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Nephronophthisis 16(NPHP16)

MedGen UID:
815650
Concept ID:
C3809320
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: NPHP16
 
Gene (location): ANKS6 (9q22.33)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014158
OMIM®: 615382

Authors:
Marijn Stokman  |  Marc Lilien  |  Nine Knoers   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From GeneReviews Overview
The nephronophthisis (NPH) phenotype is characterized by reduced renal concentrating ability, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, cystic renal disease, and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before age 30 years. Three age-based clinical subtypes are recognized: infantile, juvenile, and adolescent/adult. Infantile NPH can present in utero with oligohydramnios sequence (limb contractures, pulmonary hypoplasia, and facial dysmorphisms) or postnatally with renal manifestations that progress to ESRD before age 3 years. Juvenile NPH, the most prevalent subtype, typically presents with polydipsia and polyuria, growth retardation, chronic iron-resistant anemia, or other findings related to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension is typically absent due to salt wasting. ESRD develops at a median age of 13 years. Ultrasound findings are increased echogenicity, reduced corticomedullary differentiation, and renal cysts (in 50% of affected individuals). Histologic findings include tubulointerstitial fibrosis, thickened and disrupted tubular basement membrane, sporadic corticomedullary cysts, and normal or reduced kidney size. Adolescent/adult NPH is clinically similar to juvenile NPH, but ESRD develops at a median age of 19 years. Within a subtype, inter- and intrafamilial variability in rate of progression to ESRD is considerable. Approximately 80%-90% of individuals with the NPH phenotype have no extrarenal features (i.e., they have isolated NPH); ~10%-20% have extrarenal manifestations that constitute a recognizable syndrome (e.g., Joubert syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Jeune syndrome and related skeletal disorders, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, Senior-Løken syndrome, Leber congenital amaurosis, COACH syndrome, and oculomotor apraxia, Cogan type).
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Nephronophthisis eventually leads to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), a life-threatening failure of kidney function that occurs when the kidneys are no longer able to filter fluids and waste products from the body effectively. Nephronophthisis can be classified by the approximate age at which ESRD begins: around age 1 (infantile), around age 13 (juvenile), and around age 19 (adolescent).

Nephronophthisis is a disorder that affects the kidneys. It is characterized by inflammation and scarring (fibrosis) that impairs kidney function. These abnormalities lead to increased urine production (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), general weakness, and extreme tiredness (fatigue). In addition, affected individuals develop fluid-filled cysts in the kidneys, usually in an area known as the corticomedullary region. Another feature of nephronophthisis is a shortage of red blood cells, a condition known as anemia.

Nephronophthisis can occur as part of separate syndromes that affect other areas of the body; these are often referred to as nephronophthisis-associated ciliopathies. For example, Senior-Løken syndrome is characterized by the combination of nephronophthisis and a breakdown of the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (retinal degeneration); Joubert syndrome affects many parts of the body, causing neurological problems and other features, which can include nephronophthisis.

About 85 percent of all cases of nephronophthisis are isolated, which means they occur without other signs and symptoms. Some people with nephronophthisis have additional features, which can include liver fibrosis, heart abnormalities, or mirror image reversal of the position of one or more organs inside the body (situs inversus).  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/nephronophthisis

