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Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 6(AGS6)

MedGen UID:
761287
Concept ID:
C3539013
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: AGS6
 
Gene (location): ADAR (1q21.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014007
OMIM®: 615010

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome
Most characteristically, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) manifests as an early-onset encephalopathy that usually, but not always, results in severe intellectual and physical disability. A subgroup of infants with AGS present at birth with abnormal neurologic findings, hepatosplenomegaly, elevated liver enzymes, and thrombocytopenia, a picture highly suggestive of congenital infection. Otherwise, most affected infants present at variable times after the first few weeks of life, frequently after a period of apparently normal development. Typically, they demonstrate the subacute onset of a severe encephalopathy characterized by extreme irritability, intermittent sterile pyrexias, loss of skills, and slowing of head growth. Over time, as many as 40% develop chilblain skin lesions on the fingers, toes, and ears. It is becoming apparent that atypical, sometimes milder, cases of AGS exist, and thus the true extent of the phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in the AGS-related genes is not yet known. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Yanick J Crow   view full author information

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is a disorder that mainly affects the brain, the immune system, and the skin.

Most newborns with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome do not show any signs or symptoms of the disorder. However, about 20 percent are born with a combination of features that include an enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly), elevated blood levels of liver enzymes, a shortage of blood cells called platelets that are needed for normal blood clotting (thrombocytopenia), and neurological abnormalities. While this combination of signs and symptoms is typically associated with the immune system's response to a viral infection that is present at birth (congenital), no actual infection is found in these infants. For this reason, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is sometimes referred to as a "mimic of congenital infection."

Within the first year of life, most individuals with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome experience an episode of severe brain dysfunction (encephalopathy), typically lasting for several months. During this encephalopathic phase of the disorder, affected babies are usually extremely irritable and do not feed well. They may develop intermittent fevers in the absence of infection (sterile pyrexias) and may have seizures. They stop developing new skills and begin losing skills they had already acquired (developmental regression). Growth of the brain and skull slows down, resulting in an abnormally small head size (microcephaly). In this phase of the disorder, white blood cells and other immune system molecules associated with inflammation can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid, which is the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). These abnormal findings are consistent with inflammation and tissue damage in the central nervous system.

Some people with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome have features characteristic of autoimmune disorders, which occur when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the body's own systems and organs. Some of these features overlap with those of another disorder called systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A feature of SLE that also occurs in about 40 percent of people with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is a skin problem called chilblains. Chilblains are painful, itchy skin lesions that are puffy and red, and usually appear on the fingers, toes, and ears. They are caused by inflammation of small blood vessels, and may be brought on or made worse by exposure to cold. Vision problems, joint stiffness, and mouth ulcers are other features that can occur in both disorders.

As a result of the severe neurological problems usually associated with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, most people with this disorder do not survive past childhood. However, some affected individuals who develop the condition later or have milder neurological problems live into adulthood.

