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Acute hepatitis

MedGen UID:
82759
Concept ID:
C0267797
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Acute Hepatitis; Acute liver inflammation
SNOMED CT: Acute hepatitis (37871000)
 
HPO: HP:0200119

Definition

Acute hepatic injury resulting from inflammation typically accompanied by increased serum alanine transaminase activity. Etiologies include viral hepatitis, drugs, toxins, and autoimmune disorders. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome
MedGen UID:
82815
Concept ID:
C0268540
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome is a disorder of the urea cycle and ornithine degradation pathway. Clinical manifestations and age of onset vary among individuals even in the same family. Neonatal onset (~8% of affected individuals). Manifestations of hyperammonemia usually begin 24-48 hours after feeding begins and can include lethargy, somnolence, refusal to feed, vomiting, tachypnea with respiratory alkalosis, and/or seizures. Infantile, childhood, and adult onset (~92%). Affected individuals may present with: Chronic neurocognitive deficits (including developmental delay, ataxia, spasticity, learning disabilities, cognitive deficits, and/or unexplained seizures); Acute encephalopathy secondary to hyperammonemic crisis precipitated by a variety of factors; and Chronic liver dysfunction (unexplained elevation of liver transaminases with or without mild coagulopathy, with or without mild hyperammonemia and protein intolerance). Neurologic findings and cognitive abilities can continue to deteriorate despite early metabolic control that prevents hyperammonemia.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Muratori L, Lohse AW, Lenzi M
BMJ 2023 Feb 6;380:e070201. doi: 10.1136/bmj-2022-070201. PMID: 36746473
Dekker SE, Green EW, Ahn J
Clin Liver Dis 2021 Nov;25(4):711-724. Epub 2021 Sep 9 doi: 10.1016/j.cld.2021.06.002. PMID: 34593149
Aslan AT, Balaban HY
World J Gastroenterol 2020 Oct 7;26(37):5543-5560. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v26.i37.5543. PMID: 33071523Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Hui W, Wei L
Adv Exp Med Biol 2023;1417:215-226. doi: 10.1007/978-981-99-1304-6_15. PMID: 37223869
Kwong S, Meyerson C, Zheng W, Kassardjian A, Stanzione N, Zhang K, Wang HL
Semin Diagn Pathol 2019 Nov;36(6):404-414. Epub 2019 Jul 24 doi: 10.1053/j.semdp.2019.07.005. PMID: 31405537
Hullegie SJ, Arends JE, Rijnders BJ, Irving WL, Salmon D, Prins M, Wensing AM, Klenerman P, Leblebicioglu H, Boesecke C, Rockstroh JK, Hoepelman AI
Clin Microbiol Infect 2015 Aug;21(8):797.e9-797.e17. Epub 2015 Apr 16 doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2015.03.026. PMID: 25892133
Maheshwari A, Ray S, Thuluvath PJ
Lancet 2008 Jul 26;372(9635):321-32. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61116-2. PMID: 18657711
Gitnick GL
West J Med 1978 Feb;128(2):117-26. PMID: 629050Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

The Lancet Gastroenterology Hepatology
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2023 Jun;8(6):493. doi: 10.1016/S2468-1253(23)00118-8. PMID: 37178696
Chen YH, Lou JG, Yang ZH, Chen QJ, Hua CZ, Ye S, Zhang CM, Chen J, Huang ZW, Yu JD, Gao ZG, Shu Q
World J Pediatr 2022 Aug;18(8):538-544. Epub 2022 Jun 30 doi: 10.1007/s12519-022-00581-x. PMID: 35771382Free PMC Article
Kwong S, Meyerson C, Zheng W, Kassardjian A, Stanzione N, Zhang K, Wang HL
Semin Diagn Pathol 2019 Nov;36(6):404-414. Epub 2019 Jul 24 doi: 10.1053/j.semdp.2019.07.005. PMID: 31405537
Maheshwari A, Ray S, Thuluvath PJ
Lancet 2008 Jul 26;372(9635):321-32. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61116-2. PMID: 18657711
Orland JR, Wright TL, Cooper S
Hepatology 2001 Feb;33(2):321-7. doi: 10.1053/jhep.2001.22112. PMID: 11172332

