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Bruxism

MedGen UID:
676
Concept ID:
C0006325
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Synonym: Bruxism (disease)
SNOMED CT: Teeth gnashing (90207007); Grinding of teeth (90207007); Bruxism (191983006); Grinding teeth (90207007)
 
HPO: HP:0003763
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0002443

Definition

Bruxism is characterized by the grinding of the teeth including the clenching of the jaw and typically occur during sleep, but also can occur while the affected individual is awake. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Rett syndrome
MedGen UID:
48441
Concept ID:
C0035372
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of MECP2-related phenotypes in females ranges from classic Rett syndrome to variant Rett syndrome with a broader clinical phenotype (either milder or more severe than classic Rett syndrome) to mild learning disabilities; the spectrum in males ranges from severe neonatal encephalopathy to pyramidal signs, parkinsonism, and macroorchidism (PPM-X) syndrome to severe syndromic/nonsyndromic intellectual disability. Females: Classic Rett syndrome, a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder primarily affecting girls, is characterized by apparently normal psychomotor development during the first six to 18 months of life, followed by a short period of developmental stagnation, then rapid regression in language and motor skills, followed by long-term stability. During the phase of rapid regression, repetitive, stereotypic hand movements replace purposeful hand use. Additional findings include fits of screaming and inconsolable crying, autistic features, panic-like attacks, bruxism, episodic apnea and/or hyperpnea, gait ataxia and apraxia, tremors, seizures, and acquired microcephaly. Males: Severe neonatal-onset encephalopathy, the most common phenotype in affected males, is characterized by a relentless clinical course that follows a metabolic-degenerative type of pattern, abnormal tone, involuntary movements, severe seizures, and breathing abnormalities. Death often occurs before age two years.
X-linked intellectual disability-psychosis-macroorchidism syndrome
MedGen UID:
163232
Concept ID:
C0796222
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of MECP2-related phenotypes in females ranges from classic Rett syndrome to variant Rett syndrome with a broader clinical phenotype (either milder or more severe than classic Rett syndrome) to mild learning disabilities; the spectrum in males ranges from severe neonatal encephalopathy to pyramidal signs, parkinsonism, and macroorchidism (PPM-X) syndrome to severe syndromic/nonsyndromic intellectual disability. Females: Classic Rett syndrome, a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder primarily affecting girls, is characterized by apparently normal psychomotor development during the first six to 18 months of life, followed by a short period of developmental stagnation, then rapid regression in language and motor skills, followed by long-term stability. During the phase of rapid regression, repetitive, stereotypic hand movements replace purposeful hand use. Additional findings include fits of screaming and inconsolable crying, autistic features, panic-like attacks, bruxism, episodic apnea and/or hyperpnea, gait ataxia and apraxia, tremors, seizures, and acquired microcephaly. Males: Severe neonatal-onset encephalopathy, the most common phenotype in affected males, is characterized by a relentless clinical course that follows a metabolic-degenerative type of pattern, abnormal tone, involuntary movements, severe seizures, and breathing abnormalities. Death often occurs before age two years.
X-linked intellectual disability, Stocco dos Santos type
MedGen UID:
335202
Concept ID:
C1845530
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual disability, Stocco Dos Santos type is characterised by severe intellectual deficit with hyperactivity, language delay, congenital hip luxation, short stature, kyphosis and recurrent respiratory infections. Aggressive behaviour and frequent epileptic seizures may also be present. The syndrome has been described in four boys from the same family. Transmission is X-linked and is caused by mutations in the <i>KIAA1202</i> gene, localised to the Xp11.2 region.
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Lubs type
MedGen UID:
337496
Concept ID:
C1846058
Disease or Syndrome
MECP2 duplication syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by early-onset hypotonia, feeding difficulty, gastrointestinal manifestations including gastroesophageal reflux and constipation, delayed psychomotor development leading to severe intellectual disability, poor speech development, progressive spasticity, recurrent respiratory infections (in ~75% of affected individuals), and seizures (in ~50%). MECP2 duplication syndrome is 100% penetrant in males. Occasionally females have been described with a MECP2 duplication and a range of findings from mild intellectual disability to a phenotype similar to that seen in males. In addition to the core features, autistic behaviors, nonspecific neuroradiologic findings on brain MRI, mottled skin, and urogenital anomalies have been observed in several affected boys.
