone and skin lesions, and pancytopenia.
Phenylketonuria
MedGen UID:
19244
Concept ID:
C0031485
Disease or Syndrome
Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency results in intolerance to the dietary intake of the essential amino acid phenylalanine and produces a spectrum of disorders. The risk of adverse outcome varies based on the degree of PAH deficiency. Without effective therapy, most individuals with severe PAH deficiency, known as classic PKU, develop profound and irreversible intellectual disability. Affected individuals on an unrestricted diet who have phenylalanine levels above normal but below 1,200 µmol/L (20 mg/dL) are at much lower risk for impaired cognitive development in the absence of treatment.
Hereditary acrodermatitis enteropathica
MedGen UID:
66355
Concept ID:
C0221036
Disease or Syndrome
Acrodermatitis enteropathica of the zinc deficiency type (AEZ) is characterized by intermittent simultaneous occurrence of diarrhea and dermatitis with failure to thrive. Alopecia of the scalp, eyebrows, and eyelashes is a usual feature. The skin lesions are bullous. Noteworthy is the cure by diodoquin, or diiodohydroxyquinoline (Dillaha et al., 1953; Bloom and Sobel, 1955). Rodin and Goldman (1969) described autopsy findings, including pancreatic islet hyperplasia, absence of the thymus and of germinal centers, and plasmocytosis of lymph nodes and spleen.
Pick disease
MedGen UID:
116020
Concept ID:
C0236642
Disease or Syndrome
Pick disease refers to the neuropathologic finding of 'Pick bodies,' which are argyrophilic, intraneuronal inclusions, and 'Pick cells,' which are enlarged neurons. The clinical correlates of Pick disease of brain include those of frontotemporal dementia, which encompass the behavioral variant of FTD, semantic dementia, and progressive nonfluent aphasia (summary by Piguet et al., 2011). Kertesz (2003) suggested the term 'Pick complex' to represent the overlapping syndromes of FTD, primary progressive aphasia (PPA), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), progressive supranuclear palsy (601104), and FTD with motor neuron disease. He noted that frontotemporal dementia may also be referred to as 'clinical Pick disease,' and that the term 'Pick disease' should be restricted to the pathologic finding of Pick bodies.
Niemann-Pick disease, type A
MedGen UID:
78650
Concept ID:
C0268242
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotype of acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD) occurs along a continuum. Individuals with the severe early-onset form, infantile neurovisceral ASMD, were historically diagnosed with Niemann-Pick disease type A (NPD-A). The later-onset, chronic visceral form of ASMD is also referred to as Niemann-Pick disease type B (NPD-B). A phenotype with intermediate severity is also known as chronic neurovisceral ASMD (NPD-A/B). The most common presenting symptom in NPD-A is hepatosplenomegaly, usually detectable by age three months; over time the liver and spleen become massive in size. Psychomotor development progresses no further than the 12-month level, after which neurologic deterioration is relentless. Failure to thrive typically becomes evident by the second year of life. A classic cherry-red spot of the macula of the retina, which may not be present in the first few months, is eventually present in all affected children. Interstitial lung disease caused by storage of sphingomyelin in pulmonary macrophages results in frequent respiratory infections and often respiratory failure. Most children succumb before the third year of life. NPD-B generally presents later than NPD-A, and the manifestations are less severe. NPD-B is characterized by progressive hepatosplenomegaly, gradual deterioration in liver and pulmonary function, osteopenia, and atherogenic lipid profile. No central nervous system (CNS) manifestations occur. Individuals with NPD-A/B have symptoms that are intermediate between NPD-A and NPD-B. The presentation in individuals with NPD-A/B varies greatly, although all are characterized by the presence of some CNS manifestations. Survival to adulthood can occur in individuals with NPD-B and NPD-A/B.
Farber lipogranulomatosis
MedGen UID:
78654
Concept ID:
C0268255
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of ASAH1-related disorders ranges from Farber disease (FD) to spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA-PME). Classic FD is characterized by onset in the first weeks of life of painful, progressive deformity of the major joints; palpable subcutaneous nodules of joints and mechanical pressure points; and a hoarse cry resulting from granulomas of the larynx and epiglottis. Life expectancy is usually less than two years. In the other less common types of FD, onset, severity, and primary manifestations vary. SMA-PME is characterized by early-childhood-onset progressive lower motor neuron disease manifest typically between ages three and seven years as proximal lower-extremity weakness, followed by progressive myoclonic and atonic seizures, tremulousness/tremor, and sensorineural hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy typically begins in late childhood after the onset of weakness and can include jerking of the upper limbs, action myoclonus, myoclonic status, and eyelid myoclonus. Other findings include generalized tremor, and cognitive decline. The time from disease onset to death from respiratory complications is usually five to 15 years.
Infantile hypophosphatasia
MedGen UID:
75677
Concept ID:
C0268412
Disease or Syndrome
Hypophosphatasia is characterized by defective mineralization of growing or remodeling bone, with or without root-intact tooth loss, in the presence of low activity of serum and bone alkaline phosphatase. Clinical features range from stillbirth without mineralized bone at the severe end to pathologic fractures of the lower extremities in later adulthood at the mild end. While the disease spectrum is a continuum, seven clinical forms of hypophosphatasia are usually recognized based on age at diagnosis and severity of features: Perinatal (severe): characterized by pulmonary insufficiency and hypercalcemia. Perinatal (benign): prenatal skeletal manifestations that slowly resolve into one of the milder forms. Infantile: onset between birth and age six months of clinical features of rickets without elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Severe childhood (juvenile): variable presenting features progressing to rickets. Mild childhood: low bone mineral density for age, increased risk of fracture, and premature loss of primary teeth with intact roots. Adult: characterized by stress fractures and pseudofractures of the lower extremities in middle age, sometimes associated with early loss of adult dentition. Odontohypophosphatasia: characterized by premature exfoliation of primary teeth and/or severe dental caries without skeletal manifestations.
Dihydropteridine reductase deficiency
MedGen UID:
75682
Concept ID:
C0268465
Disease or Syndrome
Infants with tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency appear normal at birth, but medical problems ranging from mild to severe become apparent over time. Signs and symptoms of this condition can include intellectual disability, progressive problems with development, movement disorders, difficulty swallowing, seizures, behavioral problems, and an inability to control body temperature.\n\nTetrahydrobiopterin deficiency is a rare disorder characterized by a shortage (deficiency) of a molecule called tetrahydrobiopterin or BH4. This condition alters the levels of several substances in the body, including phenylalanine. Phenylalanine is a building block of proteins (an amino acid) that is obtained through the diet. It is found in foods that contain protein and in some artificial sweeteners. High levels of phenylalanine are present from early infancy in people with untreated tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency. This condition also alters the levels of chemicals called neurotransmitters, which transmit signals between nerve cells in the brain.
Ornithine carbamoyltransferase deficiency
MedGen UID:
75692
Concept ID:
C0268542
Disease or Syndrome
Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency can occur as a severe neonatal-onset disease in males (but rarely in females) and as a post-neonatal-onset (also known as "late-onset" or partial deficiency) disease in males and females. Males with severe neonatal-onset OTC deficiency are asymptomatic at birth but become symptomatic from hyperammonemia in the first week of life, most often on day two to three of life, and are usually catastrophically ill by the time they come to medical attention. After successful treatment of neonatal hyperammonemic coma these infants can easily become hyperammonemic again despite appropriate treatment; they typically require liver transplant to improve quality of life. Males and heterozygous females with post-neonatal-onset (partial) OTC deficiency can present from infancy to later childhood, adolescence, or adulthood. No matter how mild the disease, a hyperammonemic crisis can be precipitated by stressors and become a life-threatening event at any age and in any situation in life. For all individuals with OTC deficiency, typical neuropsychological complications include developmental delay, learning disabilities, intellectual disability, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and executive function deficits.
Argininosuccinate lyase deficiency
MedGen UID:
78687
Concept ID:
C0268547
Disease or Syndrome
Deficiency of argininosuccinate lyase (ASL), the enzyme that cleaves argininosuccinic acid to produce arginine and fumarate in the fourth step of the urea cycle, may present as a severe neonatal-onset form or a late-onset form: The severe neonatal-onset form is characterized by hyperammonemia within the first few days after birth that can manifest as increasing lethargy, somnolence, refusal to feed, vomiting, tachypnea, and respiratory alkalosis. Absence of treatment leads to worsening lethargy, seizures, coma, and even death. In contrast, the manifestations of late-onset form range from episodic hyperammonemia triggered by acute infection or stress to cognitive impairment, behavioral abnormalities, and/or learning disabilities in the absence of any documented episodes of hyperammonemia. Manifestations of ASL deficiency that appear to be unrelated to the severity or duration of hyperammonemic episodes: Neurocognitive deficiencies (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, developmental delay, seizures, and learning disability). Liver disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis). Trichorrhexis nodosa (coarse brittle hair that breaks easily). Systemic hypertension.
Arginase deficiency
MedGen UID:
78688
Concept ID:
C0268548
Disease or Syndrome
Arginase deficiency in untreated individuals is characterized by episodic hyperammonemia of variable degree that is infrequently severe enough to be life threatening or to cause death. Most commonly, birth and early childhood are normal. Untreated individuals have slowing of linear growth at age one to three years, followed by development of spasticity, plateauing of cognitive development, and subsequent loss of developmental milestones. If untreated, arginase deficiency usually progresses to severe spasticity, loss of ambulation, complete loss of bowel and bladder control, and severe intellectual disability. Seizures are common and are usually controlled easily. Individuals treated from birth, either as a result of newborn screening or having an affected older sib, appear to have minimal symptoms.
Hyperglycinemia, transient neonatal
MedGen UID:
82818
Concept ID:
C0268560
Disease or Syndrome
Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency
MedGen UID:
120653
Concept ID:
C0268581
Disease or Syndrome
Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency, a biotin-responsive multiple carboxylase deficiency (MCD), is characterized by metabolic acidosis, lethargy, hypotonia, convulsions, and dermatitis. Most patients present in the newborn or early infantile period, but some become symptomatic in the later infantile period (summary by Suzuki et al., 2005). Also see biotinidase deficiency (253260), another form of MCD with a later onset. Care must be taken to differentiate the inherited multiple carboxylase deficiencies from acquired biotin deficiencies, such as those that develop after excessive dietary intake of avidin, an egg-white glycoprotein that binds specifically and essentially irreversibly to biotin (Sweetman et al., 1981) or prolonged parenteral alimentation without supplemental biotin (Mock et al., 1981).