Clinical features

From HPO
Polycystic kidney disease
MedGen UID:
9639
Concept ID:
C0022680
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of multiple cysts in both kidneys.
Enlarged kidney
MedGen UID:
108156
Concept ID:
C0542518
Finding
An abnormal increase in the size of the kidney.
Nephronophthisis
MedGen UID:
146912
Concept ID:
C0687120
Disease or Syndrome
The nephronophthisis (NPH) phenotype is characterized by reduced renal concentrating ability, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, cystic renal disease, and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before age 30 years. Three age-based clinical subtypes are recognized: infantile, juvenile, and adolescent/adult. Infantile NPH can present in utero with oligohydramnios sequence (limb contractures, pulmonary hypoplasia, and facial dysmorphisms) or postnatally with renal manifestations that progress to ESRD before age 3 years. Juvenile NPH, the most prevalent subtype, typically presents with polydipsia and polyuria, growth retardation, chronic iron-resistant anemia, or other findings related to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension is typically absent due to salt wasting. ESRD develops at a median age of 13 years. Ultrasound findings are increased echogenicity, reduced corticomedullary differentiation, and renal cysts (in 50% of affected individuals). Histologic findings include tubulointerstitial fibrosis, thickened and disrupted tubular basement membrane, sporadic corticomedullary cysts, and normal or reduced kidney size. Adolescent/adult NPH is clinically similar to juvenile NPH, but ESRD develops at a median age of 19 years. Within a subtype, inter- and intrafamilial variability in rate of progression to ESRD is considerable. Approximately 80%-90% of individuals with the NPH phenotype have no extrarenal features (i.e., they have isolated NPH); ~10%-20% have extrarenal manifestations that constitute a recognizable syndrome (e.g., Joubert syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Jeune syndrome and related skeletal disorders, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, Senior-Løken syndrome, Leber congenital amaurosis, COACH syndrome, and oculomotor apraxia, Cogan type).
Renal insufficiency
MedGen UID:
332529
Concept ID:
C1565489
Disease or Syndrome
A reduction in the level of performance of the kidneys in areas of function comprising the concentration of urine, removal of wastes, the maintenance of electrolyte balance, homeostasis of blood pressure, and calcium metabolism.
Stage 5 chronic kidney disease
MedGen UID:
384526
Concept ID:
C2316810
Disease or Syndrome
A degree of kidney failure severe enough to require dialysis or kidney transplantation for survival characterized by a severe reduction in glomerular filtration rate (less than 15 ml/min/1.73 m2) and other manifestations including increased serum creatinine.
Aortic valve stenosis
MedGen UID:
1621
Concept ID:
C0003507
Pathologic Function
The presence of a stenosis (narrowing) of the aortic valve.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
MedGen UID:
2881
Concept ID:
C0007194
Disease or Syndrome
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is defined by the presence of increased ventricular wall thickness or mass in the absence of loading conditions (hypertension, valve disease) sufficient to cause the observed abnormality.
Patent ductus arteriosus
MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
In utero, the ductus arteriosus (DA) serves to divert ventricular output away from the lungs and toward the placenta by connecting the main pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the first 3 days of life is a physiologic shunt in healthy term and preterm newborn infants, and normally is substantially closed within about 24 hours after bith and completely closed after about three weeks. Failure of physiologcal closure is referred to a persistent or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Depending on the degree of left-to-right shunting, PDA can have clinical consequences.
Pulmonic stenosis
MedGen UID:
408291
Concept ID:
C1956257
Disease or Syndrome
A narrowing of the right ventricular outflow tract that can occur at the pulmonary valve (valvular stenosis), below the pulmonary valve (infundibular stenosis), or above the pulmonary valve (supravalvar stenosis).
Situs inversus
MedGen UID:
1642262
Concept ID:
C4551493
Congenital Abnormality
A left-right reversal (or "mirror reflection") of the anatomical location of the major thoracic and abdominal organs.
Cholestasis
MedGen UID:
925
Concept ID:
C0008370
Disease or Syndrome
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in bile ducts.
Periportal fibrosis
MedGen UID:
337906
Concept ID:
C1849766
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of fibrosis affecting the interlobular stroma of liver.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Gjerstad AC, Skrunes R, Tøndel C, Åsberg A, Leh S, Klingenberg C, Døllner H, Hammarstrøm C, Bjerre AK
Pediatr Nephrol 2023 Apr;38(4):1249-1256. Epub 2022 Aug 22 doi: 10.1007/s00467-022-05706-y. PMID: 35994104Free PMC Article
Tang X, Liu C, Liu X, Chen J, Fan X, Liu J, Ma D, Cao G, Chen Z, Xu D, Zhu Y, Jiang X, Cheng L, Wu Y, Hou L, Li Y, Shao X, Zheng S, Zhang A, Zheng B, Jian S, Rong Z, Su Q, Gao X, Rao J, Shen Q, Xu H; Chinese Children Genetic Kidney Disease Database (CCGKDD); “Internet Plus” Nephrology Alliance of the National Center for Children’s Care
J Med Genet 2022 Feb;59(2):147-154. Epub 2020 Dec 15 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107184. PMID: 33323469
Iannicelli M, Brancati F, Mougou-Zerelli S, Mazzotta A, Thomas S, Elkhartoufi N, Travaglini L, Gomes C, Ardissino GL, Bertini E, Boltshauser E, Castorina P, D'Arrigo S, Fischetto R, Leroy B, Loget P, Bonnière M, Starck L, Tantau J, Gentilin B, Majore S, Swistun D, Flori E, Lalatta F, Pantaleoni C, Penzien J, Grammatico P; International JSRD Study Group, Dallapiccola B, Gleeson JG, Attie-Bitach T, Valente EM
Hum Mutat 2010 May;31(5):E1319-31. doi: 10.1002/humu.21239. PMID: 20232449Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Tang X, Liu C, Liu X, Chen J, Fan X, Liu J, Ma D, Cao G, Chen Z, Xu D, Zhu Y, Jiang X, Cheng L, Wu Y, Hou L, Li Y, Shao X, Zheng S, Zhang A, Zheng B, Jian S, Rong Z, Su Q, Gao X, Rao J, Shen Q, Xu H; Chinese Children Genetic Kidney Disease Database (CCGKDD); “Internet Plus” Nephrology Alliance of the National Center for Children’s Care
J Med Genet 2022 Feb;59(2):147-154. Epub 2020 Dec 15 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107184. PMID: 33323469
Park E, Lee JM, Ahn YH, Kang HG, Ha II, Lee JH, Park YS, Kim NK, Park WY, Cheong HI
Pediatr Nephrol 2016 Jan;31(1):113-9. Epub 2015 Aug 11 doi: 10.1007/s00467-015-3185-4. PMID: 26260382
Valente EM, Dallapiccola B, Bertini E
Handb Clin Neurol 2013;113:1879-88. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-59565-2.00058-7. PMID: 23622411
Tory K, Rousset-Rouvière C, Gubler MC, Morinière V, Pawtowski A, Becker C, Guyot C, Gié S, Frishberg Y, Nivet H, Deschênes G, Cochat P, Gagnadoux MF, Saunier S, Antignac C, Salomon R
Kidney Int 2009 Apr;75(8):839-47. Epub 2009 Jan 28 doi: 10.1038/ki.2008.662. PMID: 19177160
Scolari F, Viola BF, Ghiggeri GM, Caridi G, Amoroso A, Rampoldi L, Casari G
J Nephrol 2003 May-Jun;16(3):321-8. PMID: 12832729