Parasomnia, sleep bruxism type
MedGen UID:
339751
Concept ID:
C1847399
Disease or Syndrome
Sleep bruxism is a stereotyped movement disorder characterized by grinding or clenching of the teeth during sleep (American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2005). It is a parasomnia, defined as a clinical disorder resulting in undesirable physical phenomena that occur predominantly during sleep. Parasomnias are not abnormalities of the processes responsible for sleep and wake states (summary by Hublin and Kaprio, 2003).
Phelan-McDermid syndrome
MedGen UID:
339994
Concept ID:
C1853490
Disease or Syndrome
Phelan-McDermid syndrome is characterized by neonatal hypotonia, absent to severely delayed speech, developmental delay, and minor dysmorphic facial features. Most affected individuals have moderate to profound intellectual disability. Other features include large fleshy hands, dysplastic toenails, and decreased perspiration that results in a tendency to overheat. Normal stature and normal head size distinguishes Phelan-McDermid syndrome from other autosomal chromosome disorders. Behavior characteristics include mouthing or chewing non-food items, decreased perception of pain, and autism spectrum disorder or autistic-like affect and behavior.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 1
MedGen UID:
409857
Concept ID:
C1969562
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
MBD5 haploinsufficiency is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, seizures, sleep disturbances, and abnormal behaviors. Most children lack speech entirely or have single words, short phrases, or short sentences. Seizures are present in more than 80% of children; onset is usually around age two years. Sleep disturbances, present in about 90%, can result in excessive daytime drowsiness. Abnormal behaviors can include autistic-like behaviors (80%) and self-injury and aggression (>60%).
CHROMOSOME 1qter DELETION SYNDROME
MedGen UID:
382926
Concept ID:
C2676727
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 13
MedGen UID:
442564
Concept ID:
C2750791
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the TRAPPC9 gene.
Rett syndrome, congenital variant
MedGen UID:
462055
Concept ID:
C3150705
Disease or Syndrome
The congenital variant of Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with features of classic Rett syndrome (RTT; 312750), but earlier onset in the first months of life. Classic Rett syndrome shows later onset and is caused by mutation in the MECP2 gene (300005).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 8
MedGen UID:
481912
Concept ID:
C3280282
Disease or Syndrome
GRIN1-related neurodevelopmental disorder (GRIN1-NDD) is characterized by mild-to-profound developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID) in all affected individuals. Other common manifestations are epilepsy, muscular hypotonia, movement disorders, spasticity, feeding difficulties, and behavior problems. A subset of individuals show a malformation of cortical development consisting of extensive and diffuse bilateral polymicrogyria. To date, 72 individuals with GRIN1-NDD have been reported.
X-linked intellectual disability, Cantagrel type
MedGen UID:
813060
Concept ID:
C3806730
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual developmental disorder-98 (XLID98) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, poor speech, behavioral abnormalities, poor overall growth, dysmorphic facial features, and often early-onset seizures. Some carrier females are unaffected, whereas other females with mutations are affected; males tend to be more severely affected than females. It is believed that the phenotypic variability and disease manifestations in female carriers results from skewed X-inactivation or cellular mosaicism (summary by de Lange et al., 2016).
Intellectual disability-hypotonia-spasticity-sleep disorder syndrome
MedGen UID:
816002
Concept ID:
C3809672
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A rare, genetic, syndromic intellectual disability disorder characterized by variable degrees of intellectual disability, behavioral problems (including attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and aggressiveness), an altered sleeping pattern, and delayed speech and language development associated with disruption of ankyrin-3 (<i>ANK3</i> gene). Additional features observed may include muscular hypotonia and spasticity. Epilepsy, chronic hunger, and dysmorphic facial features have been reported.
Hyperphosphatasia with intellectual disability syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
816684
Concept ID:
C3810354
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperphosphatasia with impaired intellectual development syndrome-4 (HPMRS4) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development, impaired intellectual development, lack of speech acquisition, seizures, and dysmorphic facial features. Laboratory studies show increased serum alkaline phosphatase (summary by Howard et al., 2014). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HPMRS, see HPMRS1 (239300). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