Vitamin D-dependent rickets, type 1
MedGen UID:
124344
Concept ID:
C0268689
Disease or Syndrome
Vitamin D-dependent rickets is a disorder of bone development that leads to softening and weakening of the bones (rickets). There are several forms of the condition that are distinguished primarily by their genetic causes: type 1A (VDDR1A), type 1B (VDDR1B), and type 2A (VDDR2A). There is also evidence of a very rare form of the condition, called type 2B (VDDR2B), although not much is known about this form.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of vitamin D-dependent rickets begin within months after birth, and most are the same for all types of the condition. The weak bones often cause bone pain and delayed growth and have a tendency to fracture. When affected children begin to walk, they may develop abnormally curved (bowed) legs because the bones are too weak to bear weight. Impaired bone development also results in widening of the areas near the ends of bones where new bone forms (metaphyses), especially in the knees, wrists, and ribs. Some people with vitamin D-dependent rickets have dental abnormalities such as thin tooth enamel and frequent cavities. Poor muscle tone (hypotonia) and muscle weakness are also common in this condition, and some affected individuals develop seizures.\n\nIn vitamin D-dependent rickets, there is an imbalance of certain substances in the blood. An early sign in all types of the condition is low levels of the mineral calcium (hypocalcemia), which is essential for the normal formation of bones and teeth. Affected individuals also develop high levels of a hormone involved in regulating calcium levels called parathyroid hormone (PTH), which leads to a condition called secondary hyperparathyroidism. Low levels of a mineral called phosphate (hypophosphatemia) also occur in affected individuals. Vitamin D-dependent rickets types 1 and 2 can be grouped by blood levels of a hormone called calcitriol, which is the active form of vitamin D; individuals with VDDR1A and VDDR1B have abnormally low levels of calcitriol and individuals with VDDR2A and VDDR2B have abnormally high levels.\n\nHair loss (alopecia) can occur in VDDR2A, although not everyone with this form of the condition has alopecia. Affected individuals can have sparse or patchy hair or no hair at all on their heads. Some affected individuals are missing body hair as well.
Leucine-induced hypoglycemia
MedGen UID:
82888
Concept ID:
C0271714
Disease or Syndrome
Frontotemporal dementia
MedGen UID:
83266
Concept ID:
C0338451
Disease or Syndrome
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) refers to a clinical manifestation of the pathologic finding of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). FTD, the most common subtype of FTLD, is a behavioral variant characterized by changes in social and personal conduct with loss of volition, executive dysfunction, loss of abstract thought, and decreased speech output. A second clinical subtype of FTLD is 'semantic dementia,' characterized by specific loss of comprehension of language and impaired facial and object recognition. A third clinical subtype of FTLD is 'primary progressive aphasia' (PPA), characterized by a reduction in speech production, speech errors, and word retrieval difficulties resulting in mutism and an inability to communicate. All subtypes have relative preservation of memory, at least in the early stages. FTLD is often associated with parkinsonism or motor neuron disease (MND) resembling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; 105400) (reviews by Tolnay and Probst, 2002 and Mackenzie and Rademakers, 2007). Mackenzie et al. (2009, 2010) provided a classification of FTLD subtypes according to the neuropathologic findings (see PATHOGENESIS below). Clinical Variability of Tauopathies Tauopathies comprise a clinically variable group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized neuropathologically by accumulation of abnormal MAPT-positive inclusions in nerve and/or glial cells. In addition to frontotemporal dementia, semantic dementia, and PPA, different clinical syndromes with overlapping features have been described, leading to confusion in the terminology (Tolnay and Probst, 2002). Other terms used historically include parkinsonism and dementia with pallidopontonigral degeneration (PPND) (Wszolek et al., 1992); disinhibition-dementia-parkinsonism-amyotrophy complex (DDPAC) (Lynch et al., 1994); frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism (FLDEM) (Yamaoka et al., 1996); and multiple system tauopathy with presenile dementia (MSTD) (Spillantini et al., 1997). These disorders are characterized by variable degrees of frontal lobe dementia, parkinsonism, motor neuron disease, and amyotrophy. Other neurodegenerative associated with mutations in the MAPT gene include Pick disease (172700) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP; 601104), Inherited neurodegenerative tauopathies linked to chromosome 17 and caused by mutation in the MAPT gene have also been collectively termed 'FTDP17' (Lee et al., 2001). Kertesz (2003) suggested the term 'Pick complex' to represent the overlapping syndromes of FTD, primary progressive aphasia (PPA), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), PSP, and FTD with motor neuron disease. He noted that frontotemporal dementia may also be referred to as 'clinical Pick disease' and that the term 'Pick disease' should be restricted to the pathologic finding of Pick bodies. Genetic Heterogeneity of Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration Mutations in several different genes can cause frontotemporal dementia and frontotemporal lobar degeneration, with or without motor neuron disease. See FTLD with TDP43 inclusions (607485), caused by mutation in the GRN gene (138945) on chromosome 17q21; FTLALS7 (600795), caused by mutation in the CHMP2B gene (609512) on chromosome 3p11; inclusion body myopathy with Paget disease and FTD (IBMPFD; 167320), caused by mutation in the VCP gene (601023) on chromosome 9p13; ALS6 (608030), caused by mutation in the FUS gene (137070) on 16p11; ALS10 (612069), caused by mutation in the TARDBP gene (605078) on 1p36; and FTDALS1 (105550), caused by mutation in the C9ORF72 gene (614260) on 9p21. In 1 family with FTD, a mutation was identified in the presenilin-1 gene (PSEN1; 104311) on chromosome 14, which is usually associated with a familial form of early-onset Alzheimer disease (AD3; 607822).
Vitamin D-dependent rickets type II with alopecia
MedGen UID:
90989
Concept ID:
C0342646
Disease or Syndrome
Vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2A (VDDR2A) is caused by a defect in the vitamin D receptor gene. This defect leads to an increase in the circulating ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Most patients have total alopecia in addition to rickets. VDDR2B (600785) is a form of vitamin D-dependent rickets with a phenotype similar to VDDR2A but a normal vitamin D receptor, in which end-organ resistance to vitamin D has been shown to be caused by a nuclear ribonucleoprotein that interferes with the vitamin D receptor-DNA interaction. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of rickets due to disorders in vitamin D metabolism or action, see vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A (VDDR1A; 264700).
Transcobalamin II deficiency
MedGen UID:
137976
Concept ID:
C0342701
Disease or Syndrome
Transcobalamin II deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder with onset in early infancy characterized by failure to thrive, megaloblastic anemia, and pancytopenia. Other features include methylmalonic aciduria, recurrent infections, and vomiting and diarrhea. Treatment with cobalamin results in clinical improvement, but the untreated disorder may result in mental retardation and neurologic abnormalities (summary by Haberle et al., 2009). Hall (1981) gave a clinically oriented review of congenital defects of vitamin B12 transport, and Frater-Schroder (1983) gave a genetically oriented review.
Congenital defect of folate absorption
MedGen UID:
83348
Concept ID:
C0342705
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary folate malabsorption (HFM) is characterized by folate deficiency due to impaired intestinal folate absorption and impaired folate transport into the central nervous system. Findings include poor feeding, failure to thrive, and anemia. There can be leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, diarrhea and/or oral mucositis, hypoimmunoglobulinemia, and other immunologic dysfunction resulting in infections, most often Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Neurologic manifestations include developmental delays, cognitive and motor disorders, behavioral disorders, and seizures.
Beta-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA deacylase deficiency
MedGen UID:
83349
Concept ID:
C0342738
Disease or Syndrome
3-Hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA hydrolase deficiency (HIBCHD) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development, neurodegeneration, increased lactic acid, and brain lesions in the basal ganglia (summary by Ferdinandusse et al., 2013).
Carnitine acylcarnitine translocase deficiency
MedGen UID:
91000
Concept ID:
C0342791
Disease or Syndrome
Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) is a critical component of the carnitine shuttle, which facilitates the transfer of long-chain fatty acylcarnitines across the inner mitochondrial membrane. CACT deficiency causes a defect in mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid ß-oxidation, with variable clinical severity. Severe neonatal-onset disease is most common, with symptoms evident within two days after birth; attenuated cases may present in the first months of life. Hyperammonemia and cardiac arrhythmia are prominent in early-onset disease, with high rates of cardiac arrest. Other clinical features are typical for disorders of long-chain fatty acid oxidation: poor feeding, lethargy, hypoketotic hypoglycemia, hypotonia, transaminitis, liver dysfunction with hepatomegaly, and rhabdomyolysis. Univentricular or biventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, ranging from mild to severe, may respond to appropriate dietary and medical therapies. Hyperammonemia is difficult to treat and is an important determinant of long-term neurocognitive outcome. Affected individuals with early-onset disease typically experience brain injury at presentation, and have recurrent hyperammonemia leading to developmental delay / intellectual disability. Affected individuals with later-onset disease have milder symptoms and are less likely to experience recurrent hyperammonemia, allowing a better developmental outcome. Prompt treatment of the presenting episode to prevent hypoglycemic, hypoxic, or hyperammonemic brain injury may allow normal growth and development.
Inherited Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
MedGen UID:
155837
Concept ID:
C0751254
Disease or Syndrome
Genetic prion disease generally manifests with cognitive difficulties, ataxia, and myoclonus (abrupt jerking movements of muscle groups and/or entire limbs). The order of appearance and/or predominance of these features and other associated neurologic and psychiatric findings vary. The three major phenotypes of genetic prion disease are genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (gCJD), fatal familial insomnia (FFI), and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome. Although these phenotypes display overlapping clinical and pathologic features, recognition of these phenotypes can be useful when providing affected individuals and their families with information about the expected clinical course. The age at onset typically ranges from 50 to 60 years. The disease course ranges from a few months in gCJD and FFI to a few (up to 4, and in rare cases up to 10) years in GSS syndrome.
Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome
MedGen UID:
208645
Concept ID:
C0795889
Disease or Syndrome
Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), an X-linked disorder, is characterized in males by neurologic findings (hypotonia and feeding difficulties in infancy, developmental delay / intellectual disability ranging from mild to profound) and later-onset pyramidal signs, extrapyramidal findings (dystonia, choreoathetosis, paroxysmal movement disorder, hypokinesia, masked facies), and seizures, often with drug resistance. Additional findings can include dysthyroidism (manifest as poor weight gain, reduced muscle mass, and variable cold intolerance, sweating, elevated heart rate, and irritability) and pathognomonic thyroid test results. Most heterozygous females are not clinically affected but may have minor thyroid test abnormalities.
Cholestasis-pigmentary retinopathy-cleft palate syndrome
MedGen UID:
208652
Concept ID:
C0795969
Disease or Syndrome
MED12-related disorders include the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), X-linked Ohdo syndrome (XLOS), Hardikar syndrome (HS), and nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. XLOS is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. HS has been described in females with cleft lip and/or cleft palate, biliary and liver anomalies, intestinal malrotation, pigmentary retinopathy, and coarctation of the aorta. Developmental and cognitive concerns have not been reported in females with HS. Pathogenic variants in MED12 have been reported in an increasing number of males and females with NSID, with affected individuals often having clinical features identified in other MED12-related disorders.
6-Pyruvoyl-tetrahydrobiopterin synthase deficiency
MedGen UID:
209234
Concept ID:
C0878676
Disease or Syndrome
Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)-deficient hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) comprises a genetically heterogeneous group of progressive neurologic disorders caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the genes encoding enzymes involved in the synthesis or regeneration of BH4. BH4 is a cofactor for phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH; 612349), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; 191290) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH1; 191060), the latter 2 of which are involved in neurotransmitter synthesis. The BH4-deficient HPAs are characterized phenotypically by hyperphenylalaninemia, depletion of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, and progressive cognitive and motor deficits (Dudesek et al., 2001). HPABH4A, caused by mutations in the PTS gene, represents the most common cause of BH4-deficient hyperphenylalaninemia (Dudesek et al., 2001). Other forms of BH4-deficient HPA include HPABH4B (233910), caused by mutation in the GCH1 gene (600225), HPABH4C (261630), caused by mutation in the QDPR gene (612676), and HPABH4D (264070), caused by mutation in the PCBD1 gene (126090). Niederwieser et al. (1982) noted that about 1 to 3% of patients with hyperphenylalaninemia have one of these BH4-deficient forms. These disorders are clinically and genetically distinct from classic phenylketonuria (PKU; 261600), caused by mutation in the PAH gene. Two additional disorders associated with BH4 deficiency and neurologic symptoms do not have overt hyperphenylalaninemia as a feature: dopa-responsive dystonia (612716), caused by mutation in the SPR gene (182125), and autosomal dominant dopa-responsive dystonia (DYT5; 128230), caused by mutation in the GCH1 gene. Patients with these disorders may develop hyperphenylalaninemia when stressed.
Deficiency of aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase
MedGen UID:
220945
Concept ID:
C1291564
Disease or Syndrome
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency (AADCD) is an autosomal recessive inborn error in neurotransmitter metabolism that leads to combined serotonin and catecholamine deficiency (Abeling et al., 2000). The disorder is clinically characterized by vegetative symptoms, oculogyric crises, dystonia, and severe neurologic dysfunction, usually beginning in infancy or childhood (summary by Brun et al., 2010).
Diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic, X-linked
MedGen UID:
288785
Concept ID:
C1563705
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is characterized by inability to concentrate the urine, which results in polyuria (excessive urine production) and polydipsia (excessive thirst). Affected untreated infants usually have poor feeding and failure to thrive, and rapid onset of severe dehydration with illness, hot environment, or the withholding of water. Short stature and secondary dilatation of the ureters and bladder from the high urine volume is common in untreated individuals.
Diabetes insipidus, nephrogenic, autosomal
MedGen UID:
289643
Concept ID:
C1563706
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is characterized by inability to concentrate the urine, which results in polyuria (excessive urine production) and polydipsia (excessive thirst). Affected untreated infants usually have poor feeding and failure to thrive, and rapid onset of severe dehydration with illness, hot environment, or the withholding of water. Short stature and secondary dilatation of the ureters and bladder from the high urine volume is common in untreated individuals.
Supranuclear palsy, progressive, 2
MedGen UID:
324446
Concept ID:
C1836148
Disease or Syndrome
GM3 synthase deficiency
MedGen UID:
323005
Concept ID:
C1836824
Disease or Syndrome
Salt and pepper developmental regression syndrome, also known as Amish infantile epilepsy syndrome, is an autosomal recessive neurocutaneous disorder characterized by infantile onset of refractory and recurrent seizures associated with profoundly delayed psychomotor development and/or developmental regression as well as abnormal movements and visual loss (summary by Fragaki et al., 2013). Affected individuals develop hypo- or hyperpigmented skin macules on the trunk, face, and extremities in early childhood (summary by Boccuto et al., 2014). Not all patients have overt seizures (Lee et al., 2016).
Childhood onset GLUT1 deficiency syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
330866
Concept ID:
C1842534
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 DS) is now known to be a continuum that includes the classic phenotype as well as paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia and epilepsy (previously known as dystonia 18 [DYT18]) and paroxysmal choreoathetosis with spasticity (previously known as dystonia 9 [DYT9]), atypical childhood absence epilepsy, myoclonic astatic epilepsy, and paroxysmal non-epileptic findings including intermittent ataxia, choreoathetosis, dystonia, and alternating hemiplegia. The classic phenotype is characterized by infantile-onset seizures, delayed neurologic development, acquired microcephaly, and complex movement disorders. Seizures in classic early-onset Glut1 DS begin before age six months. Several seizure types occur: generalized tonic or clonic, focal, myoclonic, atypical absence, atonic, and unclassified. In some infants, apneic episodes and abnormal episodic eye-head movements similar to opsoclonus may precede the onset of seizures. The frequency, severity, and type of seizures vary among affected individuals and are not related to disease severity. Cognitive impairment, ranging from learning disabilities to severe intellectual disability, is typical. The complex movement disorder, characterized by ataxia, dystonia, and chorea, may occur in any combination and may be continuous, paroxysmal, or continual with fluctuations in severity influenced by environmental factors such as fasting or with infectious stress. Symptoms often improve substantially when a ketogenic diet is started.
Biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease
MedGen UID:
375289
Concept ID:
C1843807
Disease or Syndrome
Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease (BTBGD) may present in childhood, early infancy, or adulthood. The classic presentation of BTBGD occurs in childhood (age 3-10 years) and is characterized by recurrent subacute encephalopathy manifest as confusion, seizures, ataxia, dystonia, supranuclear facial palsy, external ophthalmoplegia, and/or dysphagia which, if left untreated, can eventually lead to coma and even death. Dystonia and cogwheel rigidity are nearly always present; hyperreflexia, ankle clonus, and Babinski responses are common. Hemiparesis or quadriparesis may be seen. Episodes are often triggered by febrile illness or mild trauma or stress. Simple partial or generalized seizures are easily controlled with anti-seizure medication. An early-infantile Leigh-like syndrome / atypical infantile spasms presentation occurs in the first three months of life with poor feeding, vomiting, acute encephalopathy, and severe lactic acidosis. An adult-onset Wernicke-like encephalopathy presentation is characterized by acute onset of status epilepticus, ataxia, nystagmus, diplopia, and ophthalmoplegia in the second decade of life. Prompt administration of biotin and thiamine early in the disease course results in partial or complete improvement within days in the childhood and adult presentations, but most with the infantile presentation have had poor outcome even after supplementation with biotin and thiamine.
Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis
MedGen UID:
336877
Concept ID:
C1845202
Disease or Syndrome
The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is a common cause of hyponatremia. The syndrome manifests as an inability to excrete a free water load, with inappropriately concentrated urine and resultant hyponatremia, hypoosmolality, and natriuresis. SIADH occurs in a setting of normal blood volume, without evidence of renal disease or deficiency of thyroxine or cortisol. Although usually transient, SIADH may be chronic; it is often associated with drug use or a lesion in the central nervous system or lung. When the cardinal features of SIADH were defined by Bartter and Schwartz (1967), levels of AVP could not be measured. Subsequently, radioimmunoassays revealed that SIADH is usually associated with measurably elevated serum levels of AVP. Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD) is characterized by a clinical picture similar to SIADH, but is associated with undetectable levels of AVP (Feldman et al., 2005).
Amish lethal microcephaly
MedGen UID:
375938
Concept ID:
C1846648
Disease or Syndrome
Amish lethal microcephaly is characterized by severe congenital microcephaly and highly elevated 2-ketoglutarate or lactic acidosis. The occipitofrontal circumference is typically more than two standard deviations (occasionally >6 SD) below the mean; anterior and posterior fontanels are closed at birth and facial features are distorted. The average life span of an affected infant is between five and six months among the Lancaster Amish, although an affected Amish-Mennonite child was reported to be living with severe developmental delay at age seven years.
Huntington disease-like 2
MedGen UID:
341120
Concept ID:
C1847987
Disease or Syndrome
Huntington disease-like 2 (HDL2) typically presents in midlife with a relentless progressive triad of movement, emotional, and cognitive abnormalities which lead to death within ten to 20 years. HDL2 cannot be differentiated from Huntington disease clinically. Neurologic abnormalities include chorea, hypokinesia (rigidity, bradykinesia), dysarthria, and hyperreflexia in the later stages of the disease. There is a strong correlation between the duration of the disease and the progression of the motor and cognitive disorder.