The encephalopathic phase of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome causes permanent neurological damage that is usually severe. Medical imaging reveals loss of white matter in the brain (leukodystrophy). White matter consists of nerve fibers covered by myelin, which is a substance that protects nerves and insures rapid transmission of nerve impulses. Affected individuals also have abnormal deposits of calcium (calcification) in the brain. As a result of this neurological damage, most people with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome have profound intellectual disability. They also have muscle stiffness (spasticity); involuntary tensing of various muscles (dystonia), especially those in the arms; and weak muscle tone (hypotonia) in the torso.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/aicardi-goutieres-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
4693
Concept ID:
C0015934
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Hepatomegaly
MedGen UID:
42428
Concept ID:
C0019209
Finding
Abnormally increased size of the liver.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Dystonic disorder
MedGen UID:
3940
Concept ID:
C0013421
Sign or Symptom
An abnormally increased muscular tone that causes fixed abnormal postures. There is a slow, intermittent twisting motion that leads to exaggerated turning and posture of the extremities and trunk.
Leukodystrophy
MedGen UID:
6070
Concept ID:
C0023520
Disease or Syndrome
Leukodystrophy refers to deterioration of white matter of the brain resulting from degeneration of myelin sheaths in the CNS. Their basic defect is directly related to the synthesis and maintenance of myelin membranes. Symmetric white matter involvement at MRI is a typical finding in patients with leukodystrophies.
Tremor
MedGen UID:
21635
Concept ID:
C0040822
Sign or Symptom
An unintentional, oscillating to-and-fro muscle movement about a joint axis.
CSF pleocytosis
MedGen UID:
56247
Concept ID:
C0151857
Disease or Syndrome
An increased white blood cell count in the cerebrospinal fluid.
Loss of speech
MedGen UID:
107445
Concept ID:
C0542223
Finding
Developmental regression
MedGen UID:
324613
Concept ID:
C1836830
Disease or Syndrome
Loss of developmental skills, as manifested by loss of developmental milestones.
Loss of ambulation
MedGen UID:
332305
Concept ID:
C1836843
Finding
Inability to walk in a person who previous had the ability to walk.
Severe global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
332436
Concept ID:
C1837397
Finding
A severe delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child.
Increased CSF interferon alpha
MedGen UID:
341667
Concept ID:
C1856983
Finding
Increased concentration of interferon alpha in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Irritability
MedGen UID:
397841
Concept ID:
C2700617
Mental Process
A proneness to anger, i.e., a tendency to become easily bothered or annoyed.
Hemolytic anemia
MedGen UID:
1916
Concept ID:
C0002878
Disease or Syndrome
A type of anemia caused by premature destruction of red blood cells (hemolysis).
Thrombocytopenia
MedGen UID:
52737
Concept ID:
C0040034
Disease or Syndrome
A reduction in the number of circulating thrombocytes.
Rigidity
MedGen UID:
7752
Concept ID:
C0026837
Sign or Symptom
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from muscle spasticity.
Cerebral calcification
MedGen UID:
124360
Concept ID:
C0270685
Finding
The presence of calcium deposition within the cerebrum.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Chilblains
MedGen UID:
886
Concept ID:
C0008058
Injury or Poisoning
