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Hand clenching

MedGen UID:
65994
Concept ID:
C0239815
Finding
Synonym: Clenched hands
 
HPO: HP:0001188

Definition

An abnormal hand posture in which the hands are clenched to fists. All digits held completely flexed at the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. In prenatal sonography of the fetal clenched hand, the index finger overlaps a clenched fist formed by the other digits. The proximal interphalangeal articulation of the index finger is flexed and ulnarly deviated, and the thumb is adducted. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVHand clenching

Conditions with this feature

Arthrogryposis, distal, type 1A
MedGen UID:
113099
Concept ID:
C0220662
Congenital Abnormality
Distal arthrogryposis type 1 is a disorder characterized by joint deformities (contractures) that restrict movement in the hands and feet. The term "arthrogryposis" comes from the Greek words for joint (arthro-) and crooked or hooked (gryposis). The characteristic features of this condition include permanently bent fingers and toes (camptodactyly), overlapping fingers, and a hand deformity in which all of the fingers are angled outward toward the fifth finger (ulnar deviation). Clubfoot, which is an inward- and upward-turning foot, is also commonly seen with distal arthrogryposis type 1. The specific hand and foot abnormalities vary among affected individuals. However, this condition typically does not cause any signs and symptoms affecting other parts of the body.
Oromandibular-limb hypogenesis spectrum
MedGen UID:
66357
Concept ID:
C0221060
Disease or Syndrome
The most basic description of Moebius syndrome is a congenital facial palsy with impairment of ocular abduction. The facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) and abducens nerve (CN VI) are most frequently involved, but other cranial nerves may be involved as well. Other variable features include orofacial dysmorphism and limb malformations. Mental retardation has been reported in a subset of patients. Most cases of Moebius syndrome are sporadic, but familial occurrence has been reported (Verzijl et al., 2003). The definition of and diagnostic criteria for Moebius syndrome have been controversial and problematic. The syndrome has most frequently been confused with hereditary congenital facial paresis (HCFP; see 601471), which is restricted to involvement of the facial nerve and no other abnormalities. Verzijl et al. (2003) and Verzijl et al. (2005) concluded that HCFP and Moebius syndrome are distinct disorders, and that Moebius syndrome is a complex developmental disorder of the brainstem. Moebius syndrome was defined at the Moebius Syndrome Foundation Research Conference in 2007 as congenital, nonprogressive facial weakness with limited abduction of one or both eyes. Additional features can include hearing loss and other cranial nerve dysfunction, as well as motor, orofacial, musculoskeletal, neurodevelopmental, and social problems (summary by Webb et al., 2012). Kumar (1990) provided a review of Moebius syndrome, which was critiqued by Lipson et al. (1990). Briegel (2006) provided a review of Moebius sequence with special emphasis on neuropsychiatric findings.
Oculofaciocardiodental syndrome
MedGen UID:
337547
Concept ID:
C1846265
Disease or Syndrome
Oculofaciocardiodental (OFCD) syndrome is a condition that affects the development of the eyes (oculo-), facial features (facio-), heart (cardio-) and teeth (dental). This condition occurs only in females.\n\nThe eye abnormalities associated with OFCD syndrome can affect one or both eyes. Many people with this condition are born with eyeballs that are abnormally small (microphthalmia). Other eye problems can include clouding of the lens (cataract) and a higher risk of glaucoma, an eye disease that increases the pressure in the eye. These abnormalities can lead to vision loss or blindness.\n\nPeople with OFCD syndrome often have a long, narrow face with distinctive facial features, including deep-set eyes and a broad nasal tip that is divided by a cleft. Some affected people have an opening in the roof of the mouth called a cleft palate.\n\nHeart defects are another common feature of OFCD syndrome. Babies with this condition may be born with a hole between two chambers of the heart (an atrial or ventricular septal defect) or a leak in one of the valves that controls blood flow through the heart (mitral valve prolapse).\n\nTeeth with very large roots (radiculomegaly) are characteristic of OFCD syndrome. Additional dental abnormalities can include delayed loss of primary (baby) teeth, missing or abnormally small teeth, misaligned teeth, and defective tooth enamel.
Nemaline myopathy 2
MedGen UID:
342534
Concept ID:
C1850569
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy-2 (NEM2) is an autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder with a wide range of severity. The most common clinical presentation is early-onset (in infancy or childhood) muscle weakness predominantly affecting proximal limb muscles. Muscle biopsy shows accumulation of Z-disc and thin filament proteins into aggregates named 'nemaline bodies' or 'nemaline rods,' usually accompanied by disorganization of the muscle Z discs. The clinical and histologic spectrum of entities caused by variants in the NEB gene is a continuum, ranging in severity. The distribution of weakness can vary from generalized muscle weakness, more pronounced in proximal limb muscles, to distal-only involvement, although neck flexor weakness appears to be rather consistent. Histologic patterns range from a severe usually nondystrophic disturbance of the myofibrillar pattern to an almost normal pattern, with or without nemaline bodies, sometimes combined with cores (summary by Lehtokari et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Nemaline Myopathy See also NEM1 (255310), caused by mutation in the tropomyosin-3 gene (TPM3; 191030) on chromosome 1q22; NEM3 (161800), caused by mutation in the alpha-actin-1 gene (ACTA1; 102610) on chromosome 1q42; NEM4 (609285), caused by mutation in the beta-tropomyosin gene (TPM2; 190990) on chromosome 9p13; NEM5A (605355), also known as Amish nemaline myopathy, NEM5B (620386), and NEM5C (620389), all caused by mutation in the troponin T1 gene (TNNT1; 191041) on chromosome 19q13; NEM6 (609273), caused by mutation in the KBTBD13 gene (613727) on chromosome 15q22; NEM7 (610687), caused by mutation in the cofilin-2 gene (CFL2; 601443) on chromosome 14q13; NEM8 (615348), caused by mutation in the KLHL40 gene (615340), on chromosome 3p22; NEM9 (615731), caused by mutation in the KLHL41 gene (607701) on chromosome 2q31; NEM10 (616165), caused by mutation in the LMOD3 gene (616112) on chromosome 3p14; and NEM11 (617336), caused by mutation in the MYPN gene (608517) on chromosome 10q21. Several of the genes encode components of skeletal muscle sarcomeric thin filaments (Sanoudou and Beggs, 2001). Mutations in the NEB gene are the most common cause of nemaline myopathy (Lehtokari et al., 2006).
MOGS-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
342954
Concept ID:
C1853736
Disease or Syndrome
A form of congenital disorders of N-linked glycosylation characterized by generalized hypotonia, craniofacial dysmorphism (prominent occiput, short palpebral fissures, long eyelashes, broad nose, high arched palate, retrognathia), hypoplastic genitalia, seizures, feeding difficulties, hypoventilation, severe hypogammaglobulinemia with generalized edema and increased resistance to particular viral infections (particularly to enveloped viruses). The disease is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene MOGS (2p13.1).
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 6