Graves disease, susceptibility to, 1
MedGen UID:
341307
Concept ID:
C1848795
Finding
Graves disease (GRD) is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies to the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR; 603372) result in constitutive activation of the receptor and increased levels of thyroid hormone. Wilkin (1990) reviewed endocrine disorders of hormone excess and hormone deficiency resulting from receptor autoimmunity. Genetic Heterogeneity of Graves Disease Susceptibility to Graves disease-1 (GRD1) has been mapped to chromosome 14q31. Other susceptibility loci for Graves disease include GRD2 (603388) on chromosome 20q13, GRDX1 (300351) on Xp11, and GRDX2 (see 300351) on Xq21.33-q22. Graves disease has also been mapped to several loci that confer susceptibility to autoimmune thyroid diseases, including Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT; 140300): AITD1 (608173) on 6p11; AITD2 (608174) on 5q31-q33; AITD3 (608175) on 8q24; AITD4 (608176) on 10q, and AITD5 (601941) on 18q21.
Acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency
MedGen UID:
376636
Concept ID:
C1849678
Disease or Syndrome
Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency is a disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. See also D-bifunctional protein deficiency (261515), caused by mutation in the HSD17B4 gene (601860) on chromosome 5q2. The clinical manifestations of these 2 deficiencies are similar to those of disorders of peroxisomal assembly, including Zellweger cerebrohepatorenal syndrome (see 214100) and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (see 601539) (Watkins et al., 1995).
Polymyoclonus, infantile
MedGen UID:
376647
Concept ID:
C1849731
Disease or Syndrome
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 1
MedGen UID:
340540
Concept ID:
C1850451
Disease or Syndrome
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The lipopigment pattern seen most often in CLN1 is referred to as granular osmiophilic deposits (GROD). The patterns most often observed in CLN2 and CLN3 are 'curvilinear' and 'fingerprint' profiles, respectively. CLN4, CLN5, CLN6, CLN7, and CLN8 show mixed combinations of granular, curvilinear, fingerprint, and rectilinear profiles. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure (Mole et al., 2005). Zeman and Dyken (1969) referred to these conditions as the 'neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses.' Goebel (1995) provided a comprehensive review of the NCLs and noted that they are possibly the most common group of neurodegenerative diseases in children. Mole et al. (2005) provided a detailed clinical and genetic review of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses. Genetic Heterogeneity of Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis See also CLN2 (204500), caused by mutation in the TPP1 gene (607998) on chromosome 11p15; CLN3 (204200), caused by mutation in the CLN3 gene (607042) on 16p12; CLN4 (162350), caused by mutation in the DNAJC5 gene (611203) on 20q13; CLN5 (256731), caused by mutation in the CLN5 gene (608102) on 13q22; CLN6A (601780) and CLN6B (204300), both caused by mutation in the CLN6 gene (606725) on 15q21; CLN7 (610951), caused by mutation in the MFSD8 gene (611124) on 4q28; CLN8 (600143) and the Northern epilepsy variant of CLN8 (610003), both caused by mutation in the CLN8 gene (607837) on 8p23; CLN10 (610127), caused by mutation in the CTSD gene (116840) on 11p15; CLN11 (614706), caused by mutation in the GRN gene (138945) on 17q21; CLN13 (615362), caused by mutation in the CTSF gene (603539) on 11q13; and CLN14 (611726), caused by mutation in the KCTD7 gene (611725) on 7q11. CLN9 (609055) has not been molecularly characterized. A disorder that was formerly designated neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-12 (CLN12) is now considered to be a variable form of Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS; 606693).
Edema, familial idiopathic, prepubertal
MedGen UID:
377535
Concept ID:
C1851847
Disease or Syndrome
Sulfite oxidase deficiency due to molybdenum cofactor deficiency type B
MedGen UID:
340760
Concept ID:
C1854989
Disease or Syndrome
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) represents a spectrum, with some individuals experiencing significant signs and symptoms in the neonatal period and early infancy (termed early-onset or severe MoCD) and others developing signs and symptoms in childhood or adulthood (termed late-onset or mild MoCD). Individuals with early-onset MoCD typically present in the first days of life with severe encephalopathy, including refractory seizures, opisthotonos, axial and appendicular hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and apnea. Head imaging may demonstrate loss of gray and white matter differentiation, gyral swelling, sulci injury (typically assessed by evaluating the depth of focal lesional injury within the sulci), diffusely elevated T2-weighted signal, and panlobar diffusion restriction throughout the forebrain and midbrain with relative sparring of the brain stem. Prognosis for early-onset MoCD is poor, with about 75% succumbing in infancy to secondary complications of their neurologic disability (i.e., pneumonia). Late-onset MoCD is typically characterized by milder symptoms, such as acute neurologic decompensation in the setting of infection. Episodes vary in nature but commonly consist of altered mental status, dystonia, choreoathetosis, ataxia, nystagmus, and fluctuating hypotonia and hypertonia. These features may improve after resolution of the inciting infection or progress in a gradual or stochastic manner over the lifetime. Brain imaging may be normal or may demonstrate T2-weighted hyperintense or cystic lesions in the globus pallidus, thinning of the corpus callosum, and cerebellar atrophy.
Yunis-Varon syndrome
MedGen UID:
341818
Concept ID:
C1857663
Disease or Syndrome
Yunis-Varon syndrome (YVS) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal defects, including cleidocranial dysplasia and digital anomalies, and severe neurologic involvement with neuronal loss. Enlarged cytoplasmic vacuoles are found in neurons, muscle, and cartilage. The disorder is usually lethal in infancy (summary by Campeau et al., 2013).
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 2
MedGen UID:
400366
Concept ID:
C1863727
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-2 (FHL2) is an autosomal recessive disorder of immune dysregulation with onset in infancy or early childhood. It is characterized clinically by fever, edema, hepatosplenomegaly, and liver dysfunction. Neurologic impairment, seizures, and ataxia are frequent. Laboratory studies show pancytopenia, coagulation abnormalities, hypofibrinogenemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. There is increased production of cytokines, such as gamma-interferon (IFNG; 147570) and TNF-alpha (191160), by hyperactivation and proliferation of T cells and macrophages. Activity of cytotoxic T cells and NK cells is reduced, consistent with a defect in cellular cytotoxicity. Bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver show features of hemophagocytosis. Chemotherapy and/or immunosuppressant therapy may result in symptomatic remission, but the disorder is fatal without bone marrow transplantation (summary by Dufourcq-Lagelouse et al., 1999, Stepp et al., 1999, and Molleran Lee et al., 2004). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FHL, see 267700.
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 8 northern epilepsy variant
MedGen UID:
355328
Concept ID:
C1864923
Disease or Syndrome
The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The lipopigment patterns observed most often in CLN8 comprise mixed combinations of 'granular,' 'curvilinear,' and 'fingerprint' profiles (Mole et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730).
Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis 5
MedGen UID:
409627
Concept ID:
C1968603
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis-5 is a form of infantile malignant osteopetrosis, characterized by defective osteoclast function resulting in decreased bone resorption and generalized osteosclerosis. Defective resorption causes development of densely sclerotic fragile bones and progressive obliteration of the marrow spaces and cranial foramina. Marrow obliteration is associated with extramedullary hematopoiesis and hepatosplenomegaly, and results in anemia and thrombocytopenia, whereas nerve entrapment accounts for progressive blindness and hearing loss. Other major manifestations include failure to thrive, pathologic fractures, and increased infection rate. Most affected children succumb to severe bone marrow failure and overwhelming infection in the first few years of life (Quarello et al., 2004).
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
413116
Concept ID:
C2749659
Disease or Syndrome
Most characteristically, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) manifests as an early-onset encephalopathy that usually, but not always, results in severe intellectual and physical disability. A subgroup of infants with AGS present at birth with abnormal neurologic findings, hepatosplenomegaly, elevated liver enzymes, and thrombocytopenia, a picture highly suggestive of congenital infection. Otherwise, most affected infants present at variable times after the first few weeks of life, frequently after a period of apparently normal development. Typically, they demonstrate the subacute onset of a severe encephalopathy characterized by extreme irritability, intermittent sterile pyrexias, loss of skills, and slowing of head growth. Over time, as many as 40% develop chilblain skin lesions on the fingers, toes, and ears. It is becoming apparent that atypical, sometimes milder, cases of AGS exist, and thus the true extent of the phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in the AGS-related genes is not yet known.
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, encephalomyopathic form with methylmalonic aciduria
MedGen UID:
413170
Concept ID:
C2749864
Disease or Syndrome
SUCLA2-related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome, encephalomyopathic form with methylmalonic aciduria is characterized by onset of the following features in infancy or childhood (median age of onset 2 months; range of onset birth to 6 years): psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, dystonia, muscular atrophy, sensorineural hearing impairment, postnatal growth retardation, and feeding difficulties. Other less frequent features include distinctive facial features, contractures, kyphoscoliosis, gastroesophageal reflux, ptosis, choreoathetosis, ophthalmoplegia, and epilepsy (infantile spasms or generalized convulsions). The median survival is 20 years; approximately 30% of affected individuals succumb during childhood. Affected individuals may have hyperintensities in the basal ganglia, cerebral atrophy, and leukoencephalopathy on head MRI. Elevation of methylmalonic acid (MMA) in the urine and plasma is found in a vast majority of affected individuals, although at levels that are far below those typically seen in individuals with classic methylmalonic aciduria.
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, myopathic form
MedGen UID:
461100
Concept ID:
C3149750
Disease or Syndrome
TK2-related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance defect is a phenotypic continuum that ranges from severe to mild. To date, approximately 107 individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis have been reported. Three main subtypes of presentation have been described: Infantile-onset myopathy with neurologic involvement and rapid progression to early death. Affected individuals experience progressive muscle weakness leading to respiratory failure. Some individuals develop dysarthria, dysphagia, and/or hearing loss. Cognitive function is typically spared. Juvenile/childhood onset with generalized proximal weakness and survival to at least 13 years. Late-/adult-onset myopathy with facial and limb weakness and mtDNA deletions. Some affected individuals develop respiratory insufficiency, chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, dysphagia, and dysarthria.
Rett syndrome, congenital variant
MedGen UID:
462055
Concept ID:
C3150705
Disease or Syndrome
The congenital variant of Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with features of classic Rett syndrome (RTT; 312750), but earlier onset in the first months of life. Classic Rett syndrome shows later onset and is caused by mutation in the MECP2 gene (300005).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2D
MedGen UID:
462490
Concept ID:
C3151140
Disease or Syndrome
PCH2D is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive microcephaly, postnatal onset of progressive atrophy of the cerebrum and cerebellum, profound mental retardation, spasticity, and variable seizures (summary by Ben-Zeev et al., 2003). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2, see PCH2A (277470).