ADNP-related multiple congenital anomalies - intellectual disability - autism spectrum disorder
MedGen UID:
862975
Concept ID:
C4014538
Disease or Syndrome
ADNP-related disorder is characterized by hypotonia, severe speech and motor delay, mild-to-severe intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features (prominent forehead, high anterior hairline, wide and depressed nasal bridge, and short nose with full, upturned nasal tip) based on a cohort of 78 individuals. Features of autism spectrum disorder are common (stereotypic behavior, impaired social interaction). Other common findings include additional behavioral problems, sleep disturbance, brain abnormalities, seizures, feeding issues, gastrointestinal problems, visual dysfunction (hypermetropia, strabismus, cortical visual impairment), musculoskeletal anomalies, endocrine issues including short stature and hormonal deficiencies, cardiac and urinary tract anomalies, and hearing loss.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 34
MedGen UID:
907277
Concept ID:
C4225156
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any autosomal dominant non-syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the COL4A3BP gene.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 38
MedGen UID:
895359
Concept ID:
C4225343
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any autosomal dominant non-syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the EEF1A2 gene.
Lopes-Maciel-Rodan syndrome
MedGen UID:
1379711
Concept ID:
C4479491
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 54
MedGen UID:
1614787
Concept ID:
C4540484
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Neurodevelopmental disorder with severe motor impairment and absent language
MedGen UID:
1622162
Concept ID:
C4540496
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
NEDMIAL is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development and hypotonia apparent from early infancy, resulting in feeding difficulties, ataxic gait or inability to walk, delayed or absent speech development, and impaired intellectual development, sometimes with behavioral abnormalities, such as hand-flapping. Additional common features may include sleep disorder, nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, and joint hyperlaxity (summary by Lessel et al., 2017 and Mannucci et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with poor language and loss of hand skills
MedGen UID:
1637031
Concept ID:
C4693546
Disease or Syndrome
NDPLHS is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by developmental stagnation or regression apparent in the first years of life and manifest as loss of purposeful hand movements, loss of language, and intellectual disability. Additional features may include stereotypic movements, dystonia, gait abnormalities, sleep disturbances, and small hands and feet. The phenotype is reminiscent of Rett syndrome (RTT; 312750) (summary by Yoo et al., 2017).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 64
MedGen UID:
1633501
Concept ID:
C4693899
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-64 (DEE64) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by onset of seizures usually in the first year of life and associated with intellectual disability, poor motor development, and poor or absent speech. Additional features include hypotonia, abnormal movements, and nonspecific dysmorphic features. The severity is variable: some patients are unable to speak, walk, or interact with others as late as the teenage years, whereas others may have some comprehension (summary by Straub et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Intellectual developmental disorder with abnormal behavior, microcephaly, and short stature
MedGen UID:
1675423
Concept ID:
C5193039
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures and nonepileptic hyperkinetic movements
MedGen UID:
1678038
Concept ID:
C5193128
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures and nonepileptic hyperkinetic movements (NEDNEH) is an autosomal recessive severe neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development with inability to walk or speak, early-onset refractory seizures, and nonepileptic hyperkinetic movement disorders, including myoclonus dystonia and dyskinesias. Patients require tube feeding and may die of respiratory failure in childhood or in the second decade (summary by Gorman et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with behavioral abnormalities, absent speech, and hypotonia
MedGen UID:
1684663
Concept ID:
C5231471
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with behavioral abnormalities, absent speech, and hypotonia (NEDBASH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severely impaired intellectual and motor development, axial and peripheral hypotonia usually with inability to walk, and significant behavioral abnormalities consistent with autism spectrum disorder and reminiscent of Rett syndrome (RTT; 312750), such as poor communication, stereotypic or repetitive behaviors, hand-wringing, bruxism, and sleep disturbances. Other features include poor overall growth, and joint hypermobility. Rare features include seizures, dystonia, spasticity, and nonspecific brain abnormalities (summary by Abu-Libdeh et al., 2019 and Dias et al., 2019).