MedGen UID:
761278
Concept ID:
C3539003
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type VI (HSAN6) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, respiratory and feeding difficulties, lack of psychomotor development, and autonomic abnormalities including labile cardiovascular function, lack of corneal reflexes leading to corneal scarring, areflexia, and absent axonal flare response after intradermal histamine injection (summary by Edvardson et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy, see HSAN1 (162400).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 28
MedGen UID:
863956
Concept ID:
C4015519
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-28 (DEE28) is an autosomal recessive severe neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory seizures in the first months of life. Affected individuals have severe axial hypotonia and profoundly impaired psychomotor development. More severely affected patients have acquired microcephaly, poor or absent visual contact, and retinal degeneration; early death may occur (summary by Mignot et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Lissencephaly 7 with cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
895680
Concept ID:
C4225359
Disease or Syndrome
Lissencephaly-7 with cerebellar hypoplasia (LIS7) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by lack of psychomotor development, facial dysmorphism, arthrogryposis, and early-onset intractable seizures resulting in death in infancy (Magen et al., 2015). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lissencephaly, see LIS1 (607432).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 42
MedGen UID:
934741
Concept ID:
C4310774
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
GNB1 encephalopathy (GNB1-E) is characterized by moderate-to-severe developmental delay / intellectual disability, structural brain abnormalities, and often infantile hypotonia and seizures. Other less common findings include dystonia, reduced vision, behavior issues, growth delay, gastrointestinal (GI) problems, genitourinary (GU) abnormalities in males, and cutaneous mastocytosis.
Heart and brain malformation syndrome
MedGen UID:
934760
Concept ID:
C4310793
Disease or Syndrome
Heart and brain malformation syndrome (HBMS) is a severe autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by profoundly delayed psychomotor development, dysmorphic facial features, microphthalmia, cardiac malformations, mainly septal defects, and brain malformations, including Dandy-Walker malformation (summary by Shaheen et al., 2016). Homozygous mutation in the SMG9 gene can also cause neurodevelopmental disorder with intention tremor, pyramidal signs, dyspraxia, and ocular anomalies (NEDITPDO; 619995), a less severe neurodevelopmental disorder.
Atypical glycine encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
934910
Concept ID:
C4310943
Disease or Syndrome
GLYT1 encephalopathy is characterized in neonates by severe hypotonia, respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, and absent neonatal reflexes; encephalopathy, including impaired consciousness and unresponsiveness, may be present. Arthrogryposis or joint laxity can be observed. Generalized hypotonia develops later into axial hypotonia with limb hypertonicity and a startle-like response to vocal and visual stimuli which should not be confused with seizures. To date, three of the six affected children reported from three families died between ages two days and seven months; the oldest reported living child is severely globally impaired at age three years. Because of the limited number of affected individuals reported to date, the phenotype has not yet been completely described.
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2C
MedGen UID:
1385755
Concept ID:
C4479387
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type IIC (ARCL2C) is characterized by generalized skin wrinkling with sparse subcutaneous fat and dysmorphic progeroid facial features. Most patients also exhibit severe hypotonia as well as cardiovascular involvement (summary by Van Damme et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see ARCL1A (219100).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1634188
Concept ID:
C4551772
Disease or Syndrome
Alkuraya-Kucinskas syndrome
MedGen UID:
1634304
Concept ID:
C4693347
Disease or Syndrome
ALKKUCS is an autosomal recessive severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by arthrogryposis, brain abnormalities associated with cerebral parenchymal underdevelopment, and global developmental delay. Most affected individuals die in utero or soon after birth. Additional abnormalities may include hypotonia, dysmorphic facial features, and involvement of other organ systems, such as cardiac or renal. The few patients who survive have variable intellectual disability and may have seizures (summary by Gueneau et al., 2018).
Jaberi-Elahi syndrome
MedGen UID:
1647359
Concept ID:
C4693848
Disease or Syndrome
JABELS is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay and intellectual disability with additional variable features. Patients have onset of symptoms in infancy, but the severity is highly variable. Some patients have social interaction and learn to walk but have an ataxic gait and abnormal movements, such as tremor or dystonia, whereas others do not achieve any motor control and are unable to speak. Additional features may include retinal anomalies, visual impairment, microcephaly, abnormal foot or hand posturing, and kyphoscoliosis; some patients have dysmorphic facial features or seizures. Brain imaging typically shows cerebellar atrophy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum (summary by et al., 2016 and Bertoli-Avella et al., 2018).
Neuropathy, congenital hypomyelinating, 3
MedGen UID:
1648417
Concept ID:
C4748608
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy-3 is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of neurogenic muscle impairment in utero. Affected individuals present at birth with severe hypotonia, often causing respiratory insufficiency or failure and inability to swallow or feed properly. They have profoundly impaired psychomotor development and may die in infancy or early childhood. Those that survive are unable to sit or walk. Sural nerve biopsy shows hypomyelination of the nerve fibers, and brain imaging often shows impaired myelination and cerebral and cerebellar atrophy. Nerve conduction velocities are severely decreased (about 10 m/s) or absent due to improper myelination (summary by Vallat et al., 2016 and Low et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CHN, see CHN1 (605253).
Spinal muscular atrophy, lower extremity-predominant, 2b, prenatal onset, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1648362
Concept ID:
C4749003
Disease or Syndrome
SMALED2B is a severe neuromuscular disorder with onset in utero. Affected individuals show decreased fetal movements and are usually born with congenital contractures consistent with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC). After birth, they have severe hypotonia and muscle atrophy as well as respiratory insufficiency due to muscle weakness. Some patients may have dysmorphic facial features and/or abnormalities on brain imaging. Many patients die in early childhood (summary by Storbeck et al., 2017) For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lower extremity-predominant spinal muscular atrophy, see SMALED1 (158600).
Severe feeding difficulties-failure to thrive-microcephaly due to ASXL3 deficiency syndrome
MedGen UID:
1656239
Concept ID:
C4750837
Disease or Syndrome