Chilblains, also called perniosis, are an inflammatory skin condition related to an abnormal vascular response to the cold. We are unaware of a reliable estimate of incidence. It typically presents as tender, pruritic red or bluish lesions located symmetrically on the dorsal aspect of the fingers, toes, ears and nose. Less commonly, reports describe involvement of the thighs and buttocks. The lesions present hours after exposure to cold and usually resolve spontaneously in one to three weeks.
Splenomegaly
MedGen UID:
52469
Concept ID:
C0038002
Finding
Abnormal increased size of the spleen.
Increased circulating Interferon-alpha concentration
MedGen UID:
1842154
Concept ID:
C5826443
Finding
An elevation in the concentration of interferon alpha measured in the blood circulation.
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Li W, Wang W, Wang W, Zhong L, Gou L, Wang C, Ma J, Quan M, Jian S, Tang X, Zhang Y, Wang L, Ma M, Song H
Front Immunol 2022;13:825367. Epub 2022 Mar 28 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.825367. PMID: 35418997Free PMC Article
Lee S, Clinard K, Young SP, Rehder CW, Fan Z, Calikoglu AS, Bali DS, Bailey DB Jr, Gehtland LM, Millington DS, Patel HS, Beckloff SE, Zimmerman SJ, Powell CM, Taylor JL
JAMA Netw Open 2020 Jan 3;3(1):e1920356. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.20356. PMID: 32003821Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Emralino FL, Satoh S, Sakai N, Takami M, Takeuchi F, Yan N, Rutsch F, Fujita T, Kato H
J Immunol 2022 Dec 1;209(11):2093-2103. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.2200367. PMID: 36426976
Tusseau M, Lovšin E, Samaille C, Pescarmona R, Mathieu AL, Maggio MC, Selmanović V, Debeljak M, Dachy A, Novljan G, Janin A, Januel L, Gibier JB, Chopin E, Rouvet I, Goncalves D, Fabien N, Rice GI, Lesca G, Labalme A, Romagnani P, Walzer T, Viel S, Perret M, Crow YJ, Avčin T, Cimaz R, Belot A
J Clin Immunol 2022 Aug;42(6):1310-1320. Epub 2022 Jun 7 doi: 10.1007/s10875-022-01287-5. PMID: 35670985
Wang W, Wang W, He TY, Zou LP, Li WD, Yu ZX, Ma MS, Yang J, Song HM
World J Pediatr 2022 Jul;18(7):490-497. Epub 2022 May 12 doi: 10.1007/s12519-022-00545-1. PMID: 35551623Free PMC Article
Di Lazzaro G, Graziola F, Sancesario A, Insalaco A, Moneta GM, Castelli E, Bertini E, Travaglini L, Stregapede F, Capuano A, Vasco G, Schirinzi T
Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2020 Oct;79:100-104. Epub 2020 Aug 30 doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2020.08.039. PMID: 32911246
Rice GI, Forte GM, Szynkiewicz M, Chase DS, Aeby A, Abdel-Hamid MS, Ackroyd S, Allcock R, Bailey KM, Balottin U, Barnerias C, Bernard G, Bodemer C, Botella MP, Cereda C, Chandler KE, Dabydeen L, Dale RC, De Laet C, De Goede CG, Del Toro M, Effat L, Enamorado NN, Fazzi E, Gener B, Haldre M, Lin JP, Livingston JH, Lourenco CM, Marques W Jr, Oades P, Peterson P, Rasmussen M, Roubertie A, Schmidt JL, Shalev SA, Simon R, Spiegel R, Swoboda KJ, Temtamy SA, Vassallo G, Vilain CN, Vogt J, Wermenbol V, Whitehouse WP, Soler D, Olivieri I, Orcesi S, Aglan MS, Zaki MS, Abdel-Salam GM, Vanderver A, Kisand K, Rozenberg F, Lebon P, Crow YJ
Lancet Neurol 2013 Dec;12(12):1159-69. Epub 2013 Oct 30 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70258-8. PMID: 24183309Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Frémond ML, Hully M, Fournier B, Barrois R, Lévy R, Aubart M, Castelle M, Chabalier D, Gins C, Sarda E, Al Adba B, Couderc S, D' Almeida C, Berat CM, Durrleman C, Espil C, Lambert L, Méni C, Périvier M, Pillet P, Polivka L, Schiff M, Todosi C, Uettwiller F, Lepelley A, Rice GI, Seabra L, Sanquer S, Hulin A, Pressiat C, Goldwirt L, Bondet V, Duffy D, Moshous D, Bader-Meunier B, Bodemer C, Robin-Renaldo F, Boddaert N, Blanche S, Desguerre I, Crow YJ, Neven B
J Clin Immunol 2023 Aug;43(6):1436-1447. Epub 2023 May 12 doi: 10.1007/s10875-023-01500-z. PMID: 37171742Free PMC Article
Lodi L, Mastrolia MV, Bello F, Rossi GM, Angelotti ML, Crow YJ, Romagnani P, Vaglio A