Intellectual developmental disorder with paroxysmal dyskinesia or seizures
MedGen UID:
1727046
Concept ID:
C5436894
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with paroxysmal dyskinesia or seizures (IDDPADS) is an autosomal recessive complex neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and language delay. In addition, most patients develop a paroxysmal hyperkinetic movement disorder in the first months or years of life manifest as sudden falls or backward propulsion, eye or head deviation, and dystonic limb posturing followed by chorea and dyskinetic movements. The episodes are pharmacoresistant to anticonvulsant medication. EEG may show interictal abnormalities, but are usually not consistent with epilepsy. However, some patients may also develop epileptic seizures or only have seizures without a movement disorder (summary by Doummar et al., 2020).
KINSSHIP syndrome
MedGen UID:
1779339
Concept ID:
C5543317
Disease or Syndrome
KINSSHIP syndrome (KINS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a recognizable pattern of anomalies including developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, seizures, mesomelic dysplasia, dysmorphic facial features, horseshoe or hypoplastic kidney, and failure to thrive (summary by Voisin et al., 2021).
Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 31
MedGen UID:
1786855
Concept ID:
C5543627
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-31 (SCAR31) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with hypotonia and variably impaired intellectual and language development. Affected individuals have an ataxic gait, tremor, and dysarthria; more severely affected patients also have spasticity with inability to walk. Most have optic atrophy. Brain imaging shows cerebellar hypoplasia, enlarged ventricles, and atrophy of the posterior corpus callosum. Additional features may include retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural deafness, dysmorphic facial features, and possibly endocrine dysfunction (summary by Collier et al., 2021).
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794167
Concept ID:
C5561957
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (DDISBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. Additional variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, seizures, hypotonia, motor abnormalities such as Tourette syndrome or dystonia, and hearing loss (summary by Cousin et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1794184
Concept ID:
C5561974
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and dysmorphic facies (NEDHYDF) is characterized by global developmental delay and hypotonia apparent from birth. Affected individuals have variably impaired intellectual development, often with speech delay and delayed walking. Seizures are generally not observed, although some patients may have single seizures or late-onset epilepsy. Most patients have prominent dysmorphic facial features. Additional features may include congenital cardiac defects (without arrhythmia), nonspecific renal anomalies, joint contractures or joint hyperextensibility, dry skin, and cryptorchidism. There is significant phenotypic variability in both the neurologic and extraneurologic manifestations (summary by Tan et al., 2022).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 110
MedGen UID:
1824038
Concept ID:
C5774265
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-110 (DEE110) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by profound global developmental delay and hypotonia apparent in infancy followed by onset of seizures in the first months or years of life. Affected individuals achieve almost no developmental milestones and show impaired intellectual development, poor or absent speech, inability to walk or grasp objects, peripheral spasticity, and poor eye contact. Brain imaging shows hypoplastic corpus callosum and cortical atrophy (Dahimene et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Tessadori-Van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1824083
Concept ID:
C5774310
Disease or Syndrome
Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental syndrome-3 (TEBIVANED3) is characterized by global developmental delay with poor overall growth, impaired intellectual development, and speech difficulties. More variable features include hypotonia, microcephaly, and dysmorphic facies. The severity and manifestations of the disorder are highly variable (Tessadori et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Tessadori-Bicknell-van Haaften neurodevelopmental disorder, see TEBIVANED1 (619758).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Bulanda S, Ilczuk-Rypuła D, Nitecka-Buchta A, Nowak Z, Baron S, Postek-Stefańska L
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Sep 10;18(18) doi: 10.3390/ijerph18189544. PMID: 34574467Free PMC Article
Goldstein G, Goodacre C, MacGregor K
J Prosthodont 2021 Apr;30(S1):12-19. doi: 10.1111/jopr.13315. PMID: 33783090
Goldstein G, DeSantis L, Goodacre C
J Prosthodont 2021 Apr;30(S1):91-101. doi: 10.1111/jopr.13308. PMID: 33331675

