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Epidermal nevus

MedGen UID:
83106
Concept ID:
C0334082
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Nevus, epidermal, somatic; NEVUS, KERATINOCYTIC, NONEPIDERMOLYTIC
SNOMED CT: Epidermal nevus (239107007); Epidermal nevus (25201003); Epithelial nevus (25201003)
 
Genes (locations): FGFR3 (4p16.3); HRAS (11p15.5); NRAS (1p13.2); PIK3CA (3q26.32)
 
HPO: HP:0010816
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0008093
OMIM®: 162900

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum
PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) encompasses a range of clinical findings in which the core features are congenital or early-childhood onset of segmental/focal overgrowth with or without cellular dysplasia. Prior to the identification of PIK3CA as the causative gene, PROS was separated into distinct clinical syndromes based on the tissues and/or organs involved (e.g., MCAP [megalencephaly-capillary malformation] syndrome and CLOVES [congenital lipomatous asymmetric overgrowth of the trunk, lymphatic, capillary, venous, and combined-type vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, skeletal and spinal anomalies] syndrome). The predominant areas of overgrowth include the brain, limbs (including fingers and toes), trunk (including abdomen and chest), and face, all usually in an asymmetric distribution. Generalized brain overgrowth may be accompanied by secondary overgrowth of specific brain structures resulting in ventriculomegaly, a markedly thick corpus callosum, and cerebellar tonsillar ectopia with crowding of the posterior fossa. Vascular malformations may include capillary, venous, and less frequently, arterial or mixed (capillary-lymphatic-venous or arteriovenous) malformations. Lymphatic malformations may be in various locations (internal and/or external) and can cause various clinical issues, including swelling, pain, and occasionally localized bleeding secondary to trauma. Lipomatous overgrowth may occur ipsilateral or contralateral to a vascular malformation, if present. The degree of intellectual disability appears to be mostly related to the presence and severity of seizures, cortical dysplasia (e.g., polymicrogyria), and hydrocephalus. Many children have feeding difficulties that are often multifactorial in nature. Endocrine issues affect a small number of individuals and most commonly include hypoglycemia (largely hypoinsulinemic hypoketotic hypoglycemia), hypothyroidism, and growth hormone deficiency. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Ghayda Mirzaa  |  John M Graham  |  Kim Keppler-Noreuil   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
Epidermal nevi are congenital lesions that affect about 1 in 1,000 people. They appear at or shortly after birth as localized epidermal thickening with hyperpigmentation that frequently follow the lines of Blaschko, suggesting that they result from postzygotic somatic mutation in the skin (Paller et al., 1994). A rare subgroup of epidermal nevi is clinically indistinguishable from other epidermal nevi, but displays histopathologic features typical of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (see EHK, 113800), and patients with this type of epidermal nevi sometimes have offspring with generalized EHK (Paller et al., 1994). Woolly hair nevus is a rare condition characterized by the development of woolly hair in a restricted area on the scalp, either present at birth or becoming evident later in life when scalp hair begins to grow. Woolly hair nevus can be an isolated finding or can occur in association with additional ectodermal defects; epidermal nevi have been reported in association with woolly hair nevi (summary by Ramot and Zlotogorski, 2015). Nevus sebaceous, a benign congenital skin lesion that preferentially affects the scalp and face, is characterized by hairless, yellow-orange plaques of various size and shape. Histology shows that nevus sebaceous is a hamartoma consisting of epidermal, sebaceous, and apocrine elements. About 24% of nevi develop secondary tumors, some of which may be malignant (summary by Groesser et al., 2012). Also see giant pigmented hairy nevus (137550) and malignant melanoma (155600).  http://www.omim.org/entry/162900
From MedlinePlus Genetics
An epidermal nevus (plural: nevi) is an abnormal, noncancerous (benign) patch of skin caused by an overgrowth of cells in the outermost layer of skin (epidermis). Epidermal nevi are typically seen at birth or develop in early childhood. Affected individuals have one or more nevi that vary in size.

