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Neurodevelopmental disorder with impaired language and ataxia and with or without seizures(NEDLAS)

MedGen UID:
1794216
Concept ID:
C5562006
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: NEDLAS; NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER WITH IMPAIRED LANGUAGE AND ATAXIA AND WITH OR WITHOUT SEIZURES
 
Gene (location): GRIK2 (6q16.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0859201
OMIM®: 619580

Definition

Neurodevelopmental disorder with impaired language and ataxia and with or without seizures (NEDLAS) is characterized by axial hypotonia and global developmental delay apparent in early infancy. Affected individuals have delayed walking with gait ataxia and poor language development. Behavioral abnormalities also commonly occur. The severity is highly variable: a subset of patients have a more severe phenotype with early-onset seizures resembling epileptic encephalopathy, inability to walk or speak, and hypomyelination on brain imaging (summary by Stolz et al., 2021). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Hand clenching
MedGen UID:
65994
Concept ID:
C0239815
Finding
An abnormal hand posture in which the hands are clenched to fists. All digits held completely flexed at the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. In prenatal sonography of the fetal clenched hand, the index finger overlaps a clenched fist formed by the other digits. The proximal interphalangeal articulation of the index finger is flexed and ulnarly deviated, and the thumb is adducted.
Limb hypertonia
MedGen UID:
333083
Concept ID:
C1838391
Finding
Hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
235586
Concept ID:
C1384666
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased magnitude of the sensory perception of sound.
Aggressive behavior
MedGen UID:
1375
Concept ID:
C0001807
Individual Behavior
Aggressive behavior can denote verbal aggression, physical aggression against objects, physical aggression against people, and may also include aggression towards oneself.
Anxiety
MedGen UID:
1613
Concept ID:
C0003467
Finding
Intense feelings of nervousness, tenseness, or panic, often in reaction to interpersonal stresses; worry about the negative effects of past unpleasant experiences and future negative possibilities; feeling fearful, apprehensive, or threatened by uncertainty; fears of falling apart or losing control.
Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- or overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Echolalia
MedGen UID:
8532
Concept ID:
C0013528
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
The tendency to repeat vocalizations made by another person.
Impulsivity
MedGen UID:
43850
Concept ID:
C0021125
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Acting on the spur of the moment in response to immediate stimuli; acting on a momentary basis without a plan or consideration of outcomes; difficulty establishing or following plans; a sense of urgency and self-harming behavior under emotional distress.
Stereotypic movement disorder
MedGen UID:
21320
Concept ID:
C0038273
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A stereotypy is a repetitive, simple movement that can be voluntarily suppressed. Stereotypies are typically simple back-and-forth movements such as waving of flapping the hands or arms, and they do not involve complex sequences or movement fragments. Movement is often but not always rhythmic and may involve fingers, wrists, or more proximal portions of the upper extremity. The lower extremity is not typically involved. Stereotypies are more commonly bilateral than unilateral.
Choreoathetosis
MedGen UID:
39313
Concept ID:
C0085583
Disease or Syndrome
Involuntary movements characterized by both athetosis (inability to sustain muscles in a fixed position) and chorea (widespread jerky arrhythmic movements).
Encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
39314
Concept ID:
C0085584
Disease or Syndrome
Encephalopathy is a term that means brain disease, damage, or malfunction. In general, encephalopathy is manifested by an altered mental state.
Opisthotonus
MedGen UID:
56246
Concept ID:
C0151818
Sign or Symptom
Clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
66708
Concept ID:
C0234535
Disease or Syndrome
A clonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by sustained rhythmic jerking, that is regularly repetitive.
Delayed ability to walk
MedGen UID:
66034
Concept ID:
C0241726
Finding