Kidney Int 2022 Jun;101(6):1142-1159. Epub 2022 Mar 24 doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2022.02.031. PMID: 35339535
de Jesus AA, Hou Y, Brooks S, Malle L, Biancotto A, Huang Y, Calvo KR, Marrero B, Moir S, Oler AJ, Deng Z, Montealegre Sanchez GA, Ahmed A, Allenspach E, Arabshahi B, Behrens E, Benseler S, Bezrodnik L, Bout-Tabaku S, Brescia AC, Brown D, Burnham JM, Caldirola MS, Carrasco R, Chan AY, Cimaz R, Dancey P, Dare J, DeGuzman M, Dimitriades V, Ferguson I, Ferguson P, Finn L, Gattorno M, Grom AA, Hanson EP, Hashkes PJ, Hedrich CM, Herzog R, Horneff G, Jerath R, Kessler E, Kim H, Kingsbury DJ, Laxer RM, Lee PY, Lee-Kirsch MA, Lewandowski L, Li S, Lilleby V, Mammadova V, Moorthy LN, Nasrullayeva G, O'Neil KM, Onel K, Ozen S, Pan N, Pillet P, Piotto DG, Punaro MG, Reiff A, Reinhardt A, Rider LG, Rivas-Chacon R, Ronis T, Rösen-Wolff A, Roth J, Ruth NM, Rygg M, Schmeling H, Schulert G, Scott C, Seminario G, Shulman A, Sivaraman V, Son MB, Stepanovskiy Y, Stringer E, Taber S, Terreri MT, Tifft C, Torgerson T, Tosi L, Van Royen-Kerkhof A, Wampler Muskardin T, Canna SW, Goldbach-Mansky R
J Clin Invest 2020 Apr 1;130(4):1669-1682. doi: 10.1172/JCI129301. PMID: 31874111Free PMC Article
Crow YJ, Chase DS, Lowenstein Schmidt J, Szynkiewicz M, Forte GM, Gornall HL, Oojageer A, Anderson B, Pizzino A, Helman G, Abdel-Hamid MS, Abdel-Salam GM, Ackroyd S, Aeby A, Agosta G, Albin C, Allon-Shalev S, Arellano M, Ariaudo G, Aswani V, Babul-Hirji R, Baildam EM, Bahi-Buisson N, Bailey KM, Barnerias C, Barth M, Battini R, Beresford MW, Bernard G, Bianchi M, Billette de Villemeur T, Blair EM, Bloom M, Burlina AB, Carpanelli ML, Carvalho DR, Castro-Gago M, Cavallini A, Cereda C, Chandler KE, Chitayat DA, Collins AE, Sierra Corcoles C, Cordeiro NJ, Crichiutti G, Dabydeen L, Dale RC, D'Arrigo S, De Goede CG, De Laet C, De Waele LM, Denzler I, Desguerre I, Devriendt K, Di Rocco M, Fahey MC, Fazzi E, Ferrie CD, Figueiredo A, Gener B, Goizet C, Gowrinathan NR, Gowrishankar K, Hanrahan D, Isidor B, Kara B, Khan N, King MD, Kirk EP, Kumar R, Lagae L, Landrieu P, Lauffer H, Laugel V, La Piana R, Lim MJ, Lin JP, Linnankivi T, Mackay MT, Marom DR, Marques Lourenço C, McKee SA, Moroni I, Morton JE, Moutard ML, Murray K, Nabbout R, Nampoothiri S, Nunez-Enamorado N, Oades PJ, Olivieri I, Ostergaard JR, Pérez-Dueñas B, Prendiville JS, Ramesh V, Rasmussen M, Régal L, Ricci F, Rio M, Rodriguez D, Roubertie A, Salvatici E, Segers KA, Sinha GP, Soler D, Spiegel R, Stödberg TI, Straussberg R, Swoboda KJ, Suri M, Tacke U, Tan TY, te Water Naude J, Wee Teik K, Thomas MM, Till M, Tonduti D, Valente EM, Van Coster RN, van der Knaap MS, Vassallo G, Vijzelaar R, Vogt J, Wallace GB, Wassmer E, Webb HJ, Whitehouse WP, Whitney RN, Zaki MS, Zuberi SM, Livingston JH, Rozenberg F, Lebon P, Vanderver A, Orcesi S, Rice GI
Am J Med Genet A 2015 Feb;167A(2):296-312. Epub 2015 Jan 16 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.36887. PMID: 25604658Free PMC Article
Rice GI, Forte GM, Szynkiewicz M, Chase DS, Aeby A, Abdel-Hamid MS, Ackroyd S, Allcock R, Bailey KM, Balottin U, Barnerias C, Bernard G, Bodemer C, Botella MP, Cereda C, Chandler KE, Dabydeen L, Dale RC, De Laet C, De Goede CG, Del Toro M, Effat L, Enamorado NN, Fazzi E, Gener B, Haldre M, Lin JP, Livingston JH, Lourenco CM, Marques W Jr, Oades P, Peterson P, Rasmussen M, Roubertie A, Schmidt JL, Shalev SA, Simon R, Spiegel R, Swoboda KJ, Temtamy SA, Vassallo G, Vilain CN, Vogt J, Wermenbol V, Whitehouse WP, Soler D, Olivieri I, Orcesi S, Aglan MS, Zaki MS, Abdel-Salam GM, Vanderver A, Kisand K, Rozenberg F, Lebon P, Crow YJ
Lancet Neurol 2013 Dec;12(12):1159-69. Epub 2013 Oct 30 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70258-8. PMID: 24183309Free PMC Article