Diagnosis

Birtel J, Spital G, Book M, Habbig S, Bäumner S, Riehmer V, Beck BB, Rosenkranz D, Bolz HJ, Dahmer-Heath M, Herrmann P, König J, Charbel Issa P
Kidney Int 2021 Nov;100(5):1092-1100. Epub 2021 Jun 19 doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2021.06.012. PMID: 34153329
Hudson R, Patel C, Hawley CM, O'Shea S, Snelling P, Ho G, Holman K, Bennetts B, Crawford J, Francis L, Simons C, Mallett A
Am J Kidney Dis 2020 Aug;76(2):282-287. Epub 2019 Dec 4 doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2019.08.031. PMID: 31810733
Kang HG, Lee HK, Ahn YH, Joung JG, Nam J, Kim NK, Ko JM, Cho MH, Shin JI, Kim J, Park HW, Park YS, Ha IS, Chung WY, Lee DY, Kim SY, Park WY, Cheong HI
Exp Mol Med 2016 Aug 5;48(8):e251. doi: 10.1038/emm.2016.63. PMID: 27491411Free PMC Article
Park E, Lee JM, Ahn YH, Kang HG, Ha II, Lee JH, Park YS, Kim NK, Park WY, Cheong HI
Pediatr Nephrol 2016 Jan;31(1):113-9. Epub 2015 Aug 11 doi: 10.1007/s00467-015-3185-4. PMID: 26260382
Valente EM, Dallapiccola B, Bertini E
Handb Clin Neurol 2013;113:1879-88. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-59565-2.00058-7. PMID: 23622411