Severe X-linked mitochondrial encephalomyopathy
MedGen UID:
463103
Concept ID:
C3151753
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-6 (COXPD6) is an X-linked recessive severe encephalomyopathic disorder with onset in utero or in infancy. Affected patients have hypotonia and severely impaired psychomotor development associated with variably decreased enzymatic activity of mitochondrial respiratory complexes in skeletal muscle or fibroblasts. More variable features may include sensorimotor neuropathy, seizures, severe muscle weakness, abnormal signals in the basal ganglia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, deafness, swallowing difficulties, and respiratory insufficiency. Death in childhood may occur (summary by Berger et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
CK syndrome
MedGen UID:
463131
Concept ID:
C3151781
Disease or Syndrome
The NSDHL-related disorders include: CHILD (congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects) syndrome, an X-linked condition that is usually male lethal during gestation and thus predominantly affects females; and CK syndrome, an X-linked disorder that affects males. CHILD syndrome is characterized by unilateral distribution of ichthyosiform (yellow scaly) skin lesions and ipsilateral limb defects that range from shortening of the metacarpals and phalanges to absence of the entire limb. Intellect is usually normal. The ichthyosiform skin lesions are usually present at birth or in the first weeks of life; new lesions can develop in later life. Nail changes are also common. The heart, lung, and kidneys can also be involved. CK syndrome (named for the initials of the original proband) is characterized by mild to severe cognitive impairment and behavior problems (aggression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and irritability). All affected males reported have developed seizures in infancy and have cerebral cortical malformations and microcephaly. All have distinctive facial features, a thin habitus, and relatively long, thin fingers and toes. Some have scoliosis and kyphosis. Strabismus is common. Optic atrophy is also reported.
Ogden syndrome
MedGen UID:
477078
Concept ID:
C3275447
Disease or Syndrome
Ogden syndrome (OGDNS) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by postnatal growth failure, severely delayed psychomotor development, variable dysmorphic features, and hypotonia. Many patients also have cardiac malformations or arrhythmias (summary by Popp et al., 2015).
Acute infantile liver failure due to synthesis defect of mtDNA-encoded proteins
MedGen UID:
480294
Concept ID:
C3278664
Disease or Syndrome
Acute infantile liver failure resulting from TRMU mutation is a transient disorder of hepatic function. In addition to elevated liver enzymes, jaundice, vomiting, coagulopathy, and hyperbilirubinemia, the presence of increased serum lactate is consistent with a defect in mitochondrial respiratory function. With supportive care, patients who survive the initial acute episode can recover and show normal development (Zeharia et al., 2009). See also transient infantile mitochondrial myopathy (MMIT; 500009), which is a similar disorder. A more severe, permanent disorder with some overlapping features is associated with mitochondrial DNA depletion (251880). See ILFS1 (615438) for information on syndromic infantile liver failure.
Hereditary sensory neuropathy-deafness-dementia syndrome
MedGen UID:
481515
Concept ID:
C3279885
Disease or Syndrome
DNMT1-related disorder is a degenerative disorder of the central and peripheral nervous systems comprising a phenotypic spectrum that includes hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1E (HSAN1E) and autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia, deafness, and narcolepsy (ADCA-DN). DNMT1 disorder is often characterized by moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss beginning in the teens or early 20s, sensory impairment, sudomotor dysfunction (loss of sweating), and dementia usually beginning in the mid-40s. In some affected individuals, narcolepsy/cataplexy syndrome and ataxia are predominant findings.
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 18
MedGen UID:
481895
Concept ID:
C3280265
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
MRT18 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired intellectual development with or without epilepsy. Other features may include spasticity, congenital heart disease, brain abnormalities, and atypical electroencephalography (summary by Trehan et al., 2015).
Joubert syndrome 14
MedGen UID:
482396
Concept ID:
C3280766
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
761287
Concept ID:
C3539013
Disease or Syndrome
Most characteristically, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) manifests as an early-onset encephalopathy that usually, but not always, results in severe intellectual and physical disability. A subgroup of infants with AGS present at birth with abnormal neurologic findings, hepatosplenomegaly, elevated liver enzymes, and thrombocytopenia, a picture highly suggestive of congenital infection. Otherwise, most affected infants present at variable times after the first few weeks of life, frequently after a period of apparently normal development. Typically, they demonstrate the subacute onset of a severe encephalopathy characterized by extreme irritability, intermittent sterile pyrexias, loss of skills, and slowing of head growth. Over time, as many as 40% develop chilblain skin lesions on the fingers, toes, and ears. It is becoming apparent that atypical, sometimes milder, cases of AGS exist, and thus the true extent of the phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in the AGS-related genes is not yet known.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 15
MedGen UID:
767230
Concept ID:
C3554316
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex V (ATP synthase) deficiency nuclear type 4
MedGen UID:
815229
Concept ID:
C3808899
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex V deficiency is a shortage (deficiency) of a protein complex called complex V or a loss of its function. Complex V is found in cell structures called mitochondria, which convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. Complex V is the last of five mitochondrial complexes that carry out a multistep process called oxidative phosphorylation, through which cells derive much of their energy.\n\nMitochondrial complex V deficiency can cause a wide variety of signs and symptoms affecting many organs and systems of the body, particularly the nervous system and the heart. The disorder can be life-threatening in infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals may have feeding problems, slow growth, low muscle tone (hypotonia), extreme fatigue (lethargy), and developmental delay. They tend to develop elevated levels of lactic acid in the blood (lactic acidosis), which can cause nausea, vomiting, weakness, and rapid breathing. High levels of ammonia in the blood (hyperammonemia) can also occur in affected individuals, and in some cases result in abnormal brain function (encephalopathy) and damage to other organs.\n\nAnother common feature of mitochondrial complex V deficiency is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. This condition is characterized by thickening (hypertrophy) of the heart (cardiac) muscle that can lead to heart failure. People with mitochondrial complex V deficiency may also have a characteristic pattern of facial features, including a high forehead, curved eyebrows, outside corners of the eyes that point downward (downslanting palpebral fissures), a prominent bridge of the nose, low-set ears, thin lips, and a small chin (micrognathia).\n\nSome people with mitochondrial complex V deficiency have groups of signs and symptoms that are classified as a specific syndrome. For example, mitochondrial complex V deficiency can cause a condition called neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP). NARP causes a variety of signs and symptoms chiefly affecting the nervous system. Beginning in childhood or early adulthood, most people with NARP experience numbness, tingling, or pain in the arms and legs (sensory neuropathy); muscle weakness; and problems with balance and coordination (ataxia). Many affected individuals also have cognitive impairment and an eye disorder called retinitis pigmentosa that causes vision loss.\n\nA condition called Leigh syndrome can also be caused by mitochondrial complex V deficiency. Leigh syndrome is characterized by progressive loss of mental and movement abilities (developmental or psychomotor regression) and typically results in death within 2 to 3 years after the onset of symptoms. Both NARP and Leigh syndrome can also have other causes.
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
815495
Concept ID:
C3809165
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome-3 (MMDS3) is an autosomal recessive severe neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of previously acquired developmental milestones in the first months or years of life. Some affected patients have normal development in early infancy before the onset of symptoms, whereas others show delays from birth. Features included loss of motor function, spasticity, pyramidal signs, loss of speech, and cognitive impairment. The disease course is highly variable: some patients die of respiratory failure early in childhood, whereas some survive but may be bedridden with a feeding tube. Less commonly, some patients may survive and have a stable course with motor deficits and mild or even absent cognitive impairment, although there may be fluctuating symptoms, often in response to infection. Other variable features include visual problems and seizures. Brain imaging shows diffuse leukodystrophy in the subcortical region, brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Laboratory studies tend to show increased lactate and CSF glycine, and decreased activity of mitochondrial complexes I and II, although these findings are also variable. There may be additional biochemical evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction (summary by Liu et al., 2018). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome, see MMDS1 (605711).
Congenital microcephaly - severe encephalopathy - progressive cerebral atrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
816301
Concept ID:
C3809971
Disease or Syndrome
Asparagine synthetase deficiency (ASD) mainly presents as a triad of congenital microcephaly, severe developmental delay, and axial hypotonia followed by spastic quadriplegia. Low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) asparagine level can help the clinician in differentiating this disorder from others. In most cases age of onset of apnea, excessive irritability, and seizures is soon after birth. Affected individuals typically do not acquire any developmental milestones. Spastic quadriplegia can lead to severe contractures of the limbs and neurogenic scoliosis. Feeding difficulties (gastroesophageal reflux disease, frequent vomiting, swallowing dysfunction, and gastroesophageal incoordination) are a significant problem in most affected individuals. A majority have cortical blindness. MRI findings are nonspecific but may include generalized atrophy and simplified gyral pattern.
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
854829
Concept ID:
C3888244
Disease or Syndrome
Most characteristically, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) manifests as an early-onset encephalopathy that usually, but not always, results in severe intellectual and physical disability. A subgroup of infants with AGS present at birth with abnormal neurologic findings, hepatosplenomegaly, elevated liver enzymes, and thrombocytopenia, a picture highly suggestive of congenital infection. Otherwise, most affected infants present at variable times after the first few weeks of life, frequently after a period of apparently normal development. Typically, they demonstrate the subacute onset of a severe encephalopathy characterized by extreme irritability, intermittent sterile pyrexias, loss of skills, and slowing of head growth. Over time, as many as 40% develop chilblain skin lesions on the fingers, toes, and ears. It is becoming apparent that atypical, sometimes milder, cases of AGS exist, and thus the true extent of the phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in the AGS-related genes is not yet known.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 9
MedGen UID:
862791
Concept ID:
C4014354
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 9 (PCH9) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development, progressive microcephaly, spasticity, seizures, and brain abnormalities, including brain atrophy, thin corpus callosum, and delayed myelination (summary by Akizu et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1 (607596).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2E
MedGen UID:
862925
Concept ID:
C4014488
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2E is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by profound mental retardation, progressive microcephaly, spasticity, and early-onset epilepsy (summary by Feinstein et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2, see PCH2A (277470).
