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Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 1(AGS1)

MedGen UID:
162912
Concept ID:
C0796126
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: CREE ENCEPHALITIS; ENCEPHALOPATHY, FAMILIAL INFANTILE, WITH INTRACRANIAL CALCIFICATION AND CHRONIC CEREBROSPINAL FLUID LYMPHOCYTOSIS; PSEUDOTOXOPLASMOSIS SYNDROME
 
Gene (location): TREX1 (3p21.31)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0009165
OMIM®: 225750

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome
Most characteristically, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) manifests as an early-onset encephalopathy that usually, but not always, results in severe intellectual and physical disability. A subgroup of infants with AGS present at birth with abnormal neurologic findings, hepatosplenomegaly, elevated liver enzymes, and thrombocytopenia, a picture highly suggestive of congenital infection. Otherwise, most affected infants present at variable times after the first few weeks of life, frequently after a period of apparently normal development. Typically, they demonstrate the subacute onset of a severe encephalopathy characterized by extreme irritability, intermittent sterile pyrexias, loss of skills, and slowing of head growth. Over time, as many as 40% develop chilblain skin lesions on the fingers, toes, and ears. It is becoming apparent that atypical, sometimes milder, cases of AGS exist, and thus the true extent of the phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in the AGS-related genes is not yet known. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Yanick J Crow   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome (AGS) is a genetically heterogeneous encephalopathy characterized in its most severe form by cerebral atrophy, leukodystrophy, intracranial calcifications, chronic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytosis, increased CSF alpha-interferon (IFNA1; 147660), and negative serologic investigations for common prenatal infections (Ali et al., 2006). AGS is phenotypically similar to in utero viral infection. Severe neurologic dysfunction becomes clinically apparent in infancy, and manifests as progressive microcephaly, spasticity, dystonic posturing, profound psychomotor retardation, and often death in early childhood. Outside the nervous system, thrombocytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and elevated hepatic transaminases along with intermittent fever may also erroneously suggest an infective process (Crow et al., 2006). In a review of AGS, Stephenson (2008) noted that an expanded phenotypic spectrum has been recognized and that most of the original criteria for diagnosis no longer apply: affected individuals may show later onset and may not have severe or progressive neurologic dysfunction, calcification of the basal ganglia, or CSF lymphocytosis. The appearance of chilblains is an important clinical sign for correct diagnosis. The most severe neonatal form of AGS is typically due to mutation in the TREX1 gene. Cree encephalitis was originally considered a separate disorder, but genetic evidence has shown that it is the same as AGS1. See also pseudo-TORCH syndrome (251290), which shows phenotypic overlap and may in some cases represent AGS (Crow et al., 2000; Crow et al., 2003). AGS is distinct from the similarly named Aicardi syndrome (304050), which is characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum, spinal skeletal abnormalities, and chorioretinal abnormalities. Genetic Heterogeneity of Aicardi-Goutieres Syndrome See also AGS2 (610181), caused by mutation in the gene encoding subunit B of ribonuclease H2 (RNASEH2B; 610326) on chromosome 13q14; AGS3 (610329), caused by mutation in the RNASEH2C gene (610330) on chromosome 11q13; AGS4 (610333), caused by mutation in the RNASEH2A gene (606034) on chromosome 19p13; AGS5 (612952), caused by mutation in the SAMHD1 gene (606754) on chromosome 20q11; AGS6 (615010), caused by mutation in the ADAR1 gene (146920) on chromosome 1q21; AGS7 (615846), caused by mutation in the IFIH1 gene (606951) on chromosome 2q24; AGS8 (619486), caused by mutation in the LSM11 gene (617910) on chromosome 5q33; and AGS9 (619487), caused by mutation in the RNU7-1 gene (617876) on chromosome 12p13.  http://www.omim.org/entry/225750
From MedlinePlus Genetics
As a result of the severe neurological problems usually associated with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, most people with this disorder do not survive past childhood. However, some affected individuals who develop the condition later or have milder neurological problems live into adulthood.

Some people with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome have features characteristic of autoimmune disorders, which occur when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the body's own systems and organs. Some of these features overlap with those of another disorder called systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A feature of SLE that also occurs in about 40 percent of people with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is a skin problem called chilblains. Chilblains are painful, itchy skin lesions that are puffy and red, and usually appear on the fingers, toes, and ears. They are caused by inflammation of small blood vessels, and may be brought on or made worse by exposure to cold. Vision problems, joint stiffness, and mouth ulcers are other features that can occur in both disorders.