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Bulanda S, Ilczuk-Rypuła D, Nitecka-Buchta A, Nowak Z, Baron S, Postek-Stefańska L
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Sep 10;18(18) doi: 10.3390/ijerph18189544. PMID: 34574467Free PMC Article
Beddis H, Pemberton M, Davies S
Br Dent J 2018 Sep 28;225(6):497-501. Epub 2018 Sep 21 doi: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2018.757. PMID: 30237554
Lobbezoo F, Ahlberg J, Raphael KG, Wetselaar P, Glaros AG, Kato T, Santiago V, Winocur E, De Laat A, De Leeuw R, Koyano K, Lavigne GJ, Svensson P, Manfredini D
J Oral Rehabil 2018 Nov;45(11):837-844. Epub 2018 Jun 21 doi: 10.1111/joor.12663. PMID: 29926505Free PMC Article
Kuhn M, Türp JC
Swiss Dent J 2018 Feb 12;128(2):118-124. PMID: 29533049
Lavigne GJ, Khoury S, Abe S, Yamaguchi T, Raphael K
J Oral Rehabil 2008 Jul;35(7):476-94. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2842.2008.01881.x. PMID: 18557915

Diagnosis

Bulanda S, Ilczuk-Rypuła D, Nitecka-Buchta A, Nowak Z, Baron S, Postek-Stefańska L
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Sep 10;18(18) doi: 10.3390/ijerph18189544. PMID: 34574467Free PMC Article
Beddis H, Pemberton M, Davies S
Br Dent J 2018 Sep 28;225(6):497-501. Epub 2018 Sep 21 doi: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2018.757. PMID: 30237554
Lobbezoo F, Ahlberg J, Raphael KG, Wetselaar P, Glaros AG, Kato T, Santiago V, Winocur E, De Laat A, De Leeuw R, Koyano K, Lavigne GJ, Svensson P, Manfredini D
J Oral Rehabil 2018 Nov;45(11):837-844. Epub 2018 Jun 21 doi: 10.1111/joor.12663. PMID: 29926505Free PMC Article
Goldstein RE, Auclair Clark W
J Am Dent Assoc 2017 Jun;148(6):387-391. doi: 10.1016/j.adaj.2017.03.005. PMID: 28550845
Lobbezoo F, Ahlberg J, Glaros AG, Kato T, Koyano K, Lavigne GJ, de Leeuw R, Manfredini D, Svensson P, Winocur E
J Oral Rehabil 2013 Jan;40(1):2-4. Epub 2012 Nov 4 doi: 10.1111/joor.12011. PMID: 23121262

Therapy

Goldstein G, DeSantis L, Goodacre C
J Prosthodont 2021 Apr;30(S1):91-101. doi: 10.1111/jopr.13308. PMID: 33331675
Shim YJ, Lee HJ, Park KJ, Kim HT, Hong IH, Kim ST
Toxins (Basel) 2020 Mar 9;12(3) doi: 10.3390/toxins12030168. PMID: 32182879Free PMC Article
Serrera-Figallo MA, Ruiz-de-León-Hernández G, Torres-Lagares D, Castro-Araya A, Torres-Ferrerosa O, Hernández-Pacheco E, Gutierrez-Perez JL
Toxins (Basel) 2020 Feb 11;12(2) doi: 10.3390/toxins12020112. PMID: 32053883Free PMC Article
Fernández-Núñez T, Amghar-Maach S, Gay-Escoda C
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2019 Jul 1;24(4):e416-e424. doi: 10.4317/medoral.22923. PMID: 31246937Free PMC Article
Kuhn M, Türp JC
Swiss Dent J 2018 Feb 12;128(2):118-124. PMID: 29533049