A failure to achieve the ability to walk at an appropriate developmental stage. Most children learn to walk in a series of stages, and learn to walk short distances independently between 12 and 15 months.
Short attention span
MedGen UID:
82652
Concept ID:
C0262630
Finding
Reduced attention span characterized by distractibility and impulsivity but not necessarily satisfying the diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Focal impaired awareness seizure
MedGen UID:
543022
Concept ID:
C0270834
Disease or Syndrome
Focal impaired awareness seizure (or focal seizure with impaired or lost awareness) is a type of focal-onset seizure characterized by some degree (which may be partial) of impairment of the person's awareness of themselves or their surroundings at any point during the seizure.
Tonic seizure
MedGen UID:
82855
Concept ID:
C0270844
Disease or Syndrome
A tonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterised by unilateral or bilateral limb stiffening or elevation, often with neck stiffening.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
141670
Concept ID:
C0494475
Sign or Symptom
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure is a seizure defined by a tonic (bilateral increased tone, lasting seconds to minutes) and then a clonic (bilateral sustained rhythmic jerking) phase.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Inability to walk
MedGen UID:
107860
Concept ID:
C0560046
Finding
Incapability to ambulate.
Cerebellar atrophy
MedGen UID:
196624
Concept ID:
C0740279
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar atrophy is defined as a cerebellum with initially normal structures, in a posterior fossa with normal size, which displays enlarged fissures (interfolial spaces) in comparison to the foliae secondary to loss of tissue. Cerebellar atrophy implies irreversible loss of tissue and result from an ongoing progressive disease until a final stage is reached or a single injury, e.g. an intoxication or infectious event.
Gait ataxia
MedGen UID:
155642
Concept ID:
C0751837
Sign or Symptom
A type of ataxia characterized by the impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal walking. Gait ataxia is characteirzed by a wide-based staggering gait with a tendency to fall.
Autistic behavior
MedGen UID:
163547
Concept ID:
C0856975
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Persistent deficits in social interaction and communication and interaction as well as a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest as well as repetitive patterns of behavior.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an inability to be calm and stay still (hyperactivity), and poor impulse control (impulsivity). Some people with ADHD have problems with only inattention or with hyperactivity and impulsivity, but most have problems related to all three features.\n\nIn people with ADHD, the characteristic behaviors are frequent and severe enough to interfere with the activities of daily living such as school, work, and relationships with others. Because of an inability to stay focused on tasks, people with inattention may be easily distracted, forgetful, avoid tasks that require sustained attention, have difficulty organizing tasks, or frequently lose items.\n\nHyperactivity is usually shown by frequent movement. Individuals with this feature often fidget or tap their foot when seated, leave their seat when it is inappropriate to do so (such as in the classroom), or talk a lot and interrupt others.\n\nIn most affected individuals, ADHD continues throughout life, but in about one-third of individuals, signs and symptoms of ADHD go away by adulthood.\n\nImpulsivity can result in hasty actions without thought for the consequences. Individuals with poor impulse control may have difficulty waiting for their turn, deferring to others, or considering their actions before acting.\n\nMore than two-thirds of all individuals with ADHD have additional conditions, including insomnia, mood or anxiety disorders, learning disorders, or substance use disorders. Affected individuals may also have autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction, or Tourette syndrome, which is a disorder characterized by repetitive and involuntary movements or noises called tics.
Epileptic spasm
MedGen UID:
315948
Concept ID:
C1527366
Disease or Syndrome
A sudden flexion, extension, or mixed extension-flexion of predominantly proximal and truncal muscles that is usually more sustained than a myoclonic movement but not as sustained as a tonic seizure. Limited forms may occur
Tongue thrusting
MedGen UID:
473491
Concept ID:
C1829460
Finding
Paroxysmal bursts of laughter
MedGen UID:
374299
Concept ID:
C1839749
Finding
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Happy demeanor
MedGen UID:
344654
Concept ID:
C1856115
Finding
A conspicuously happy disposition with frequent smiling and laughing that may be context-inappropriate or unrelated to context.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, has been defined as an IQ score below 70.
Delayed CNS myelination
MedGen UID:
867393
Concept ID:
C4021758
Anatomical Abnormality
Delayed myelination in the central nervous system.
Recurrent hand flapping
MedGen UID:
867996
Concept ID:
C4022387
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A type of stereotypic behavior in which the affected individual repeatedly waves the hands up and down.
Extra-axial cerebrospinal fluid accumulation
MedGen UID:
868477
Concept ID:
C4022871
Finding
An increased amount of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the subarachnoid space.
CNS hypomyelination
MedGen UID:
892446
Concept ID:
C4025616
Finding
Reduced amount of myelin in the central nervous system resulting from defective myelinogenesis.
Myoclonic seizure
MedGen UID:
1385980
Concept ID:
C4317123
Sign or Symptom
A myoclonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterised by sudden, brief (<100 ms) involuntary single or multiple contraction of muscles or muscle groups of variable topography (axial, proximal limb, distal). Myoclonus is less regularly repetitive and less sustained than is clonus.
Delayed ability to sit
MedGen UID:
1368737
Concept ID:
C4476710
Finding
A failure to achieve the ability to sit at an appropriate developmental stage. Most children sit with support at 6 months of age and sit steadily without support at 9 months of age.
Thin corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
1785336
Concept ID:
C5441562
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormally thin corpus callous, due to atrophy, hypoplasia or agenesis. This term is intended to be used in situations where it is not known if thinning of the corpus callosum (for instance, as visualized by magnetic resonance tomography) is due to abnormal development (e.g. a leukodystrophy) or atrophy following normal development (e.g. neurodegeneration).
Emotional lability
MedGen UID:
504567
Concept ID:
CN000669
Finding
Unstable emotional experiences and frequent mood changes; emotions that are easily aroused, intense, and/or out of proportion to events and circumstances.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Axial hypotonia
MedGen UID:
342959
Concept ID:
C1853743
Finding
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) affecting the musculature of the trunk.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Apnea
MedGen UID:
2009
Concept ID:
C0003578
Sign or Symptom
Lack of breathing with no movement of the respiratory muscles and no exchange of air in the lungs. This term refers to a disposition to have recurrent episodes of apnea rather than to a single event.
Drooling
MedGen UID:
8484
Concept ID:
C0013132
Finding
Habitual flow of saliva out of the mouth.
Protruding tongue
MedGen UID:
66831
Concept ID:
C0241442
Finding
Tongue extending beyond the alveolar ridges or teeth at rest.
Cyanosis
MedGen UID:
1189
Concept ID:
C0010520
Sign or Symptom
Bluish discoloration of the skin and mucosa due to poor circulation or inadequate oxygenation of arterial or capillary blood.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.
Congenital nystagmus
MedGen UID:
195995
Concept ID:
C0700501
Congenital Abnormality
Nystagmus dating from or present at birth.
Cerebral visual impairment
MedGen UID:
890568
Concept ID:
C4048268
Pathologic Function
A form of loss of vision caused by damage to the visual cortex rather than a defect in the eye.
Congenital horizontal nystagmus
MedGen UID:
1632792
Concept ID:
C4551997
Disease or Syndrome
Horizontal nystagmus dating from or present at birth.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
Abboud H, Probasco JC, Irani S, Ances B, Benavides DR, Bradshaw M, Christo PP, Dale RC, Fernandez-Fournier M, Flanagan EP, Gadoth A, George P, Grebenciucova E, Jammoul A, Lee ST, Li Y, Matiello M, Morse AM, Rae-Grant A, Rojas G, Rossman I, Schmitt S, Venkatesan A, Vernino S, Pittock SJ, Titulaer MJ; Autoimmune Encephalitis Alliance Clinicians Network
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2021 Jul;92(7):757-768. Epub 2021 Mar 1 doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2020-325300. PMID: 33649022Free PMC Article
Ziobro J, Shellhaas RA
Semin Neurol 2020 Apr;40(2):246-256. Epub 2020 Mar 6 doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1702943. PMID: 32143234