The encephalopathic phase of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome causes permanent neurological damage that is usually severe. Medical imaging reveals loss of white matter in the brain (leukodystrophy). White matter consists of nerve fibers covered by myelin, which is a substance that protects nerves and insures rapid transmission of nerve impulses. Affected individuals also have abnormal deposits of calcium (calcification) in the brain. As a result of this neurological damage, most people with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome have profound intellectual disability. They also have muscle stiffness (spasticity); involuntary tensing of various muscles (dystonia), especially those in the arms; and weak muscle tone (hypotonia) in the torso.

Within the first year of life, most individuals with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome experience an episode of severe brain dysfunction (encephalopathy), typically lasting for several months. During this encephalopathic phase of the disorder, affected babies are usually extremely irritable and do not feed well. They may develop intermittent fevers in the absence of infection (sterile pyrexias) and may have seizures. They stop developing new skills and begin losing skills they had already acquired (developmental regression). Growth of the brain and skull slows down, resulting in an abnormally small head size (microcephaly). In this phase of the disorder, white blood cells and other immune system molecules associated with inflammation can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid, which is the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). These abnormal findings are consistent with inflammation and tissue damage in the central nervous system.

Most newborns with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome do not show any signs or symptoms of the disorder. However, about 20 percent are born with a combination of features that include an enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly), elevated blood levels of liver enzymes, a shortage of blood cells called platelets that are needed for normal blood clotting (thrombocytopenia), and neurological abnormalities. While this combination of signs and symptoms is typically associated with the immune system's response to a viral infection that is present at birth (congenital), no actual infection is found in these infants. For this reason, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is sometimes referred to as a "mimic of congenital infection."

Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is a disorder that mainly affects the brain, the immune system, and the skin.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/aicardi-goutieres-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
Vasculitis
MedGen UID:
12054
Concept ID:
C0042384
Disease or Syndrome
Inflammation of blood vessel.
Cardiomyopathy
MedGen UID:
209232
Concept ID:
C0878544
Disease or Syndrome
A myocardial disorder in which the heart muscle is structurally and functionally abnormal, in the absence of coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular disease and congenital heart disease sufficient to cause the observed myocardial abnormality.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Hepatomegaly
MedGen UID:
42428
Concept ID:
C0019209
Finding
Abnormally increased size of the liver.
Gastric polyposis
MedGen UID:
68629
Concept ID:
C0236048
Disease or Syndrome
A polyp that arises from the stomach. This category includes neoplastic polyps (intestinal-type adenomatous polyps, gastric-type adenomas, and fundic gland polyps), and non-neoplastic polyps (hyperplastic polyps and hamartomatous polyps).
Prolonged neonatal jaundice
MedGen UID:
347108
Concept ID:
C1859236
Finding
Neonatal jaundice refers to a yellowing of the skin and other tissues of a newborn infant as a result of increased concentrations of bilirubin in the blood. Neonatal jaundice affects over half of all newborns to some extent in the first week of life. Prolonged neonatal jaundice is said to be present if the jaundice persists for longer than 14 days in term infants and 21 days in preterm infants.
Feeding difficulties in infancy
MedGen UID:
436211
Concept ID:
C2674608
Finding
Impaired feeding performance of an infant as manifested by difficulties such as weak and ineffective sucking, brief bursts of sucking, and falling asleep during sucking. There may be difficulties with chewing or maintaining attention.
Dystonic disorder
MedGen UID:
3940
Concept ID:
C0013421
Sign or Symptom
An abnormally increased muscular tone that causes fixed abnormal postures. There is a slow, intermittent twisting motion that leads to exaggerated turning and posture of the extremities and trunk.
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Self-mutilation
MedGen UID:
19925
Concept ID:
C0036601
Injury or Poisoning
Deliberate harm to one's body resulting in tissue damage, without a conscious intent to die.
Abnormality of extrapyramidal motor function
MedGen UID:
115941
Concept ID:
C0234133
Sign or Symptom
A neurological condition related to lesions of the basal ganglia leading to typical abnormalities including akinesia (inability to initiate changes in activity and perform volitional movements rapidly and easily), muscular rigidity (continuous contraction of muscles with constant resistance to passive movement), chorea (widespread arrhythmic movements of a forcible, rapid, jerky, and restless nature), athetosis (inability to sustain the muscles of the fingers, toes, or other group of muscles in a fixed position), and akathisia (inability to remain motionless).
Cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
116012
Concept ID:
C0235946
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy (wasting, decrease in size of cells or tissue) affecting the cerebrum.
Leukoencephalopathy
MedGen UID:
78722
Concept ID:
C0270612
Disease or Syndrome
This term describes abnormality of the white matter of the cerebrum resulting from damage to the myelin sheaths of nerve cells.
CNS demyelination
MedGen UID:
137898
Concept ID:
C0338474
Disease or Syndrome
A loss of myelin from nerve fibers in the central nervous system.
CSF lymphocytic pleiocytosis
MedGen UID:
140894
Concept ID:
C0427877
Laboratory or Test Result
An increased lymphocyte count in the cerebrospinal fluid.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Inability to walk
MedGen UID:
107860
Concept ID:
C0560046
Finding
Incapability to ambulate.
Progressive encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
333129
Concept ID:
C1838578
Finding
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Deep white matter hypodensities
MedGen UID:
347347
Concept ID:
C1856979
Finding
Multiple areas of darker than expected signal on magnetic resonance imaging emanating from the deep cerebral white matter.
Increased CSF interferon alpha
MedGen UID:
341667
Concept ID:
C1856983
Finding
Increased concentration of interferon alpha in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Intellectual disability, profound
MedGen UID:
892508
Concept ID:
C3161330
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Profound mental retardation is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) below 20.
Abnormal pyramidal tract morphology
MedGen UID:
892809
Concept ID:
C4021761
Anatomical Abnormality
Any structural abnormality of the pyramidal tract, whose chief element, the corticospinal tract, is the only direct connection between the brain and the spinal cord. In addition to the corticospinal tract, the pyramidal system includes the corticobulbar, corticomesencephalic, and corticopontine tracts.
Chronic CSF lymphocytosis
MedGen UID:
869799
Concept ID:
C4024229
Finding
Chronic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytosis is defined as the finding, in at least two serial CSF examinations, of more than 5 cells per cubic millimeter.
Thrombocytopenia
MedGen UID:
52737
Concept ID:
C0040034
Disease or Syndrome
A reduction in the number of circulating thrombocytes.
Basal ganglia calcification
MedGen UID:
234651
Concept ID:
C1389280