ADNP-related multiple congenital anomalies - intellectual disability - autism spectrum disorder
MedGen UID:
862975
Concept ID:
C4014538
Disease or Syndrome
ADNP-related disorder is characterized by hypotonia, severe speech and motor delay, mild-to-severe intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features (prominent forehead, high anterior hairline, wide and depressed nasal bridge, and short nose with full, upturned nasal tip) based on a cohort of 78 individuals. Features of autism spectrum disorder are common (stereotypic behavior, impaired social interaction). Other common findings include additional behavioral problems, sleep disturbance, brain abnormalities, seizures, feeding issues, gastrointestinal problems, visual dysfunction (hypermetropia, strabismus, cortical visual impairment), musculoskeletal anomalies, endocrine issues including short stature and hormonal deficiencies, cardiac and urinary tract anomalies, and hearing loss.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 1C
MedGen UID:
863597
Concept ID:
C4015160
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1C is a severe autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severe muscle weakness and failure to thrive apparent in the first months of life. Affected infants showed delayed psychomotor development, often with visual and hearing impairment, and may die of respiratory failure. Brain imaging typically shows cerebellar hypoplasia, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, and immature myelination (summary by Boczonadi et al., 2014). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Congenital hyperammonemia, type I
MedGen UID:
907954
Concept ID:
C4082171
Disease or Syndrome
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism of the urea cycle which causes hyperammonemia. There are 2 main forms: a lethal neonatal type and a less severe, delayed-onset type (summary by Klaus et al., 2009). Urea cycle disorders are characterized by the triad of hyperammonemia, encephalopathy, and respiratory alkalosis. Five disorders involving different defects in the biosynthesis of the enzymes of the urea cycle have been described: ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (311250), carbamyl phosphate synthetase deficiency, argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency, or citrullinemia (215700), argininosuccinate lyase deficiency (207900), and arginase deficiency (207800).
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 13
MedGen UID:
896545
Concept ID:
C4225170
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-13 is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by infantile onset of delayed psychomotor development, axial hypotonia, and spasticity associated with delayed myelination and periventricular white matter abnormalities on brain imaging. More variable neurologic deficits, such as visual impairment, may also occur. Some patients may experience cardiac failure during acute illness (summary by Edvardson et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see 312080.
Spastic tetraplegia-thin corpus callosum-progressive postnatal microcephaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
900192
Concept ID:
C4225254
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic tetraplegia, thin corpus callosum, and progressive microcephaly is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by onset of those features and severely impaired global development in early infancy. Most patients are unable to achieve independent walking or speech; some patients have seizures (summary by Srour et al., 2015 and Heimer et al., 2015).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 35
MedGen UID:
904159
Concept ID:
C4225256
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-35 (DEE35) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of seizures in the first months of life associated with essentially no normal development. Brain imaging shows a characteristic pattern consistent with lack of myelination of early structures, including the posterior limb of the internal capsule, brainstem tracts, and tracts to the primary visual and motor cortices. Many patients die in early childhood (summary by Kevelam et al., 2015) For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Intellectual disability-microcephaly-strabismus-behavioral abnormalities syndrome
MedGen UID:
897984
Concept ID:
C4225351
Disease or Syndrome
White-Sutton syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of cognitive dysfunction, developmental delays (particularly in speech and language acquisition), hypotonia, autism spectrum disorder, and other behavioral problems. Additional features commonly reported include seizures, refractive errors and strabismus, hearing loss, sleep disturbance (particularly sleep apnea), feeding and gastrointestinal problems, mild genital abnormalities in males, and urinary tract involvement in both males and females.
COG4-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
929221
Concept ID:
C4303552
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare form of carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome with, in the single reported case to date, seizures, some dysmorphic features, axial hypotonia, slight peripheral hypertonia and hyperreflexia.
Epilepsy, early-onset, vitamin B6-dependent
MedGen UID:
934599
Concept ID:
C4310632
Disease or Syndrome
Early-onset vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy-1 (EPEO1) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of seizures in the neonatal period or first months of life. The seizures show favorable response to treatment with activated vitamin B6 (pyridoxal 5-prime-phosphate; PLP) and/or pyridoxine. However, most patients show delayed psychomotor development (Darin et al., 2016). Genetic Heterogeneity of Early-Onset Epilepsy EPEO2 (618832) is caused by mutation in the SETD1A gene (611052) on chromosome 16p11. EPEO3 (620465) is caused by mutation in the ATP6V0C gene (108745) on chromosome 16p13. EPEO4 (266100) is caused by mutation in the ALDH7A1 gene (107323) on chromosome 5q23.
Encephalopathy, progressive, early-onset, with brain edema and/or leukoencephalopathy, 1
MedGen UID:
934642
Concept ID:
C4310675
Disease or Syndrome
Early-onset progressive encephalopathy with brain edema and/or leukoencephalopathy-1 (PEBEL1) is an autosomal recessive severe neurometabolic disorder characterized by rapidly progressive neurologic deterioration that is usually associated with a febrile illness. Affected infants tend to show normal early development followed by acute psychomotor regression with ataxia, hypotonia, respiratory insufficiency, and seizures, resulting in coma and death in the first years of life. Brain imaging shows multiple abnormalities, including brain edema and signal abnormalities in the cortical and subcortical regions (summary by Kremer et al., 2016). Genetic Heterogeneity of PEBEL See also PEBEL2 (618321), caused by mutation in the NAXD gene (615910) on chromosome 13q34.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 44
MedGen UID:
934667
Concept ID:
C4310700
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-44 (DEE44) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory infantile spasms or myoclonus usually in the first weeks or months of life, up to about 12 months of age. Affected infants may have normal or mildly delayed development before the onset of seizures, but thereafter show developmental stagnation and severe neurologic impairment. EEG in some patients shows hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. Additional features include poor feeding and poor overall growth with microcephaly, axial hypotonia with peripheral hypertonia or spasticity, abnormal movements, limited eye contact, and profoundly impaired intellectual development with absent language. Many patients require tube feeding, and some die in childhood (summary by Muona et al., 2016; Colin et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 41
MedGen UID:
934684
Concept ID:
C4310717
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-41 (DEE41) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of seizures in the first days or weeks of life. Affected infants show severely impaired psychomotor development with hypotonia, spasticity, lack of speech, poor visual fixation, feeding difficulties sometimes necessitating tube feeding, poor overall growth and microcephaly, and contractures. Brain imaging may show delayed myelination, thin corpus callosum, and cerebral atrophy (summary by the EPI4K Consortium, 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 2F
MedGen UID:
934724
Concept ID:
C4310757
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2F (PCH2F) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by progressive microcephaly and variable neurologic signs and symptoms, including cognitive and motor delay, poor or absent speech, seizures, and spasticity (summary by Breuss et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2, see PCH2A (277470).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 38
MedGen UID:
934729
Concept ID:
C4310762
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-38 (DEE38) is an autosomal recessive neurologic and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the onset of various type of seizures usually between about 4 and 7 months of age. Prior to the onset of seizures, most infants show severely impaired global development, hypotonia with poor head control, and visual inattention with roving eye movements and nystagmus. Seizures are usually refractory to treatment and associated with status epilepticus. Patients have little or no development with inability to walk or speak, spasticity or abnormal movements, and often cortical blindness. There is failure to thrive, and many require tube-feeding. Death in early childhood due to aspiration or intractable epilepsy may occur. The disorder is associated with a defect in GPI-anchoring of membrane-bound proteins (summary by Palmer et al., 2016; Davids et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Hypermanganesemia with dystonia 2
MedGen UID:
934732
Concept ID:
C4310765
Disease or Syndrome
SLC39A14 deficiency is characterized by evidence between ages six months and three years of delay or loss of motor developmental milestones (e.g., delayed walking, gait disturbance). Early in the disease course, children show axial hypotonia followed by dystonia, spasticity, dysarthria, bulbar dysfunction, and signs of parkinsonism including bradykinesia, hypomimia, and tremor. By the end of the first decade they develop severe, generalized, pharmaco-resistant dystonia, limb contractures, and scoliosis, and lose independent ambulation. Cognitive impairment appears to be less prominent than motor disability. Some affected children have succumbed in their first decade due to secondary complications such as respiratory infections.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with epilepsy, cataracts, feeding difficulties, and delayed brain myelination
MedGen UID:
1377894
Concept ID:
C4479333
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with epilepsy, cataracts, feeding difficulties, and delayed brain myelination is a syndromic form of severe to profound intellectual disability with onset of delayed psychomotor development and seizures in infancy. Affected children have hypotonia, feeding difficulties resulting in failure to thrive, and inability to speak or walk, and they tend to show repetitive stereotypic behaviors. Brain imaging shows cerebral atrophy and delayed myelination (summary by Schoch et al., 2017).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 52
MedGen UID:
1615839
Concept ID:
C4540478
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 53
MedGen UID:
1623344
Concept ID:
C4540481
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 54
MedGen UID:
1614787
Concept ID:
C4540484
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 1
MedGen UID:
1642840
Concept ID:
C4551514
Disease or Syndrome
Familial Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by a macrophage activation syndrome with an onset usually occurring within a few months or less common several years after birth.
Supranuclear palsy, progressive, 1
MedGen UID:
1640811
Concept ID:
C4551863
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of clinical manifestations of MAPT-related frontotemporal dementia (MAPT-FTD) has expanded from its original description of frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonian manifestations to include changes in behavior, motor function, memory, and/or language. A recent retrospective study suggested that the majority of affected individuals have either behavioral changes consistent with a diagnosis of behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) or, less commonly, a parkinsonian syndrome (i.e., progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal syndrome, or Parkinson disease). Fewer than 5% of people with MAPT-FTD have primary progressive aphasia or Alzheimer disease. Clinical presentation may differ between and within families with the same MAPT variant. MAPT-FTD is a progressive disorder that commonly ends with a relatively global dementia in which some affected individuals become mute. Progression of motor impairment in affected individuals results in some becoming chairbound and others bedbound. Mean disease duration is 9.3 (SD: 6.4) years but is individually variable and can be more than 30 years in some instances.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without seizures and gait abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1645968
Concept ID:
C4693391
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without seizures and gait abnormalities (NEDSGA) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood, resulting in variably impaired intellectual development that can range from profound with absent speech to mild with an ability to attend special schools. Most affected individuals show irritability, stiffness, and hypertonia early in life, which progresses to spasticity and impaired gait later. Some patients may develop seizures of variable severity early in life (summary by Martin et al., 2017).