Therapy

Gjerstad AC, Skrunes R, Tøndel C, Åsberg A, Leh S, Klingenberg C, Døllner H, Hammarstrøm C, Bjerre AK
Pediatr Nephrol 2023 Apr;38(4):1249-1256. Epub 2022 Aug 22 doi: 10.1007/s00467-022-05706-y. PMID: 35994104Free PMC Article
Derakhshan N, Derakhshan D, Torabinejad S, Derakhshan A
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2011 Jan;22(1):123-5. PMID: 21196627
Ala-Mello S, Kääriäinen H, Koskimies O
Pediatr Nephrol 2001 Jun;16(6):507-9. doi: 10.1007/s004670100597. PMID: 11420917
Henriksson C, Andersen HJ, Gustafsson A, Gelin LE
Acta Paediatr Scand 1975 Nov;64(6):833-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.1975.tb03933.x. PMID: 171908

Prognosis

Chen W, Wang F, Zeng W, Zhang X, Shen L, Zhang Y, Zhou X
Hum Genomics 2022 Oct 22;16(1):48. doi: 10.1186/s40246-022-00421-z. PMID: 36273201Free PMC Article
Birtel J, Spital G, Book M, Habbig S, Bäumner S, Riehmer V, Beck BB, Rosenkranz D, Bolz HJ, Dahmer-Heath M, Herrmann P, König J, Charbel Issa P
Kidney Int 2021 Nov;100(5):1092-1100. Epub 2021 Jun 19 doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2021.06.012. PMID: 34153329
Park E, Lee JM, Ahn YH, Kang HG, Ha II, Lee JH, Park YS, Kim NK, Park WY, Cheong HI
Pediatr Nephrol 2016 Jan;31(1):113-9. Epub 2015 Aug 11 doi: 10.1007/s00467-015-3185-4. PMID: 26260382
Al-Eisa AA, Samhan M, Naseef M
Transplant Proc 2004 Jul-Aug;36(6):1788-91. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2004.07.024. PMID: 15350478
Ozçay F, Derbent M, Demirhan B, Tokel K, Saatçi U
Pediatr Nephrol 2001 Aug;16(8):623-6. doi: 10.1007/s004670100627. PMID: 11519890

Clinical prediction guides

Chen W, Wang F, Zeng W, Zhang X, Shen L, Zhang Y, Zhou X
Hum Genomics 2022 Oct 22;16(1):48. doi: 10.1186/s40246-022-00421-z. PMID: 36273201Free PMC Article
Tang X, Liu C, Liu X, Chen J, Fan X, Liu J, Ma D, Cao G, Chen Z, Xu D, Zhu Y, Jiang X, Cheng L, Wu Y, Hou L, Li Y, Shao X, Zheng S, Zhang A, Zheng B, Jian S, Rong Z, Su Q, Gao X, Rao J, Shen Q, Xu H; Chinese Children Genetic Kidney Disease Database (CCGKDD); “Internet Plus” Nephrology Alliance of the National Center for Children’s Care
J Med Genet 2022 Feb;59(2):147-154. Epub 2020 Dec 15 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107184. PMID: 33323469
Chen IY, Whitney-Miller CL, Liao X
Diagn Pathol 2021 Aug 30;16(1):81. doi: 10.1186/s13000-021-01142-y. PMID: 34461951Free PMC Article
Park E, Lee JM, Ahn YH, Kang HG, Ha II, Lee JH, Park YS, Kim NK, Park WY, Cheong HI
Pediatr Nephrol 2016 Jan;31(1):113-9. Epub 2015 Aug 11 doi: 10.1007/s00467-015-3185-4. PMID: 26260382
Sun L, Tong H, Wang H, Yue Z, Liu T, Lin H, Li J, Wang C
Nephrology (Carlton) 2016 Mar;21(3):209-16. doi: 10.1111/nep.12563. PMID: 26184788

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