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Zelano J, Holtkamp M, Agarwal N, Lattanzi S, Trinka E, Brigo F
Epileptic Disord 2020 Jun 1;22(3):252-263. doi: 10.1684/epd.2020.1159. PMID: 32597766
Ziobro J, Shellhaas RA
Semin Neurol 2020 Apr;40(2):246-256. Epub 2020 Mar 6 doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1702943. PMID: 32143234
Shellhaas RA
Handb Clin Neurol 2019;162:347-361. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-64029-1.00017-5. PMID: 31324320
Gavvala JR, Schuele SU
JAMA 2016 Dec 27;316(24):2657-2668. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.18625. PMID: 28027373
Patterson JL, Carapetian SA, Hageman JR, Kelley KR
Pediatr Ann 2013 Dec;42(12):249-54. doi: 10.3928/00904481-20131122-09. PMID: 24295158

Diagnosis

Ziobro J, Shellhaas RA
Semin Neurol 2020 Apr;40(2):246-256. Epub 2020 Mar 6 doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1702943. PMID: 32143234
Shellhaas RA
Handb Clin Neurol 2019;162:347-361. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-64029-1.00017-5. PMID: 31324320
Bank AM, Bazil CW
Semin Neurol 2019 Feb;39(1):73-81. Epub 2019 Feb 11 doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1677008. PMID: 30743294
Johnson EL
Med Clin North Am 2019 Mar;103(2):309-324. Epub 2018 Dec 3 doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2018.10.002. PMID: 30704683
Perucca P, Scheffer IE, Kiley M
Med J Aust 2018 Mar 19;208(5):226-233. doi: 10.5694/mja17.00951. PMID: 29540143

Therapy

Lamb YN
Drugs 2022 Jun;82(8):933-940. doi: 10.1007/s40265-022-01724-0. PMID: 35596878
Ziobro JM, Eschbach K, Shellhaas RA
Neurotherapeutics 2021 Jul;18(3):1564-1581. Epub 2021 Aug 12 doi: 10.1007/s13311-021-01085-8. PMID: 34386906Free PMC Article
Rossetti AO, Alvarez V
Curr Opin Neurol 2021 Apr 1;34(2):172-181. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000899. PMID: 33664203
von Wrede R, Helmstaedter C, Surges R
Clin Drug Investig 2021 Mar;41(3):211-220. Epub 2021 Feb 9 doi: 10.1007/s40261-021-01003-y. PMID: 33559102Free PMC Article
Kotulska K, Kwiatkowski DJ, Curatolo P, Weschke B, Riney K, Jansen F, Feucht M, Krsek P, Nabbout R, Jansen AC, Wojdan K, Sijko K, Głowacka-Walas J, Borkowska J, Sadowski K, Domańska-Pakieła D, Moavero R, Hertzberg C, Hulshof H, Scholl T, Benova B, Aronica E, de Ridder J, Lagae L, Jóźwiak S; EPISTOP Investigators
Ann Neurol 2021 Feb;89(2):304-314. Epub 2020 Nov 27 doi: 10.1002/ana.25956. PMID: 33180985Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Salanova V, Sperling MR, Gross RE, Irwin CP, Vollhaber JA, Giftakis JE, Fisher RS; SANTÉ Study Group
Epilepsia 2021 Jun;62(6):1306-1317. Epub 2021 Apr 8 doi: 10.1111/epi.16895. PMID: 33830503
Pennell PB, French JA, May RC, Gerard E, Kalayjian L, Penovich P, Gedzelman E, Cavitt J, Hwang S, Pack AM, Sam M, Miller JW, Wilson SH, Brown C, Birnbaum AK, Meador KJ; MONEAD Study Group
N Engl J Med 2020 Dec 24;383(26):2547-2556. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2008663. PMID: 33369356Free PMC Article
Sartori S, Nosadini M, Tessarin G, Boniver C, Frigo AC, Toldo I, Bressan S, Da Dalt L
Dev Med Child Neurol 2019 Jan;61(1):82-90. Epub 2018 Sep 7 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.14015. PMID: 30191957
Tatum WO, Langston ME, Acton EK
Epileptic Disord 2016 Jun 1;18(2):148-54. doi: 10.1684/epd.2016.0823. PMID: 27238051
Patterson JL, Carapetian SA, Hageman JR, Kelley KR
Pediatr Ann 2013 Dec;42(12):249-54. doi: 10.3928/00904481-20131122-09. PMID: 24295158