Citrullinemia type I
MedGen UID:
1648491
Concept ID:
C4721769
Disease or Syndrome
Citrullinemia type I (CTLN1) presents as a spectrum that includes a neonatal acute form (the "classic" form), a milder late-onset form (the "non-classic" form), a form in which women have onset of symptoms at pregnancy or post partum, and a form without symptoms or hyperammonemia. Distinction between the forms is based primarily on clinical findings, although emerging evidence suggests that measurement of residual argininosuccinate synthase enzyme activity may help to predict those who are likely to have a severe phenotype and those who are likely to have an attenuated phenotype. Infants with the acute neonatal form appear normal at birth. Shortly thereafter, they develop hyperammonemia and become progressively lethargic, feed poorly, often vomit, and may develop signs of increased intracranial pressure (ICP). Without prompt intervention, hyperammonemia and the accumulation of other toxic metabolites (e.g., glutamine) result in increased ICP, increased neuromuscular tone, spasticity, ankle clonus, seizures, loss of consciousness, and death. Children with the severe form who are treated promptly may survive for an indeterminate period of time, but usually with significant neurologic deficits. Even with chronic protein restriction and scavenger therapy, long-term complications such as liver failure and other (rarely reported) organ system manifestations are possible. The late-onset form may be milder than that seen in the acute neonatal form, but commences later in life for reasons that are not completely understood. The episodes of hyperammonemia are similar to those seen in the acute neonatal form, but the initial neurologic findings may be more subtle because of the older age of the affected individuals. Women with onset of severe symptoms including acute hepatic decompensation during pregnancy or in the postpartum period have been reported. Furthermore, previously asymptomatic and non-pregnant individuals have been described who remained asymptomatic up to at least age ten years, with the possibility that they could remain asymptomatic lifelong.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and poor growth
MedGen UID:
1648309
Concept ID:
C4748081
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and poor growth (NEDSG) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe early-onset encephalopathy with progressive microcephaly (Nahorski et al., 2018).
Spinocerebellar ataxia 48
MedGen UID:
1648409
Concept ID:
C4748158
Disease or Syndrome
SCA48 is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of gait ataxia and/or cognitive-affective symptoms in midadulthood. Patients may present with involvement of either system, but most eventually develop impairment in both. Features include gait ataxia, dysarthria, and dysphagia, as well as cognitive decline, deficits in executive function, and psychiatric or affective manifestations, such as depression, anxiety, and apathy. Additional more variable features may include movement abnormalities, such as parkinsonism, tremor, chorea, dystonia, and dysmetria; spasticity is not observed. Brain imaging shows selective atrophy of the posterior areas of the cerebellar vermis, often with bilateral T2-weighted hyperintensities in the dentate nuclei (the 'crab sign'), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may show paucity of cerebellar connections to the brainstem and cerebrum. The presentation is consistent with a clinical diagnosis of cerebellar cognitive-affective syndrome (CCAS). The phenotype shows both inter- and intrafamilial variability as well as some clinical overlap with SCAR16, suggesting that mutations in the STUB1 gene result in a spectrum of neurodegenerative manifestations (summary by Genis et al., 2018; Cocozza et al., 2020; Palvadeau et al., 2020; Ravel et al., 2021). Magri et al. (2022) found evidence that heterozygous STUB1 variants alone do not cause disease but require a concurrent expanded repeat allele of the TBP gene (600075) for disease manifestation; see MOLECULAR GENETICS.
Squalene synthase deficiency
MedGen UID:
1648421
Concept ID:
C4748427
Disease or Syndrome
Squalene synthase deficiency (SQSD) is a rare inborn error of cholesterol biosynthesis with multisystem clinical manifestations similar to Smith-Lemli-Optiz syndrome. Key clinical features include facial dysmorphism, a generalized seizure disorder presenting in the neonatal period, nonspecific structural brain malformations, cortical visual impairment, optic nerve hypoplasia, profound developmental delay / intellectual disability, dry skin with photosensitivity, and genital malformations in males.
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 5
MedGen UID:
1648292
Concept ID:
C4748754
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 13
MedGen UID:
1648370
Concept ID:
C4748770
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 15
MedGen UID:
1648320
Concept ID:
C4748778
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 19
MedGen UID:
1648450
Concept ID:
C4748791
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 33
MedGen UID:
1648420
Concept ID:
C4748840
Disease or Syndrome
Fibrosis, neurodegeneration, and cerebral angiomatosis
MedGen UID:
1648312
Concept ID:
C4748939
Disease or Syndrome
Fibrosis, neurodegeneration, and cerebral angiomatosis (FINCA) is characterized by severe progressive cerebropulmonary symptoms, resulting in death in infancy from respiratory failure. Features include malabsorption, progressive growth failure, recurrent infections, chronic hemolytic anemia, and transient liver dysfunction. Neuropathology shows increased angiomatosis-like leptomeningeal, cortical, and superficial white matter vascularization and congestion, vacuolar degeneration and myelin loss in white matter, as well as neuronal degeneration. Interstitial fibrosis and granuloma-like lesions are seen in the lungs, and there is hepatomegaly with steatosis and collagen accumulation (Uusimaa et al., 2018).
Hypomyelination with brain stem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity
MedGen UID:
1667792
Concept ID:
C4755254
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelination with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity is an autosomal recessive leukoencephalopathy characterized by onset in the first year of life of severe spasticity, mainly affecting the lower limbs and resulting in an inability to achieve independent ambulation. Affected individuals show delayed motor development and nystagmus; some may have mild mental retardation. Brain MRI shows hypomyelination and white matter lesions in the cerebrum, brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord (summary by Taft et al., 2013).
NAD(P)HX dehydratase deficiency
MedGen UID:
1681210
Concept ID:
C5193026
Disease or Syndrome
Early-onset progressive encephalopathy with brain edema and/or leukoencephalopathy-2 (PEBEL2) is an autosomal recessive severe neurometabolic disorder characterized by rapidly progressive neurologic deterioration that is usually associated with a febrile illness. Affected infants tend to show normal early development followed by acute psychomotor regression with ataxia, hypotonia, and sometimes seizures, resulting in death in the first years of life. Brain imaging shows multiple abnormalities, including brain edema and signal abnormalities in the cortical and subcortical regions (summary by Van Bergen et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PEBEL, see PEBEL1 (617186).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, epilepsy, and hypomyelination
MedGen UID:
1684142
Concept ID:
C5193057
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, neurometabolic disease characterized by microcephaly, short stature, epilepsy, cerebral hypomyelination, severe global developmental delay, and progressive spasticity. Macrocytic anemia and hyperthermia have also been reported in association. Brain imaging reveals delayed myelination with minimal progression over time, mild cerebellar atrophy and/or thin corpus callosum.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 73
MedGen UID:
1681654
Concept ID:
C5193065
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-73 (DEE73) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory seizures in the first months of life. Affected individuals meet almost no developmental milestones: they have hypotonia and are unable to walk, speak, or feed properly. They have poor overall growth with small head circumference and dysmorphic facial features. Additional manifestations include cortical visual impairment with roving eye movements and variable hearing loss (summary by Edvardson et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Hypoparathyroidism, familial isolated 1
MedGen UID:
1713884
Concept ID:
C5241444
Disease or Syndrome
Garfield and Karaplis (2001) reviewed the various causes and clinical forms of hypoparathyroidism. They noted that hypoparathyroidism is a clinical disorder characterized by hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. It manifests when parathyroid hormone (PTH; 168450) secreted from the parathyroid glands is insufficient to maintain normal extracellular fluid calcium concentrations or, less commonly, when PTH is unable to function optimally in target tissues, despite adequate circulating levels. Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Isolated Hypoparathyroidism FIH2 (618883) is caused by mutation in the GCM2 gene (603716). An X-linked form of familial hypoparathyroidism, HYPX (307700), is caused by interstitial deletion/insertion on chromosome Xq27.1, which may have a position effect on expression of SOX3 (313430). Congenital absence of the parathyroid and thymus glands (III and IV pharyngeal pouch syndrome, or DiGeorge syndrome, 188400) is usually a sporadic condition (Taitz et al., 1966).
Microcephaly, developmental delay, and brittle hair syndrome
MedGen UID:
1718781
Concept ID:
C5394425
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly, developmental delay, and brittle hair syndrome (MDBH) is a multisystem disorder with clinical variability. Affected individuals show cognitive and motor disabilities, as well as some degree of fine, brittle hair with microscopic shaft abnormalities. Other shared features include failure to thrive in early childhood and short stature, with some patients exhibiting feeding difficulties and hepatic steatosis (Kuo et al., 2019).
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 20
MedGen UID:
1765130
Concept ID:
C5436730
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-20 (HLD20) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of developmental milestones at about 12 to 16 months of age after normal early development. Patients lose motor, language, and cognitive skills and show poor overall growth with microcephaly. The disorder is progressive, resulting in feeding difficulties and spastic quadriplegia. Some patients may have seizures. Brain imaging shows subcortical white matter abnormalities and a thin corpus callosum, suggesting a myelination defect. Death usually occurs in childhood (Al-Abdi et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see 312080.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, seizures, and brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
1755716
Concept ID:
C5436747
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, seizures, and brain atrophy (NEDMISB) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay, developmental regression with loss of milestones, severe microcephaly, and brain abnormalities, primarily cerebral atrophy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Affected individuals develop seizures in the first year of life; eventually they are unable to sit, feed, or communicate, and may be unresponsive to stimuli. Other features include muscle weakness, spasticity with hyperreflexia, irritability, and contractures (Coulter et al., 2020).
