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MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Laboratory or Test Result
Synonym: Schistocytes
SNOMED CT: Schistocytosis (385472000)
HPO: HP:0001981


The presence of an abnormal number of fragmented red blood cells (schistocytes) in the blood. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVSchistocytosis

Conditions with this feature

Upshaw-Schulman syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), also known as Upshaw-Schulman syndrome (USS), is a rare autosomal recessive thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Clinically, acute phases of TTP are defined by microangiopathic mechanical hemolytic anemia, severe thrombocytopenia, and visceral ischemia. Hereditary TTP makes up 5% of TTP cases and is caused mostly by biallelic mutation in the ADAMTS13 gene, or in very rare cases, by monoallelic ADAMTS13 mutation associated with a cluster of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); most cases of all TTP (95%) are acquired via an autoimmune mechanism (see 188030). Hereditary TTP is more frequent among child-onset TTP compared with adult-onset TTP, and its clinical presentation is significantly different as a function of its age of onset. Child-onset TTP usually starts in the neonatal period with hematological features and severe jaundice. In contrast, almost all cases of adult-onset hereditary TTP are unmasked during the first pregnancy of a woman whose disease was silent during childhood (summary by Joly et al., 2018).
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Lathosterolosis (LATHOS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a recognizable pattern of multiple congenital anomalies involving axial and appendicular skeleton, liver, central nervous and urogenital systems, and lysosomal storage. It is caused by a defect of cholesterol biosynthesis due to sterol C5-desaturase deficiency (summary by Rossi et al., 2007).
Hemolytic uremic syndrome, atypical, susceptibility to, 1
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure caused by platelet thrombi in the microcirculation of the kidney and other organs. The onset of atypical HUS (aHUS) ranges from the neonatal period to adulthood. Genetic aHUS accounts for an estimated 60% of all aHUS. Individuals with genetic aHUS frequently experience relapse even after complete recovery following the presenting episode; 60% of genetic aHUS progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
Megaloblastic anemia, folate-responsive
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Folate-responsive megaloblastic anemia (MEGAF) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by megaloblastic anemia resulting from decreased folate transport into erythrocytes. Although serum levels of folate are normal, there is folate deficiency in tissues, including erythrocytes and possibly nerve cells. Serum homocysteine levels are increased and vitamin B12 levels may be decreased. Treatment with oral folate corrects the anemia and normalizes homocysteine (summary by Svaton et al., 2020)
Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type 4
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type IV (CDAN4) is an autosomal dominant red blood cell disorder characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis and hemolysis resulting in anemia. Circulating erythroblasts and erythroblasts in the bone marrow show various morphologic abnormalities. Affected individuals with CDAN4 also have increased levels of fetal hemoglobin (summary by Arnaud et al., 2010). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital dyserythropoietic anemia, see CDAN1 (224120).
Congenital sideroblastic anemia-B-cell immunodeficiency-periodic fever-developmental delay syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Sideroblastic anemia with B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD) is an autosomal recessive syndromic disorder characterized by onset of severe sideroblastic anemia in the neonatal period or infancy. Affected individuals show delayed psychomotor development with variable neurodegeneration. Recurrent periodic fevers without an infectious etiology occur throughout infancy and childhood; immunologic work-up shows B-cell lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinemia. Other more variable features include sensorineural hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa, nephrocalcinosis, and cardiomyopathy. Death in the first decade may occur (summary by Wiseman et al., 2013).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 50
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-50 (DEE50) is an autosomal recessive progressive neurodegenerative neurometabolic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, early-onset refractory seizures, severe developmental regression, and normocytic anemia. Onset is within the first months or years of life. Evidence suggests that affected children can have a favorable response to treatment with uridine (summary by Koch et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Anemia, congenital dyserythropoietic, type 1a
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type I (CDA I) is characterized by moderate-to-severe macrocytic anemia presenting occasionally in utero as severe anemia associated with hydrops fetalis but more commonly in neonates as hepatomegaly, early jaundice, and intrauterine growth restriction. Some individuals present in childhood or adulthood. After the neonatal period, most affected individuals have lifelong moderate anemia, usually accompanied by jaundice and splenomegaly. Secondary hemochromatosis develops with age as a result of increased iron absorption even in those who are not transfused. Distal limb anomalies occur in 4%-14% of affected individuals.

Professional guidelines


Zini G, De Cristofaro R
Turk J Haematol 2019 Nov 18;36(4):222-229. Epub 2019 Jul 24 doi: 10.4274/tjh.galenos.2019.2019.0165. PMID: 31337190Free PMC Article
Cho BS, Yahng SA, Lee SE, Eom KS, Kim YJ, Kim HJ, Lee S, Min CK, Cho SG, Kim DW, Lee JW, Min WS, Park CW
Transplantation 2010 Oct 27;90(8):918-26. doi: 10.1097/TP.0b013e3181f24e8d. PMID: 20717073
Kennedy GA, Bleakley S, Butler J, Mudie K, Kearey N, Durrant S
Transfusion 2009 Sep;49(9):1884-9. Epub 2009 May 18 doi: 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2009.02217.x. PMID: 19453982

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