ASXL3-related disorder is characterized by developmental delay or intellectual disability, typically in the moderate to severe range, with speech and language delay and/or absent speech. Affected individuals may also display autistic features. There may be issues with feeding. While dysmorphic facial features have been described, they are typically nonspecific. Affected individuals may also have hypotonia that can transition to spasticity resulting in unusual posture with flexion contractions of the elbows, wrists, and fingers. Other findings may include poor postnatal growth, strabismus, seizures, sleep disturbance, and dental anomalies.
Lethal arthrogryposis-anterior horn cell disease syndrome
MedGen UID:
1677784
Concept ID:
C5193016
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital arthrogryposis with anterior horn cell disease (CAAHD) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder with highly variable severity. Affected individuals are usually noted to have contractures in utero on prenatal ultrasound studies, and present at birth with generalized contractures manifest as arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC). Patients have severe hypotonia with respiratory insufficiency, often resulting in death in infancy or early childhood. Some patients may survive into later childhood with supportive care, but may be unable to walk or sit independently due to a combination of muscle weakness and contractures. Cognition may be normal. The disorder also includes multiple congenital anomalies associated with AMC and hypotonia, including high-arched palate, myopathic facies, and bulbar weakness. Neuropathologic studies demonstrate severe loss of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord, as well as diffuse motor neuron axonopathy (summary by Smith et al., 2017 and Tan et al., 2017). Distinction from Lethal Congenital Contracture Syndrome 1 Biallelic mutation in the GLE1 gene can also cause LCCS1, which is lethal in utero. However, distinguishing between LCCS1 and CAAHD is controversial. Smith et al. (2017) suggested that differentiating between the 2 disorders has limited utility, and that they may represent a genotype/phenotype correlation rather than 2 different disease entities. In contrast, Said et al. (2017) concluded that LCCS1 represents a distinct clinical entity in which all affected individuals die prenatally and exhibit no fetal movements. Vuopala et al. (1995) differentiated CAAHD from LCCS1, noting that both are prevalent in Finland. LCCS1 is always fatal during the fetal period, presenting with severe hydrops and intrauterine growth retardation. In LCCS1, the spinal cord is macroscopically thinned because of an early reduction of the anterior horn and a paucity of anterior horn cells. The skeletal muscles are extremely hypoplastic, even difficult to locate. Infants with CAAHD survive longer than those with LCCS1, and when present, hydrops and intrauterine growth retardation are mild. The macroscopic findings of the central nervous system and skeletal muscles are closer to normal, although microscopic analysis also shows degeneration of anterior horn cells. In addition, birthplaces of ancestors of affected individuals do not show clustering in the northeast part of Finland, as is the case with LCCS1.
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 4, neurogenic, with agenesis of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
1684706
Concept ID:
C5231494
Disease or Syndrome
Neurogenic arthrogryposis multiplex congenita-4 with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AMC4) is a severe neurologic disorder with onset in utero. Affected individuals show little or no fetal movements and are born with significant contractures affecting the upper and lower limbs, as well as dysmorphic facial features. Other abnormalities include globally impaired development, optic atrophy, agenesis of the corpus callosum, seizures, and peripheral neuropathy. Many patients die in early childhood (summary by Seidahmed et al., 2020).
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 5
MedGen UID:
1731112
Concept ID:
C5436453
Disease or Syndrome
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita-5 (AMC5) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe joint contractures apparent at birth. Affected individuals usually have hypertonia and abnormal movements suggestive of dystonia, as well as feeding and/or breathing difficulties. More variable features may include poor overall growth, strabismus, dysmorphic facies, and global developmental delay with impaired speech (summary by Kariminejad et al., 2017).
Myopathy, congenital, with diaphragmatic defects, respiratory insufficiency, and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1764743
Concept ID:
C5436530
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-17 (CMYP17) is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder. Affected individuals present at birth with hypotonia and respiratory insufficiency associated with high diaphragmatic dome on imaging. Other features include poor overall growth, pectus excavatum, dysmorphic facies, and renal anomalies in some. The severity of the disorder is highly variable: some patients may have delayed motor development with mildly decreased endurance, whereas others have more severe hypotonia associated with distal arthrogryposis and lung hypoplasia, resulting in early death (summary by Watson et al., 2016 and Lopes et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Ventriculomegaly and arthrogryposis
MedGen UID:
1794183
Concept ID:
C5561973
Disease or Syndrome
Ventriculomegaly and arthrogryposis (VENARG) is a severe autosomal recessive congenital disorder characterized by the onset of features in utero that are not compatible with life. Affected pregnancies are terminated spontaneously or by plan due to the severity of the defects. Prenatal ultrasound and autopsy show limb contractures consistent with arthrogryposis and enlarged brain ventricles that may be associated with hydrocephalus, abnormalities of the corpus callosum, and cerebellar hypoplasia. Some affected fetuses may also have congenital heart disease and hydrops fetalis (summary by Mero et al., 2017 and El-Dessouky et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with impaired language and ataxia and with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1794216
Concept ID:
C5562006
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with impaired language and ataxia and with or without seizures (NEDLAS) is characterized by axial hypotonia and global developmental delay apparent in early infancy. Affected individuals have delayed walking with gait ataxia and poor language development. Behavioral abnormalities also commonly occur. The severity is highly variable: a subset of patients have a more severe phenotype with early-onset seizures resembling epileptic encephalopathy, inability to walk or speak, and hypomyelination on brain imaging (summary by Stolz et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with craniofacial dysmorphism and skeletal defects
MedGen UID:
1824008
Concept ID:
C5774235
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with craniofacial dysmorphism and skeletal defects (NEDCDS) is characterized by global developmental delay, severely impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech, characteristic facial features, and variable skeletal abnormalities. Additional features include feeding difficulties, inability to walk or walking with an abnormal gait, and cerebellar or other abnormalities on brain imaging (Reichert et al., 2020).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Sheon RP
Postgrad Med 1997 Oct;102(4):72-8, 81, 85 passim. doi: 10.3810/pgm.1997.10.338. PMID: 9336597