Therapy

Li W, Wang W, Wang W, Zhong L, Gou L, Wang C, Ma J, Quan M, Jian S, Tang X, Zhang Y, Wang L, Ma M, Song H
Front Immunol 2022;13:825367. Epub 2022 Mar 28 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.825367. PMID: 35418997Free PMC Article
Lodi L, Mastrolia MV, Bello F, Rossi GM, Angelotti ML, Crow YJ, Romagnani P, Vaglio A
Kidney Int 2022 Jun;101(6):1142-1159. Epub 2022 Mar 24 doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2022.02.031. PMID: 35339535
Tise CG, Morales JA, Lee AS, Velez-Bartolomei F, Floyd BJ, Levy RJ, Cusmano-Ozog KP, Feigenbaum AS, Ruzhnikov MRZ, Lee CU, Enns GM
Am J Med Genet A 2021 Jun;185(6):1848-1853. Epub 2021 Mar 8 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62160. PMID: 33683010
de Jesus AA, Hou Y, Brooks S, Malle L, Biancotto A, Huang Y, Calvo KR, Marrero B, Moir S, Oler AJ, Deng Z, Montealegre Sanchez GA, Ahmed A, Allenspach E, Arabshahi B, Behrens E, Benseler S, Bezrodnik L, Bout-Tabaku S, Brescia AC, Brown D, Burnham JM, Caldirola MS, Carrasco R, Chan AY, Cimaz R, Dancey P, Dare J, DeGuzman M, Dimitriades V, Ferguson I, Ferguson P, Finn L, Gattorno M, Grom AA, Hanson EP, Hashkes PJ, Hedrich CM, Herzog R, Horneff G, Jerath R, Kessler E, Kim H, Kingsbury DJ, Laxer RM, Lee PY, Lee-Kirsch MA, Lewandowski L, Li S, Lilleby V, Mammadova V, Moorthy LN, Nasrullayeva G, O'Neil KM, Onel K, Ozen S, Pan N, Pillet P, Piotto DG, Punaro MG, Reiff A, Reinhardt A, Rider LG, Rivas-Chacon R, Ronis T, Rösen-Wolff A, Roth J, Ruth NM, Rygg M, Schmeling H, Schulert G, Scott C, Seminario G, Shulman A, Sivaraman V, Son MB, Stepanovskiy Y, Stringer E, Taber S, Terreri MT, Tifft C, Torgerson T, Tosi L, Van Royen-Kerkhof A, Wampler Muskardin T, Canna SW, Goldbach-Mansky R
J Clin Invest 2020 Apr 1;130(4):1669-1682. doi: 10.1172/JCI129301. PMID: 31874111Free PMC Article
Hofer MJ, Campbell IL
Br J Pharmacol 2016 Feb;173(4):716-28. Epub 2015 Jun 12 doi: 10.1111/bph.13175. PMID: 25917268Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Chenhan Z, Jun S, Yang D, Linliang Y, Xiaowen G, Chunya J, Xuedong D
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2023 Feb 22;23(1):124. doi: 10.1186/s12884-023-05436-5. PMID: 36814213Free PMC Article
Di Lazzaro G, Graziola F, Sancesario A, Insalaco A, Moneta GM, Castelli E, Bertini E, Travaglini L, Stregapede F, Capuano A, Vasco G, Schirinzi T
Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2020 Oct;79:100-104. Epub 2020 Aug 30 doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2020.08.039. PMID: 32911246
Adang LA, Gavazzi F, Jawad AF, Cusack SV, Kopin K, Peer K, Besnier C, De Simone M, De Giorgis V, Orcesi S, Fazzi E, Galli J, Shults J, Vanderver A
Mol Genet Metab 2020 Jun;130(2):153-160. Epub 2020 Apr 2 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2020.03.008. PMID: 32279991Free PMC Article
Livingston JH, Crow YJ
Neuropediatrics 2016 Dec;47(6):355-360. Epub 2016 Sep 19 doi: 10.1055/s-0036-1592307. PMID: 27643693
Lebon P, Meritet JF, Krivine A, Rozenberg F
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2002;6 Suppl A:A47-53; discussion A55-8, A77-86. doi: 10.1053/ejpn.2002.0574. PMID: 12365361

