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Increased serum iron

MedGen UID:
57739
Concept ID:
C0151900
Finding
Synonyms: Serum iron above reference range; Serum iron raised
SNOMED CT: Serum iron raised (165624002); Serum iron above reference range (165624002)
 
HPO: HP:0003452

Conditions with this feature

Neonatal hemochromatosis
MedGen UID:
82768
Concept ID:
C0268059
Disease or Syndrome
Neonatal hemochromatosis (NH) is characterized by hepatic failure in the newborn period and heavy iron staining in the liver. In addition, there is marked siderosis of extrahepatic tissues, including the heart and pancreas (Driscoll et al., 1988). Whitington (2007) postulated that some cases of neonatal hemochromatosis result from maternal alloimmunity directed at the fetal liver, and therefore do not represent an inherited mendelian disorder. Other causes may result from metabolic disease or perinatal infection. In particular, he commented that the disorder is not related to the family of inherited liver diseases that fall under the classification of hereditary hemochromatosis (see, e.g., 235200). Whitington (2007) proposed the term 'congenital alloimmune hepatitis.' In the past, the disorder has loosely been labeled 'neonatal hepatitis' and 'giant cell hepatitis,' which are pathologic findings in the liver representing a common response to a variety of insults, including cholestatic disorders and infection, among others (Fawaz et al., 1975; Knisely et al., 1987; Kelly et al., 2001).
Hemochromatosis type 5
MedGen UID:
341982
Concept ID:
C1851316
Disease or Syndrome
A rare disorder of iron metabolism and transport characterised by elevated serum ferritin levels, increased serum iron, increased transferrin saturation and heavy iron deposition in hepatocytes. Iron deposition has also been indicated in heart and bone marrow, while haematological examination of peripheral blood shows no abnormalities.
Hemochromatosis type 3
MedGen UID:
388114
Concept ID:
C1858664
Disease or Syndrome
TFR2-related hereditary hemochromatosis (TFR2-HHC) is characterized by increased intestinal iron absorption resulting in iron accumulation in the liver, heart, pancreas, and endocrine organs. Age of onset is earlier than in HFE-HHC. The majority of individuals present with signs and symptoms of iron overload in the third decade (e.g., weakness, fatigue, abdominal pain, hepatomegaly, arthritis, arthralgia, progressive increase in skin pigmentation). Others present as young adults with nonspecific symptoms and abnormal serum iron studies or as adults with abnormal serum iron studies and signs of organ involvement including cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, and arthropathy.
GRACILE syndrome
MedGen UID:
400428
Concept ID:
C1864002
Disease or Syndrome
GRACILE syndrome is an autosomal recessive lethal disorder characterized by fetal growth retardation, lactic acidosis, aminoaciduria, cholestasis, and abnormalities in iron metabolism. Patients develop fulminant lactic acidosis during the first day of life. Despite intensive care, about half of affected infants die during the first days of life, and the remainder within 4 months of life. Finnish and British patients have been reported, with slightly different phenotypes; the British patients have additional features of complex III deficiency and neurologic symptoms (Visapaa et al., 2002).
Hemochromatosis type 2A
MedGen UID:
356321
Concept ID:
C1865614
Disease or Syndrome
Juvenile hemochromatosis is characterized by onset of severe iron overload occurring typically in the first to third decades of life. Males and females are equally affected. Prominent clinical features include hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, cardiomyopathy, glucose intolerance and diabetes, arthropathy, and liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. Hepatocellular cancer has been reported occasionally. The main cause of death is cardiac disease. If juvenile hemochromatosis is detected early enough and if blood is removed regularly through the process of phlebotomy to achieve iron depletion, morbidity and mortality are greatly reduced.
Hemochromatosis type 2B
MedGen UID:
356040
Concept ID:
C1865616
Disease or Syndrome
Juvenile hemochromatosis is characterized by onset of severe iron overload occurring typically in the first to third decades of life. Males and females are equally affected. Prominent clinical features include hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, cardiomyopathy, glucose intolerance and diabetes, arthropathy, and liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. Hepatocellular cancer has been reported occasionally. The main cause of death is cardiac disease. If juvenile hemochromatosis is detected early enough and if blood is removed regularly through the process of phlebotomy to achieve iron depletion, morbidity and mortality are greatly reduced.
Hemochromatosis type 1
MedGen UID:
854011
Concept ID:
C3469186
Disease or Syndrome
HFE hemochromatosis is characterized by inappropriately high absorption of iron by the small intestinal mucosa. The phenotypic spectrum of HFE hemochromatosis includes: Persons with clinical HFE hemochromatosis, in whom manifestations of end-organ damage secondary to iron overload are present; Individuals with biochemical HFE hemochromatosis, in whom transferrin-iron saturation is increased and the only evidence of iron overload is increased serum ferritin concentration; and Non-expressing p.Cys282Tyr homozygotes, in whom neither clinical manifestations of HFE hemochromatosis nor iron overload are present. Clinical HFE hemochromatosis is characterized by excessive storage of iron in the liver, skin, pancreas, heart, joints, and anterior pituitary gland. In untreated individuals, early symptoms include: abdominal pain, weakness, lethargy, weight loss, arthralgias, diabetes mellitus; and increased risk of cirrhosis when the serum ferritin is higher than 1,000 ng/mL. Other findings may include progressive increase in skin pigmentation, congestive heart failure, and/or arrhythmias, arthritis, and hypogonadism. Clinical HFE hemochromatosis is more common in men than women.
Microcytic anemia with liver iron overload
MedGen UID:
812483
Concept ID:
C3806153
Disease or Syndrome
Hypochromic microcytic anemia with iron overload is a condition that impairs the normal transport of iron in cells. Iron is an essential component of hemoglobin, which is the substance that red blood cells use to carry oxygen to cells and tissues throughout the body. In this condition, red blood cells cannot access iron in the blood, so there is a decrease of red blood cell production (anemia) that is apparent at birth. The red blood cells that are produced are abnormally small (microcytic) and pale (hypochromic). Hypochromic microcytic anemia with iron overload can lead to pale skin (pallor), tiredness (fatigue), and slow growth.\n\nIn hypochromic microcytic anemia with iron overload, the iron that is not used by red blood cells accumulates in the liver, which can impair its function over time. The liver problems typically become apparent in adolescence or early adulthood.
Trichohepatoenteric syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1644087
Concept ID:
C4551982
Disease or Syndrome
Trichohepatoenteric syndrome (THES), generally considered to be a neonatal enteropathy, is characterized by intractable diarrhea (seen in almost all affected children), woolly hair (seen in all), intrauterine growth restriction, facial dysmorphism, and short stature. Additional findings include poorly characterized immunodeficiency, recurrent infections, skin abnormalities, and liver disease. Mild intellectual disability (ID) is seen in about 50% of affected individuals. Less common findings include congenital heart defects and platelet anomalies. To date 52 affected individuals have been reported.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Nasir A, Yasmin H, Korejo R
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Recent clinical studies

Etiology

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Diagnosis

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Therapy

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Prognosis

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Mallis A, Mastronikolis SN, Naxakis SS, Papadas AT
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Schiepers OJ, van Boxtel MP, de Groot RH, Jolles J, de Kort WL, Swinkels DW, Kok FJ, Verhoef P, Durga J
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2010 Dec;65(12):1312-21. Epub 2010 Sep 2 doi: 10.1093/gerona/glq149. PMID: 20813792
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Clinical prediction guides

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Gattoni A, Parlato A, Vangieri B, Bresciani M, Derna R, Baldassarre R
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Recent systematic reviews

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