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Hadjipanteli A, Theodosiou A, Papaevripidou I, Evangelidou P, Alexandrou A, Salameh N, Kallikas I, Kakoullis K, Frakala S, Oxinou C, Marnerides A, Kousoulidou L, Anastasiadou VC, Sismani C
Genes (Basel) 2024 Jan 18;15(1) doi: 10.3390/genes15010119. PMID: 38255008Free PMC Article
Yang H, Hu Z, Imai F, Yang Y, Ogawa K
Neurosci Lett 2021 Feb 16;746:135653. Epub 2021 Jan 20 doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2021.135653. PMID: 33482311
Mathews AR, Que Hee SS
J Occup Environ Hyg 2017 Apr;14(4):252-257. doi: 10.1080/15459624.2016.1250006. PMID: 27754818Free PMC Article
Licari MK, Billington J, Reid SL, Wann JP, Elliott CM, Winsor AM, Robins E, Thornton AL, Jones R, Bynevelt M
Exp Brain Res 2015 Jun;233(6):1703-10. Epub 2015 Mar 11 doi: 10.1007/s00221-015-4243-7. PMID: 25757959
Sheon RP
Postgrad Med 1997 Oct;102(4):72-8, 81, 85 passim. doi: 10.3810/pgm.1997.10.338. PMID: 9336597