There are several types of epidermal nevus that are defined in part by the type of epidermal cell involved. The epidermis is composed primarily of a specific cell type called a keratinocyte. One group of epidermal nevi, called keratinocytic or nonorganoid epidermal nevi, includes nevi that involve only keratinocytes. Keratinocytic epidermal nevi are typically found on the torso or limbs. They can be flat, tan or brown patches of skin or raised, velvety patches. As affected individuals age, the nevi can become thicker and darker and develop a wart-like (verrucous) appearance. Often, keratinocytic epidermal nevi follow a pattern on the skin known as the lines of Blaschko. The lines of Blaschko, which are normally invisible on skin, are thought to follow the paths along which cells migrate as the skin develops before birth. Keratinocytic epidermal nevi are also known as linear epidermal nevi or verrucous epidermal nevi, based on characteristics of their appearance.

Other types of epidermal nevi involve additional types of epidermal cells, such as the cells that make up the hair follicles, the sweat glands, or the sebaceous glands (glands in the skin that produce a substance that protects the skin and hair). These nevi comprise a group called organoid epidermal nevi. A common type of organoid epidermal nevus is called nevus sebaceous. Nevi in this group are waxy, yellow-orange patches of skin, usually on the scalp or face. The patch is typically hairless, leaving a distinct region of baldness (alopecia). Similar to keratinocytic epidermal nevi, nevi sebaceous can become thicker and more verrucous over time. In about one-quarter of people with a nevus sebaceous, a tumor forms in the same region as the nevus. The tumor is usually benign, although rarely cancerous (malignant) tumors develop.

Some affected individuals have only an epidermal nevus and no other abnormalities. However, sometimes people with an epidermal nevus also have problems in other body systems, such as the brain, eyes, or bones. In these cases, the affected individual has a condition called an epidermal nevus syndrome. There are several different epidermal nevus syndromes characterized by the type of epidermal nevus involved.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/epidermal-nevus

Clinical features

From HPO
Melanocytic nevus
MedGen UID:
14364
Concept ID:
C0027962
Neoplastic Process
A oval and round, colored (usually medium-to dark brown, reddish brown, or flesh colored) lesion. Typically, a melanocytic nevus is less than 6 mm in diameter, but may be much smaller or larger.
Numerous nevi
MedGen UID:
341508
Concept ID:
C1849677
Finding

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVEpidermal nevus
Follow this link to review classifications for Epidermal nevus in Orphanet.