Prognosis

Chen Y, Tsai CH, Bae TH, Huang CY, Chen C, Kang YN, Chiu WK
Aesthetic Plast Surg 2023 Apr;47(2):775-790. Epub 2023 Jan 24 doi: 10.1007/s00266-023-03256-8. PMID: 36694050
Manfredini D, Ahlberg J, Lobbezoo F
J Prosthet Dent 2022 Nov;128(5):905-912. Epub 2021 Mar 5 doi: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2021.01.026. PMID: 33678438
Przystańska A, Jasielska A, Ziarko M, Pobudek-Radzikowska M, Maciejewska-Szaniec Z, Prylińska-Czyżewska A, Wierzbik-Strońska M, Gorajska M, Czajka-Jakubowska A
Biomed Res Int 2019;2019:2069716. Epub 2019 Oct 13 doi: 10.1155/2019/2069716. PMID: 31737656Free PMC Article
Alvarez-Arenal A, Alvarez-Menendez L, Gonzalez-Gonzalez I, Alvarez-Riesgo JA, Brizuela-Velasco A, deLlanos-Lanchares H
J Oral Rehabil 2019 Jan;46(1):65-75. Epub 2018 Oct 21 doi: 10.1111/joor.12721. PMID: 30252966
Jepsen S, Caton JG, Albandar JM, Bissada NF, Bouchard P, Cortellini P, Demirel K, de Sanctis M, Ercoli C, Fan J, Geurs NC, Hughes FJ, Jin L, Kantarci A, Lalla E, Madianos PN, Matthews D, McGuire MK, Mills MP, Preshaw PM, Reynolds MA, Sculean A, Susin C, West NX, Yamazaki K
J Periodontol 2018 Jun;89 Suppl 1:S237-S248. doi: 10.1002/JPER.17-0733. PMID: 29926943

Clinical prediction guides

Smith KW, Sicignano DJ, Hernandez AV, White CM
J Clin Pharmacol 2022 Apr;62(4):463-471. Epub 2021 Nov 28 doi: 10.1002/jcph.1995. PMID: 34708874
Manfredini D, Ahlberg J, Lobbezoo F
J Prosthet Dent 2022 Nov;128(5):905-912. Epub 2021 Mar 5 doi: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2021.01.026. PMID: 33678438
Bulanda S, Ilczuk-Rypuła D, Nitecka-Buchta A, Nowak Z, Baron S, Postek-Stefańska L
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Sep 10;18(18) doi: 10.3390/ijerph18189544. PMID: 34574467Free PMC Article
Kaya DI, Ataoglu H
Niger J Clin Pract 2021 Mar;24(3):412-417. doi: 10.4103/njcp.njcp_251_20. PMID: 33723117
Kuhn M, Türp JC
Swiss Dent J 2018 Feb 12;128(2):118-124. PMID: 29533049

Recent systematic reviews

Kuang B, Li D, Lobbezoo F, de Vries R, Hilgevoord A, de Vries N, Huynh N, Lavigne G, Aarab G
Sleep Med 2022 Jan;89:31-47. Epub 2021 Nov 19 doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2021.11.008. PMID: 34879286
Smith KW, Sicignano DJ, Hernandez AV, White CM
J Clin Pharmacol 2022 Apr;62(4):463-471. Epub 2021 Nov 28 doi: 10.1002/jcph.1995. PMID: 34708874
DelRosso LM, Picchietti DL, Spruyt K, Bruni O, Garcia-Borreguero D, Kotagal S, Owens JA, Simakajornboon N, Ferri R; International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG)
Sleep Med Rev 2021 Apr;56:101406. Epub 2020 Dec 1 doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2020.101406. PMID: 33341437
Riley P, Glenny AM, Worthington HV, Jacobsen E, Robertson C, Durham J, Davies S, Petersen H, Boyers D
Health Technol Assess 2020 Feb;24(7):1-224. doi: 10.3310/hta24070. PMID: 32065109Free PMC Article
Fernández-Núñez T, Amghar-Maach S, Gay-Escoda C
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2019 Jul 1;24(4):e416-e424. doi: 10.4317/medoral.22923. PMID: 31246937Free PMC Article

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