Diagnosis

Pollazzon M, Caraffi SG, Faccioli S, Rosato S, Fodstad H, Campos-Xavier B, Soncini E, Comitini G, Frattini D, Grimaldi T, Marinelli M, Martorana D, Percesepe A, Sassi S, Fusco C, Gargano G, Superti-Furga A, Garavelli L
Genes (Basel) 2021 Dec 23;13(1) doi: 10.3390/genes13010029. PMID: 35052370Free PMC Article
Fu Y, Xiong X, Jiang C, Xu B, Li Y, Li H
IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 2017 Sep;25(9):1641-1652. Epub 2016 Nov 10 doi: 10.1109/TNSRE.2016.2627809. PMID: 27849544
Jang H, Plis SM, Calhoun VD, Lee JH
Neuroimage 2017 Jan 15;145(Pt B):314-328. Epub 2016 Apr 11 doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.04.003. PMID: 27079534Free PMC Article
Yin X, Xu B, Jiang C, Fu Y, Wang Z, Li H, Shi G
J Neural Eng 2015 Jun;12(3):036004. Epub 2015 Apr 2 doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/12/3/036004. PMID: 25834118
Sheon RP
Postgrad Med 1997 Oct;102(4):72-8, 81, 85 passim. doi: 10.3810/pgm.1997.10.338. PMID: 9336597