Therapy

Henriquez-Camacho C, Hijas-Gomez AI, Risco Risco C, Ruiz Lapuente MA, Escudero-Sanchez R, Cuerda VM
Viruses 2023 Nov 10;15(11) doi: 10.3390/v15112241. PMID: 38005918Free PMC Article
Hui W, Wei L
Adv Exp Med Biol 2023;1417:215-226. doi: 10.1007/978-981-99-1304-6_15. PMID: 37223869
Mastroianni A, Vangeli V, Greco S, Urso F, Greco F, Chidichimo L, Mauro MV
Antivir Ther 2021 May;26(3-5):87-92. Epub 2021 Sep 17 doi: 10.1177/13596535211041494. PMID: 35485329
Dekker SE, Green EW, Ahn J
Clin Liver Dis 2021 Nov;25(4):711-724. Epub 2021 Sep 9 doi: 10.1016/j.cld.2021.06.002. PMID: 34593149
Maheshwari A, Ray S, Thuluvath PJ
Lancet 2008 Jul 26;372(9635):321-32. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61116-2. PMID: 18657711

Prognosis

Terrault NA, Levy MT, Cheung KW, Jourdain G
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Feb;18(2):117-130. Epub 2020 Oct 12 doi: 10.1038/s41575-020-00361-w. PMID: 33046891
Asrani SK, Devarbhavi H, Eaton J, Kamath PS
J Hepatol 2019 Jan;70(1):151-171. Epub 2018 Sep 26 doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2018.09.014. PMID: 30266282
Nabi T, Nabi S, Rafiq N, Shah A
Saudi J Gastroenterol 2017 May-Jun;23(3):169-175. doi: 10.4103/1319-3767.207711. PMID: 28611340Free PMC Article
Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, Lim S, Shibuya K, Aboyans V, Abraham J, Adair T, Aggarwal R, Ahn SY, Alvarado M, Anderson HR, Anderson LM, Andrews KG, Atkinson C, Baddour LM, Barker-Collo S, Bartels DH, Bell ML, Benjamin EJ, Bennett D, Bhalla K, Bikbov B, Bin Abdulhak A, Birbeck G, Blyth F, Bolliger I, Boufous S, Bucello C, Burch M, Burney P, Carapetis J, Chen H, Chou D, Chugh SS, Coffeng LE, Colan SD, Colquhoun S, Colson KE, Condon J, Connor MD, Cooper LT, Corriere M, Cortinovis M, de Vaccaro KC, Couser W, Cowie BC, Criqui MH, Cross M, Dabhadkar KC, Dahodwala N, De Leo D, Degenhardt L, Delossantos A, Denenberg J, Des Jarlais DC, Dharmaratne SD, Dorsey ER, Driscoll T, Duber H, Ebel B, Erwin PJ, Espindola P, Ezzati M, Feigin V, Flaxman AD, Forouzanfar MH, Fowkes FG, Franklin R, Fransen M, Freeman MK, Gabriel SE, Gakidou E, Gaspari F, Gillum RF, Gonzalez-Medina D, Halasa YA, Haring D, Harrison JE, Havmoeller R, Hay RJ, Hoen B, Hotez PJ, Hoy D, Jacobsen KH, James SL, Jasrasaria R, Jayaraman S, Johns N, Karthikeyan G, Kassebaum N, Keren A, Khoo JP, Knowlton LM, Kobusingye O, Koranteng A, Krishnamurthi R, Lipnick M, Lipshultz SE, Ohno SL, Mabweijano J, MacIntyre MF, Mallinger L, March L, Marks GB, Marks R, Matsumori A, Matzopoulos R, Mayosi BM, McAnulty JH, McDermott MM, McGrath J, Mensah GA, Merriman TR, Michaud C, Miller M, Miller TR, Mock C, Mocumbi AO, Mokdad AA, Moran A, Mulholland K, Nair MN, Naldi L, Narayan KM, Nasseri K, Norman P, O'Donnell M, Omer SB, Ortblad K, Osborne R, Ozgediz D, Pahari B, Pandian JD, Rivero AP, Padilla RP, Perez-Ruiz F, Perico N, Phillips D, Pierce K, Pope CA 3rd, Porrini E, Pourmalek F, Raju M, Ranganathan D, Rehm JT, Rein DB, Remuzzi G, Rivara FP, Roberts T, De León FR, Rosenfeld LC, Rushton L, Sacco RL, Salomon JA, Sampson U, Sanman E, Schwebel DC, Segui-Gomez M, Shepard DS, Singh D, Singleton J, Sliwa K, Smith E, Steer A, Taylor JA, Thomas B, Tleyjeh IM, Towbin JA, Truelsen T, Undurraga EA, Venketasubramanian N, Vijayakumar L, Vos T, Wagner GR, Wang M, Wang W, Watt K, Weinstock MA, Weintraub R, Wilkinson JD, Woolf AD, Wulf S, Yeh PH, Yip P, Zabetian A, Zheng ZJ, Lopez AD, Murray CJ, AlMazroa MA, Memish ZA
Lancet 2012 Dec 15;380(9859):2095-128. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0. PMID: 23245604Free PMC Article
Orland JR, Wright TL, Cooper S
Hepatology 2001 Feb;33(2):321-7. doi: 10.1053/jhep.2001.22112. PMID: 11172332