Conditions with this feature

Seborrheic keratosis
MedGen UID:
5957
Concept ID:
C0022603
Neoplastic Process
Seborrheic keratoses are common benign epidermal lesion that can develop on any part of the body.
Proteus syndrome
MedGen UID:
39008
Concept ID:
C0085261
Neoplastic Process
Proteus syndrome is characterized by progressive segmental or patchy overgrowth most commonly affecting the skeleton, skin, adipose, and central nervous systems. In most individuals Proteus syndrome has modest or no manifestations at birth, develops and progresses rapidly beginning in the toddler period, and relentlessly progresses through childhood, causing severe overgrowth and disfigurement. It is associated with a range of tumors, pulmonary complications, and a striking predisposition to deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.
Child syndrome
MedGen UID:
82697
Concept ID:
C0265267
Disease or Syndrome
The NSDHL-related disorders include: CHILD (congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects) syndrome, an X-linked condition that is usually male lethal during gestation and thus predominantly affects females; and CK syndrome, an X-linked disorder that affects males. CHILD syndrome is characterized by unilateral distribution of ichthyosiform (yellow scaly) skin lesions and ipsilateral limb defects that range from shortening of the metacarpals and phalanges to absence of the entire limb. Intellect is usually normal. The ichthyosiform skin lesions are usually present at birth or in the first weeks of life; new lesions can develop in later life. Nail changes are also common. The heart, lung, and kidneys can also be involved. CK syndrome (named for the initials of the original proband) is characterized by mild to severe cognitive impairment and behavior problems (aggression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and irritability). All affected males reported have developed seizures in infancy and have cerebral cortical malformations and microcephaly. All have distinctive facial features, a thin habitus, and relatively long, thin fingers and toes. Some have scoliosis and kyphosis. Strabismus is common. Optic atrophy is also reported.
Dermatofibrosis lenticularis disseminata
MedGen UID:
120545
Concept ID:
C0265514
Disease or Syndrome
Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome (BOS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder manifest by multiple subcutaneous nevi or nodules. They may be either elastin-rich (elastoma) or collagen-rich (dermatofibrosis lenticularis disseminata) on histologic examination. The lesions are usually nontender and firm. Affected individuals also have osteopoikilosis (OPK), literally meaning 'spotted bones,' which are osteosclerotic foci that occur in the epiphyses and metaphyses of long bones, wrist, foot, ankle, pelvis, and scapula. Some individuals have both skin and bone manifestations, whereas others may lack skin or bone manifestations. Some individuals may also have melorheostosis (155950), which is characterized by 'flowing' hyperostosis of the cortex of tubular bones. Most reported cases of BOS and OPK are benign, and the bone lesions are found incidentally, although some patients may have joint pain (reviews by Hellemans et al., 2004 and Zhang et al., 2009).
Toriello-Lacassie-Droste syndrome
MedGen UID:
333068
Concept ID:
C1838329
Disease or Syndrome
Oculoectodermal syndrome (OES) is characterized by the association of epibulbar dermoids and aplasia cutis congenita. Affected individuals exhibit congenital scalp lesions which are atrophic, nonscarring, hairless regions that are often multiple and asymmetric in distribution, and may have associated hamartomas. Ectodermal changes include linear hyperpigmentation that may follow the lines of Blaschko and, rarely, epidermal nevus-like lesions. Epibulbar dermoids may be uni- or bilateral. Additional ocular anomalies such as skin tags of the upper eyelid and rarely optic nerve or retinal changes or microphthalmia can be present. Phenotypic expression is highly variable, and various other abnormalities have occasionally been reported, including growth failure, lymphedema, and cardiovascular defects, as well as neurodevelopmental symptoms such as developmental delay, epilepsy, learning difficulties, and behavioral abnormalities. Benign tumor-like lesions such as nonossifying fibromas of the long bones and giant cell granulomas of the jaws have repeatedly been observed and appear to be age-dependent, becoming a common manifestation in individuals aged 5 years or older (summary by Boppudi et al., 2016).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Paasch U, Zidane M, Baron JM, Bund T, Cappius HJ, Drosner M, Feise K, Fischer T, Gauglitz G, Gerber PA, Grunewald S, Herberger K, Jung A, Karsai S, Kautz G, Philipp C, Schädel D, Seitz AT, Nast A
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2022 Sep;20(9):1248-1267. Epub 2022 Sep 13 doi: 10.1111/ddg.14879. PMID: 36098675
Ovejero D, Lim YH, Boyce AM, Gafni RI, McCarthy E, Nguyen TA, Eichenfield LF, DeKlotz CM, Guthrie LC, Tosi LL, Thornton PS, Choate KA, Collins MT
Osteoporos Int 2016 Dec;27(12):3615-3626. Epub 2016 Aug 6 doi: 10.1007/s00198-016-3702-8. PMID: 27497815Free PMC Article
Flores-Sarnat L, Sarnat HB
Handb Clin Neurol 2015;132:9-25. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-62702-5.00002-0. PMID: 26564069

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Atzmony L, Ugwu N, Hamilton C, Paller AS, Zech L, Antaya RJ, Choate KA
Pediatr Dermatol 2022 Nov;39(6):903-907. Epub 2022 Jul 19 doi: 10.1111/pde.15094. PMID: 35853659Free PMC Article
Asch S, Sugarman JL
Handb Clin Neurol 2015;132:291-316. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-62702-5.00022-6. PMID: 26564089
Flores-Sarnat L, Sarnat HB
Handb Clin Neurol 2015;132:9-25. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-62702-5.00002-0. PMID: 26564069
Laura FS
Handb Clin Neurol 2013;111:349-68. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52891-9.00041-5. PMID: 23622186
Lefkowitz A, Schwartz RA, Lambert WC
Dermatology 1999;199(3):204-7. doi: 10.1159/000018275. PMID: 10592398