Pathologic Function
The presence of calcium deposition affecting one or more structures of the basal ganglia.
Poor head control
MedGen UID:
322809
Concept ID:
C1836038
Finding
Difficulty to maintain correct position of the head while standing or sitting.
Intracerebral periventricular calcifications
MedGen UID:
373287
Concept ID:
C1837246
Finding
The presence of calcium deposition in the cerebral white matter surrounding the cerebral ventricles.
Progressive microcephaly
MedGen UID:
340542
Concept ID:
C1850456
Anatomical Abnormality
Progressive microcephaly is diagnosed when the head circumference falls progressively behind age- and gender-dependent norms.
Cerebellar calcifications
MedGen UID:
338697
Concept ID:
C1851431
Finding
Axial hypotonia
MedGen UID:
342959
Concept ID:
C1853743
Finding
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) affecting the musculature of the trunk.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Chilblains
MedGen UID:
886
Concept ID:
C0008058
Injury or Poisoning
Chilblains, also called perniosis, are an inflammatory skin condition related to an abnormal vascular response to the cold. We are unaware of a reliable estimate of incidence. It typically presents as tender, pruritic red or bluish lesions located symmetrically on the dorsal aspect of the fingers, toes, ears and nose. Less commonly, reports describe involvement of the thighs and buttocks. The lesions present hours after exposure to cold and usually resolve spontaneously in one to three weeks.
Splenomegaly
MedGen UID:
52469
Concept ID:
C0038002
Finding
Abnormal increased size of the spleen.
Antiphospholipid antibody positivity
MedGen UID:
866404
Concept ID:
C4019436
Finding
The presence of circulating autoantibodies to phospholipids.
Fever
MedGen UID:
5169
Concept ID:
C0015967
Sign or Symptom
Body temperature elevated above the normal range.
Elevated circulating hepatic transaminase concentration
MedGen UID:
338525
Concept ID:
C1848701
Finding
Elevations of the levels of SGOT and SGPT in the serum. SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase) and SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase) are transaminases primarily found in the liver and heart and are released into the bloodstream as the result of liver or heart damage. SGOT and SGPT are used clinically mainly as markers of liver damage.
Petechiae
MedGen UID:
10680
Concept ID:
C0031256
Disease or Syndrome
Petechiae are pinpoint-sized reddish/purple spots, resembling a rash, that appear just under the skin or a mucous membrane when capillaries have ruptured and some superficial bleeding into the skin has happened. This term refers to an abnormally increased susceptibility to developing petechiae.
Purpura
MedGen UID:
19584
Concept ID:
C0034150
Disease or Syndrome
Purpura (from Latin
Erythema
MedGen UID:
11999
Concept ID:
C0041834
Disease or Syndrome
Redness of the skin, caused by hyperemia of the capillaries in the lower layers of the skin.
Acrocyanosis
MedGen UID:
65138
Concept ID:
C0221347
Finding
Bluish discoloration of the skin of the hands or feet.
Diabetes insipidus
MedGen UID:
8349
Concept ID:
C0011848
Disease or Syndrome
A state of excessive water intake and hypotonic (dilute) polyuria. Diabetes insipidus may be due to failure of vasopressin (AVP) release (central or neurogenic diabetes insipidus) or to a failure of the kidney to respond to AVP (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus).
Hypothyroidism
MedGen UID:
6991
Concept ID:
C0020676
Disease or Syndrome
Deficiency of thyroid hormone.
Glaucoma
MedGen UID:
42224
Concept ID:
C0017601
Disease or Syndrome
Glaucoma refers loss of retinal ganglion cells in a characteristic pattern of optic neuropathy usually associated with increased intraocular pressure.
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Dell'Isola GB, Dini G, Culpepper KL, Portwood KE, Ferrara P, Di Cara G, Verrotti A, Lodolo M
World J Pediatr 2023 Jul;19(7):635-643. Epub 2023 Jan 17 doi: 10.1007/s12519-022-00679-2. PMID: 36650407Free PMC Article
Cetin Gedik K, Lamot L, Romano M, Demirkaya E, Piskin D, Torreggiani S, Adang LA, Armangue T, Barchus K, Cordova DR, Crow YJ, Dale RC, Durrant KL, Eleftheriou D, Fazzi EM, Gattorno M, Gavazzi F, Hanson EP, Lee-Kirsch MA, Montealegre Sanchez GA, Neven B, Orcesi S, Ozen S, Poli MC, Schumacher E, Tonduti D, Uss K, Aletaha D, Feldman BM, Vanderver A, Brogan PA, Goldbach-Mansky R
Arthritis Rheumatol 2022 May;74(5):735-751. Epub 2022 Mar 21 doi: 10.1002/art.42087. PMID: 35315249
Cetin Gedik K, Lamot L, Romano M, Demirkaya E, Piskin D, Torreggiani S, Adang LA, Armangue T, Barchus K, Cordova DR, Crow YJ, Dale RC, Durrant KL, Eleftheriou D, Fazzi EM, Gattorno M, Gavazzi F, Hanson EP, Lee-Kirsch MA, Montealegre Sanchez GA, Neven B, Orcesi S, Ozen S, Poli MC, Schumacher E, Tonduti D, Uss K, Aletaha D, Feldman BM, Vanderver A, Brogan PA, Goldbach-Mansky R
Ann Rheum Dis 2022 May;81(5):601-613. Epub 2022 Jan 27 doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2021-221814. PMID: 35086813Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Özcan D, Serbes M, Ekinci RMK, Çetinkaya SB, Şaşihüseyinoğlu AŞ, Bişgin A, Altıntaş DU
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2021;49(6):1-7. Epub 2021 Nov 1 doi: 10.15586/aei.v49i6.450. PMID: 34761650

Diagnosis

Özcan D, Serbes M, Ekinci RMK, Çetinkaya SB, Şaşihüseyinoğlu AŞ, Bişgin A, Altıntaş DU
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2021;49(6):1-7. Epub 2021 Nov 1 doi: 10.15586/aei.v49i6.450. PMID: 34761650

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