Therapy

Yang H, Hu Z, Imai F, Yang Y, Ogawa K
Neurosci Lett 2021 Feb 16;746:135653. Epub 2021 Jan 20 doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2021.135653. PMID: 33482311
Sasaki A, Milosevic M, Sekiguchi H, Nakazawa K
Neurosci Lett 2018 Mar 6;668:31-36. Epub 2018 Jan 5 doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2018.01.011. PMID: 29309857
Prunier S, Christman S, Jasper J
Laterality 2018 Jul;23(4):409-421. Epub 2017 Aug 30 doi: 10.1080/1357650X.2017.1369985. PMID: 28853331
Harlé KM, Sanfey AG
Neuropsychology 2015 Jan;29(1):76-81. Epub 2014 Jun 16 doi: 10.1037/neu0000107. PMID: 24933484
Sheon RP
Postgrad Med 1997 Oct;102(4):72-8, 81, 85 passim. doi: 10.3810/pgm.1997.10.338. PMID: 9336597

Prognosis

Pollazzon M, Caraffi SG, Faccioli S, Rosato S, Fodstad H, Campos-Xavier B, Soncini E, Comitini G, Frattini D, Grimaldi T, Marinelli M, Martorana D, Percesepe A, Sassi S, Fusco C, Gargano G, Superti-Furga A, Garavelli L
Genes (Basel) 2021 Dec 23;13(1) doi: 10.3390/genes13010029. PMID: 35052370Free PMC Article
Li R, Li S, Roh J, Wang C, Zhang Y
Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2020 Dec;34(12):1099-1110. Epub 2020 Nov 16 doi: 10.1177/1545968320969937. PMID: 33190571
Andreau JM, Torres Batán S
Laterality 2019 Jul;24(4):393-416. Epub 2018 Oct 5 doi: 10.1080/1357650X.2018.1531422. PMID: 30290713
Prunier S, Christman S, Jasper J
Laterality 2018 Jul;23(4):409-421. Epub 2017 Aug 30 doi: 10.1080/1357650X.2017.1369985. PMID: 28853331
Chen C, Sigurdsson HP, Pépés SE, Auer DP, Morris PG, Morgan PS, Gowland PA, Jackson SR
Neuroimage 2017 Aug 1;156:207-213. Epub 2017 May 19 doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2017.05.044. PMID: 28533117

Clinical prediction guides

Madkhali Y, Aldehmi N, Pollick F
Comput Intell Neurosci 2022;2022:7589493. Epub 2022 May 28 doi: 10.1155/2022/7589493. PMID: 35669664Free PMC Article
Pollazzon M, Caraffi SG, Faccioli S, Rosato S, Fodstad H, Campos-Xavier B, Soncini E, Comitini G, Frattini D, Grimaldi T, Marinelli M, Martorana D, Percesepe A, Sassi S, Fusco C, Gargano G, Superti-Furga A, Garavelli L
Genes (Basel) 2021 Dec 23;13(1) doi: 10.3390/genes13010029. PMID: 35052370Free PMC Article
Andreau JM, Torres Batán S
Laterality 2019 Jul;24(4):393-416. Epub 2018 Oct 5 doi: 10.1080/1357650X.2018.1531422. PMID: 30290713
Fu Y, Chen J, Xiong X
Comput Intell Neurosci 2018;2018:9270685. Epub 2018 Aug 27 doi: 10.1155/2018/9270685. PMID: 30224914Free PMC Article
Prunier S, Christman S, Jasper J
Laterality 2018 Jul;23(4):409-421. Epub 2017 Aug 30 doi: 10.1080/1357650X.2017.1369985. PMID: 28853331

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