Diagnosis

Rivera-Silva G, Moreno-Treviño MG
Pan Afr Med J 2023;45:146. Epub 2023 Aug 2 doi: 10.11604/pamj.2023.45.146.40966. PMID: 37808438Free PMC Article
Atzmony L, Ugwu N, Hamilton C, Paller AS, Zech L, Antaya RJ, Choate KA
Pediatr Dermatol 2022 Nov;39(6):903-907. Epub 2022 Jul 19 doi: 10.1111/pde.15094. PMID: 35853659Free PMC Article
Resende C, Araújo C, Vieira AP, Ventura F, Brito C
Dermatol Online J 2013 Oct 16;19(10):20026. PMID: 24139367
Gonzalez ME, Jabbari A, Tlougan BE, Mandal R, Schaffer JV
Dermatol Online J 2010 Nov 15;16(11):12. PMID: 21163163
Sugarman JL
Semin Cutan Med Surg 2007 Dec;26(4):221-30. doi: 10.1016/j.sder.2008.03.006. PMID: 18395670

Therapy

Atzmony L, Ugwu N, Hamilton C, Paller AS, Zech L, Antaya RJ, Choate KA
Pediatr Dermatol 2022 Nov;39(6):903-907. Epub 2022 Jul 19 doi: 10.1111/pde.15094. PMID: 35853659Free PMC Article
Athonvarangkul D, Insogna KL
Calcif Tissue Int 2021 Jan;108(1):143-157. Epub 2020 Jun 5 doi: 10.1007/s00223-020-00705-3. PMID: 32504139
Makins C, Sanghera R, Grewal PS
J Cutan Med Surg 2020 May/Jun;24(3):292-296. Epub 2020 Mar 5 doi: 10.1177/1203475420909794. PMID: 32133868
Lamb YN
Drugs 2018 Apr;78(6):707-714. doi: 10.1007/s40265-018-0905-7. PMID: 29679282
Kim R, Marmon S, Kaplan J, Kamino H, Pomeranz MK
Dermatol Online J 2013 Dec 16;19(12):20707. PMID: 24364998

Prognosis

Theiler M, Weibel L, Christen-Zaech S, Carmignac V, Sorlin A, Neuhaus K, Chevarin M, Thauvin-Robinet C, Philippe C, Faivre L, Vabres P, Kuentz P
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2021 Oct;35(10):2085-2090. Epub 2021 May 22 doi: 10.1111/jdv.17319. PMID: 33930231
Goel P, Wolfswinkel EM, Fahradyan A, Tsuha M, Hough M, Magee W 3rd, Hammoudeh JA, Urata MM, Howell LK
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Gupta A, Rai R
Indian Pediatr 2019 Nov 15;56(11):981. PMID: 31729336
Flores-Sarnat L, Sarnat HB
Handb Clin Neurol 2015;132:9-25. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-62702-5.00002-0. PMID: 26564069
Menascu S, Donner EJ
Pediatr Neurol 2008 Mar;38(3):207-10. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2007.10.012. PMID: 18279757

Clinical prediction guides

Ovejero D, Lim YH, Boyce AM, Gafni RI, McCarthy E, Nguyen TA, Eichenfield LF, DeKlotz CM, Guthrie LC, Tosi LL, Thornton PS, Choate KA, Collins MT
Osteoporos Int 2016 Dec;27(12):3615-3626. Epub 2016 Aug 6 doi: 10.1007/s00198-016-3702-8. PMID: 27497815Free PMC Article
Flores-Sarnat L, Sarnat HB
Handb Clin Neurol 2015;132:9-25. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-62702-5.00002-0. PMID: 26564069
Cohen MM Jr
Clin Genet 2014 Feb;85(2):111-9. Epub 2013 Oct 23 doi: 10.1111/cge.12266. PMID: 23992099
Kim R, Marmon S, Kaplan J, Kamino H, Pomeranz MK
Dermatol Online J 2013 Dec 16;19(12):20707. PMID: 24364998
Yokogawa M, Kamakura T, Ishiguro H, Ikeda M, Kodama H
J Dermatol 2005 Jan;32(1):30-3. doi: 10.1111/j.1346-8138.2005.tb00710.x. PMID: 15841658

Recent systematic reviews

Litaiem N, Chabchoub I, Bacha T, Slouma M, Zeglaoui F, Khachemoune A
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2020 Sep;36(5):339-350. Epub 2020 Jul 24 doi: 10.1111/phpp.12590. PMID: 32645757
Atarbashi-Moghadam S, Atarbashi-Moghadam F, Sijanivandi S, Mokhtari S
J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg 2020 Apr;121(2):146-149. Epub 2019 Jul 20 doi: 10.1016/j.jormas.2019.07.010. PMID: 31336213

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