Kaya-Barakat-Masson syndrome
MedGen UID:
1725501
Concept ID:
C5436856
Disease or Syndrome
Kaya-Barakat-Masson syndrome (KABAMAS) is a severe autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by profoundly impaired global development with variable motor abnormalities, such as axial hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, dystonia, and poor coordination, resulting in the inability to sit or walk. Affected individuals have impaired intellectual development with absent speech, poor eye contact, and feeding difficulties, resulting in poor overall growth, sometimes with microcephaly. Dysmorphic features are generally not present. Additional more variable features include early-onset seizures, ocular anomalies, foot deformities, and nonspecific brain imaging findings, such as thin corpus callosum and cerebral, cerebellar, or pontine atrophy. Some patients may die in infancy or early childhood (summary by AlMuhaizea et al., 2020 and Diaz et al., 2020).
Mitochondrial complex 2 deficiency, nuclear type 2
MedGen UID:
1742371
Concept ID:
C5436933
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex II deficiency nuclear type 2 (MC2DN2) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic metabolic disorder with variable severity and features. Most patients present with neurologic deterioration in infancy or early childhood after normal early development. Features include loss of motor skills, spastic paresis, dystonia, and loss of speech associated with increased serum and CSF lactate. Some patients may have mental decline or visual loss. Skeletal muscle samples show isolated complex II deficiency, and proton MRS shows increased succinate levels in the CSF and brain white matter. Brain imaging usually shows progressive leukoencephalopathy. Although the pattern of brain involvement may not be characteristic of Leigh syndrome (see 256000), postmortem examination in 1 patient showed multifocal spongiform encephalomyelopathy consistent with a diagnosis of Leigh syndrome. The most severely affected patients die of multiorgan failure and lactic acidosis, whereas others who survive may stabilize and regain some skills. Treatment with riboflavin may offer clinical improvement (summary by Brockmann et al., 2002 and Bugiani et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MC2DN, see MC2DN1 (252011).
Mitochondrial complex 2 deficiency, nuclear type 4
MedGen UID:
1782861
Concept ID:
C5543176
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex II deficiency nuclear type 4 (MC2DN4) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset progressive neurodegeneration with leukoencephalopathy. Acute episodes of neurodegeneration are often triggered by catabolic stress such as infection or fasting.
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 8
MedGen UID:
1790409
Concept ID:
C5551352
Disease or Syndrome
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome-8 (AGS8) is a type I interferonopathy characterized by severe developmental delay and progressive neurologic deterioration ending in premature death. Brain imaging shows diffusely abnormal white matter, severe cerebral atrophy, and intracranial calcification (Uggenti et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, see AGS1 (225750).
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794167
Concept ID:
C5561957
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (DDISBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. Additional variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, seizures, hypotonia, motor abnormalities such as Tourette syndrome or dystonia, and hearing loss (summary by Cousin et al., 2021).
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
1794176
Concept ID:
C5561966
Disease or Syndrome
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome-9 (AGS9) is a type I interferonopathy characterized by severe developmental delay and progressive neurologic deterioration. Patients present in infancy with irritability and spasticity. Brain imaging shows diffusely abnormal white matter, cerebral atrophy, and intracranial calcification. Premature death has been associated with renal and/or hepatic failure (Uggenti et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, see AGS1 (225750).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, seizures, and neonatal cholestasis
MedGen UID:
1794262
Concept ID:
C5562052
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, seizures, and neonatal cholestasis (NEDMSC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severely impaired global development apparent from infancy, progressive microcephaly, and neonatal cholestasis manifest as jaundice and elevated liver enzymes. The liver disease resolves, but affected individuals show feeding difficulties, failure to thrive, hypotonia, seizures, hyperkinetic movements, irritability, and poor eye contact or vision, and achieve almost no motor or cognitive developmental milestones. Brain imaging demonstrates agenesis or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Death in early childhood may occur (summary by Schneeberger et al., 2021).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 26
MedGen UID:
1799164
Concept ID:
C5567741
Disease or Syndrome
Peripheral neuropathy with variable spasticity, exercise intolerance, and developmental delay (PNSED) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder with highly variable manifestations, even within the same family. Some patients present in infancy with hypotonia and global developmental delay with poor or absent motor skill acquisition and poor growth, whereas others present as young adults with exercise intolerance and muscle weakness. All patients have signs of a peripheral neuropathy, usually demyelinating, with distal muscle weakness and atrophy and distal sensory impairment; many become wheelchair-bound. Additional features include spasticity, extensor plantar responses, contractures, cerebellar signs, seizures, short stature, and rare involvement of other organ systems, including the heart, pancreas, and kidney. Biochemical analysis may show deficiencies in mitochondrial respiratory complex enzyme activities in patient tissue, although this is not always apparent. Lactate is frequently increased, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction (Powell et al., 2015; Argente-Escrig et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
D,L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria
MedGen UID:
1802316
Concept ID:
C5574940
Disease or Syndrome
Combined D-2- and L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D-2-HG and L-2-HG) is an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder characterized by neonatal-onset encephalopathy with severe muscular weakness, intractable seizures, respiratory distress, and lack of psychomotor development resulting in early death. Brain imaging shows abnormalities including enlarged ventricles, delayed myelination, and germinal layer cysts (summary by Muntau et al., 2000). See also isolated L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (236792) and isolated D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (see 600721).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal recessive 73
MedGen UID:
1802013
Concept ID:
C5676902
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal recessive intellectual developmental disorder-73 (MRT73) is characterized by global developmental delay with hypotonia and mildly delayed walking, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech, and mildly dysmorphic features (summary by Morrison et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with neuromuscular and skeletal abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1803456
Concept ID:
C5676965
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with neuromuscular and skeletal abnormalities (NEDNMS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. The severity of the disorder is highly variable. Affected individuals show impaired intellectual development and motor delay associated with either severe hypotonia or hypertonia and spasticity. Most affected individuals have skeletal defects and dysmorphic facial features. Some may have ocular or auditory problems, peripheral neuropathy, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific findings on brain imaging (Kurolap et al., 2022).
Leukodystrophy, childhood-onset, remitting
MedGen UID:
1804145
Concept ID:
C5676979
Disease or Syndrome
Childhood-onset remitting leukodystrophy (CORLK) is a very rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized in some patients by onset of a metabolic crisis at the end of the first year of life that leads to widespread demyelination and leukodystrophy on brain imaging and a dramatic loss of developmental abilities. Affected children recover over the following several months, regaining normal development accompanied by remyelination. Not all patients have documented acute episodes of metabolic demyelination in infancy, but individuals with the FBP2 mutation show persistent white matter abnormalities on brain imaging that resemble the abnormalities observed in infants with the acute crisis. Other neurologic disturbances that may or may not be related to the FBP2 mutation have been observed, including psychiatric manifestations, seizures, and mild learning difficulties (Gizak et al., 2021).
Liver disease, severe congenital
MedGen UID:
1823968
Concept ID:
C5774195
Disease or Syndrome
Severe congenital liver disease (SCOLIV) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the onset of progressive hepatic dysfunction usually in the first years of life. Affected individuals show feeding difficulties with failure to thrive and features such as jaundice, hepatomegaly, and abdominal distension. Laboratory workup is consistent with hepatic insufficiency and may also show coagulation defects, anemia, or metabolic disturbances. Cirrhosis and hypernodularity are commonly observed on liver biopsy. Many patients die of liver failure in early childhood (Moreno Traspas et al., 2022).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 31B
MedGen UID:
1841095
Concept ID:
C5830459
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-31B (DEE31B) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder with early-onset epilepsy, generalized muscular hypotonia, visual impairment, and severe neurodevelopmental delay (Yigit et al., 2022).
GTP cyclohydrolase I deficiency with hyperphenylalaninemia
MedGen UID:
988270
Concept ID:
CN305333
Disease or Syndrome
GTP-cyclohydrolase I deficiency, an autosomal recessive genetic disorder, is one of the causes of malignant hyperphenylalaninemia due to tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency. Not only does tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency cause hyperphenylalaninemia, it is also responsible for defective neurotransmission of monoamines because of malfunctioning tyrosine and tryptophan hydroxylases, both tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent hydroxylases.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Connor JP, Stjepanović D, Budney AJ, Le Foll B, Hall WD
Addiction 2022 Jul;117(7):2075-2095. Epub 2022 Jan 10 doi: 10.1111/add.15743. PMID: 34791767Free PMC Article
Cichoń L, Janas-Kozik M, Siwiec A, Rybakowski JK
Psychiatr Pol 2020 Mar 29;54(1):35-50. doi: 10.12740/PP/OnlineFirst/92740. PMID: 32447355
Harmes KM, Blackwood RA, Burrows HL, Cooke JM, Harrison RV, Passamani PP
Am Fam Physician 2013 Oct 1;88(7):435-40. PMID: 24134083

Recent systematic reviews

Siafis S, Çıray O, Wu H, Schneider-Thoma J, Bighelli I, Krause M, Rodolico A, Ceraso A, Deste G, Huhn M, Fraguas D, San José Cáceres A, Mavridis D, Charman T, Murphy DG, Parellada M, Arango C, Leucht S
Mol Autism 2022 Mar 4;13(1):10. doi: 10.1186/s13229-022-00488-4. PMID: 35246237Free PMC Article
Silva EAD Junior, Medeiros WMB, Torro N, Sousa JMM, Almeida IBCM, Costa FBD, Pontes KM, Nunes ELG, Rosa MDD, Albuquerque KLGD
Trends Psychiatry Psychother 2022 Jun 13;44:e20200149. doi: 10.47626/2237-6089-2020-0149. PMID: 34043900Free PMC Article
Steinhoff BJ, Klein P, Klitgaard H, Laloyaux C, Moseley BD, Ricchetti-Masterson K, Rosenow F, Sirven JI, Smith B, Stern JM, Toledo M, Zipfel PA, Villanueva V
Epilepsy Behav 2021 May;118:107939. Epub 2021 Apr 8 doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.107939. PMID: 33839453
Fung LK, Mahajan R, Nozzolillo A, Bernal P, Krasner A, Jo B, Coury D, Whitaker A, Veenstra-Vanderweele J, Hardan AY
Pediatrics 2016 Feb;137 Suppl 2:S124-35. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-2851K. PMID: 26908468
Buysse DJ
JAMA 2013 Feb 20;309(7):706-16. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.193. PMID: 23423416Free PMC Article

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