Clinical prediction guides

Geng Y, Shi T, Wang Y
Adv Exp Med Biol 2023;1417:33-48. doi: 10.1007/978-981-99-1304-6_3. PMID: 37223857
Dalekos GN, Samakidou A, Lyberopoulou A, Banakou E, Gatselis NK
Pol Arch Intern Med 2022 Sep 26;132(9) Epub 2022 Sep 7 doi: 10.20452/pamw.16334. PMID: 36093593
Lenggenhager D, Weber A
Hum Pathol 2020 Feb;96:34-38. Epub 2019 Oct 27 doi: 10.1016/j.humpath.2019.10.003. PMID: 31666196
Kang SH, Kim MY, Baik SK
J Korean Med Sci 2019 Sep 23;34(36):e230. doi: 10.3346/jkms.2019.34.e230. PMID: 31538417Free PMC Article
Marrone G, Biolato M, Mercurio G, Capobianchi MR, Garbuglia AR, Liguori A, Vassallo G, Gasbarrini A, Miele L, Grieco A
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2019 Jan;23(2):764-770. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_201901_16891. PMID: 30720185

Recent systematic reviews

Henriquez-Camacho C, Hijas-Gomez AI, Risco Risco C, Ruiz Lapuente MA, Escudero-Sanchez R, Cuerda VM
Viruses 2023 Nov 10;15(11) doi: 10.3390/v15112241. PMID: 38005918Free PMC Article
Takuissu GR, Kenmoe S, Ndip L, Ebogo-Belobo JT, Kengne-Ndé C, Mbaga DS, Bowo-Ngandji A, Oyono MG, Kenfack-Momo R, Tchatchouang S, Kenfack-Zanguim J, Lontuo Fogang R, Zeuko'o Menkem E, Kame-Ngasse GI, Magoudjou-Pekam JN, Nkie Esemu S, Veneri C, Mancini P, Bonanno Ferraro G, Iaconelli M, Suffredini E, La Rosa G
Food Environ Virol 2022 Sep;14(3):223-235. Epub 2022 Aug 29 doi: 10.1007/s12560-022-09530-3. PMID: 36036329Free PMC Article
Piloiu C, Dumitrascu DL
Am J Ther 2021 Feb 3;28(3):e335-e340. doi: 10.1097/MJT.0000000000001341. PMID: 33590990
Hassan-Kadle MA, Osman MS, Ogurtsov PP
World J Gastroenterol 2018 Sep 14;24(34):3927-3957. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i34.3927. PMID: 30228786Free PMC Article
Kamal SM
Am J Gastroenterol 2008 May;103(5):1283-97; quiz 1298. doi: 10.1111/j.1572-0241.2008.01825.x. PMID: 18477352

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