Clinical prediction guides

Frémond ML, Hully M, Fournier B, Barrois R, Lévy R, Aubart M, Castelle M, Chabalier D, Gins C, Sarda E, Al Adba B, Couderc S, D' Almeida C, Berat CM, Durrleman C, Espil C, Lambert L, Méni C, Périvier M, Pillet P, Polivka L, Schiff M, Todosi C, Uettwiller F, Lepelley A, Rice GI, Seabra L, Sanquer S, Hulin A, Pressiat C, Goldwirt L, Bondet V, Duffy D, Moshous D, Bader-Meunier B, Bodemer C, Robin-Renaldo F, Boddaert N, Blanche S, Desguerre I, Crow YJ, Neven B
J Clin Immunol 2023 Aug;43(6):1436-1447. Epub 2023 May 12 doi: 10.1007/s10875-023-01500-z. PMID: 37171742Free PMC Article
Lodi L, Mastrolia MV, Bello F, Rossi GM, Angelotti ML, Crow YJ, Romagnani P, Vaglio A
Kidney Int 2022 Jun;101(6):1142-1159. Epub 2022 Mar 24 doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2022.02.031. PMID: 35339535
de Jesus AA, Hou Y, Brooks S, Malle L, Biancotto A, Huang Y, Calvo KR, Marrero B, Moir S, Oler AJ, Deng Z, Montealegre Sanchez GA, Ahmed A, Allenspach E, Arabshahi B, Behrens E, Benseler S, Bezrodnik L, Bout-Tabaku S, Brescia AC, Brown D, Burnham JM, Caldirola MS, Carrasco R, Chan AY, Cimaz R, Dancey P, Dare J, DeGuzman M, Dimitriades V, Ferguson I, Ferguson P, Finn L, Gattorno M, Grom AA, Hanson EP, Hashkes PJ, Hedrich CM, Herzog R, Horneff G, Jerath R, Kessler E, Kim H, Kingsbury DJ, Laxer RM, Lee PY, Lee-Kirsch MA, Lewandowski L, Li S, Lilleby V, Mammadova V, Moorthy LN, Nasrullayeva G, O'Neil KM, Onel K, Ozen S, Pan N, Pillet P, Piotto DG, Punaro MG, Reiff A, Reinhardt A, Rider LG, Rivas-Chacon R, Ronis T, Rösen-Wolff A, Roth J, Ruth NM, Rygg M, Schmeling H, Schulert G, Scott C, Seminario G, Shulman A, Sivaraman V, Son MB, Stepanovskiy Y, Stringer E, Taber S, Terreri MT, Tifft C, Torgerson T, Tosi L, Van Royen-Kerkhof A, Wampler Muskardin T, Canna SW, Goldbach-Mansky R
J Clin Invest 2020 Apr 1;130(4):1669-1682. doi: 10.1172/JCI129301. PMID: 31874111Free PMC Article
Crow YJ, Chase DS, Lowenstein Schmidt J, Szynkiewicz M, Forte GM, Gornall HL, Oojageer A, Anderson B, Pizzino A, Helman G, Abdel-Hamid MS, Abdel-Salam GM, Ackroyd S, Aeby A, Agosta G, Albin C, Allon-Shalev S, Arellano M, Ariaudo G, Aswani V, Babul-Hirji R, Baildam EM, Bahi-Buisson N, Bailey KM, Barnerias C, Barth M, Battini R, Beresford