Clinical prediction guides

Meisel C, Loddenkemper T
Neuropharmacology 2020 Aug 1;172:107898. Epub 2019 Dec 5 doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.107898. PMID: 31839204
Xu MY
Stroke Vasc Neurol 2019 Mar;4(1):48-56. Epub 2018 Dec 9 doi: 10.1136/svn-2018-000175. PMID: 31105979Free PMC Article
Acharya UR, Hagiwara Y, Adeli H
Epilepsy Behav 2018 Nov;88:251-261. Epub 2018 Oct 11 doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2018.09.030. PMID: 30317059
Johannesen KM, Gardella E, Linnankivi T, Courage C, de Saint Martin A, Lehesjoki AE, Mignot C, Afenjar A, Lesca G, Abi-Warde MT, Chelly J, Piton A, Merritt JL 2nd, Rodan LH, Tan WH, Bird LM, Nespeca M, Gleeson JG, Yoo Y, Choi M, Chae JH, Czapansky-Beilman D, Reichert SC, Pendziwiat M, Verhoeven JS, Schelhaas HJ, Devinsky O, Christensen J, Specchio N, Trivisano M, Weber YG, Nava C, Keren B, Doummar D, Schaefer E, Hopkins S, Dubbs H, Shaw JE, Pisani L, Myers CT, Tang S, Tang S, Pal DK, Millichap JJ, Carvill GL, Helbig KL, Mecarelli O, Striano P, Helbig I, Rubboli G, Mefford HC, Møller RS
Epilepsia 2018 Feb;59(2):389-402. Epub 2018 Jan 8 doi: 10.1111/epi.13986. PMID: 29315614Free PMC Article
Carney PR, Myers S, Geyer JD
Epilepsy Behav 2011 Dec;22 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S94-101. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2011.09.001. PMID: 22078526Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Vetkas A, Fomenko A, Germann J, Sarica C, Iorio-Morin C, Samuel N, Yamamoto K, Milano V, Cheyuo C, Zemmar A, Elias G, Boutet A, Loh A, Santyr B, Gwun D, Tasserie J, Kalia SK, Lozano AM
Epilepsia 2022 Mar;63(3):513-524. Epub 2022 Jan 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17157. PMID: 34981509
Sultana B, Panzini MA, Veilleux Carpentier A, Comtois J, Rioux B, Gore G, Bauer PR, Kwon CS, Jetté N, Josephson CB, Keezer MR
Neurology 2021 Apr 27;96(17):805-817. Epub 2021 Mar 15 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000011839. PMID: 33722992
Jafarpour S, Hirsch LJ, Gaínza-Lein M, Kellinghaus C, Detyniecki K
Seizure 2019 May;68:9-15. Epub 2018 May 21 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2018.05.013. PMID: 29871784
Mewasingh LD
BMJ Clin Evid 2014 Jan 31;2014 PMID: 24484859Free PMC Article
Beghi E, Carpio A, Forsgren L, Hesdorffer DC, Malmgren K, Sander JW, Tomson T, Hauser WA
Epilepsia 2010 Apr;51(4):671-5. Epub 2009 Sep 3 doi: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2009.02285.x. PMID: 19732133

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