MW, Bernard G, Bianchi M, Billette de Villemeur T, Blair EM, Bloom M, Burlina AB, Carpanelli ML, Carvalho DR, Castro-Gago M, Cavallini A, Cereda C, Chandler KE, Chitayat DA, Collins AE, Sierra Corcoles C, Cordeiro NJ, Crichiutti G, Dabydeen L, Dale RC, D'Arrigo S, De Goede CG, De Laet C, De Waele LM, Denzler I, Desguerre I, Devriendt K, Di Rocco M, Fahey MC, Fazzi E, Ferrie CD, Figueiredo A, Gener B, Goizet C, Gowrinathan NR, Gowrishankar K, Hanrahan D, Isidor B, Kara B, Khan N, King MD, Kirk EP, Kumar R, Lagae L, Landrieu P, Lauffer H, Laugel V, La Piana R, Lim MJ, Lin JP, Linnankivi T, Mackay MT, Marom DR, Marques Lourenço C, McKee SA, Moroni I, Morton JE, Moutard ML, Murray K, Nabbout R, Nampoothiri S, Nunez-Enamorado N, Oades PJ, Olivieri I, Ostergaard JR, Pérez-Dueñas B, Prendiville JS, Ramesh V, Rasmussen M, Régal L, Ricci F, Rio M, Rodriguez D, Roubertie A, Salvatici E, Segers KA, Sinha GP, Soler D, Spiegel R, Stödberg TI, Straussberg R, Swoboda KJ, Suri M, Tacke U, Tan TY, te Water Naude J, Wee Teik K, Thomas MM, Till M, Tonduti D, Valente EM, Van Coster RN, van der Knaap MS, Vassallo G, Vijzelaar R, Vogt J, Wallace GB, Wassmer E, Webb HJ, Whitehouse WP, Whitney RN, Zaki MS, Zuberi SM, Livingston JH, Rozenberg F, Lebon P, Vanderver A, Orcesi S, Rice GI
Am J Med Genet A 2015 Feb;167A(2):296-312. Epub 2015 Jan 16 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.36887. PMID: 25604658Free PMC Article
Rice GI, Forte GM, Szynkiewicz M, Chase DS, Aeby A, Abdel-Hamid MS, Ackroyd S, Allcock R, Bailey KM, Balottin U, Barnerias C, Bernard G, Bodemer C, Botella MP, Cereda C, Chandler KE, Dabydeen L, Dale RC, De Laet C, De Goede CG, Del Toro M, Effat L, Enamorado NN, Fazzi E, Gener B, Haldre M, Lin JP, Livingston JH, Lourenco CM, Marques W Jr, Oades P, Peterson P, Rasmussen M, Roubertie A, Schmidt JL, Shalev SA, Simon R, Spiegel R, Swoboda KJ, Temtamy SA, Vassallo G, Vilain CN, Vogt J, Wermenbol V, Whitehouse WP, Soler D, Olivieri I, Orcesi S, Aglan MS, Zaki MS, Abdel-Salam GM, Vanderver A, Kisand K, Rozenberg F, Lebon P, Crow YJ
Lancet Neurol 2013 Dec;12(12):1159-69. Epub 2013 Oct 30 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70258-8. PMID: 24183309Free PMC Article

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