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Wooly hair-palmoplantar keratoderma syndrome(PPKWH)

MedGen UID:
863639
Concept ID:
C4015202
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Palmoplantar keratoderma and woolly hair; Woolly hair-palmoplantar keratoderma syndrome
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): KANK2 (19p13.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014492
OMIM®: 616099
Orphanet: ORPHA420686

Definition

Palmoplantar keratoderma and woolly hair (PPKWH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the presence of these cardinal features and the absence of cardiomyopathy symptoms or findings on echocardiography and electrocardiogram. Palmoplantar keratoderma is of the striate type; hair is generally sparse; and leukonychia is present (Ramot et al., 2014). [from OMIM]

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
Cardiomyopathy, which is a disease of the heart muscle, is a life-threatening health problem that can develop in people with keratoderma with woolly hair. Unlike the other features of this condition, signs and symptoms of cardiomyopathy may not appear until adolescence or later. Complications of cardiomyopathy can include an abnormal heartbeat (arrhythmia), heart failure, and sudden death.

Keratoderma with woolly hair comprises several related conditions with overlapping signs and symptoms. Researchers have recently proposed classifying keratoderma with woolly hair into four types, based on the underlying genetic cause. Type I, also known as Naxos disease, is characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma, woolly hair, and a form of cardiomyopathy called arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Type II, also known as Carvajal syndrome, has hair and skin abnormalities similar to type I but features a different form of cardiomyopathy, called dilated left ventricular cardiomyopathy. Type III also has signs and symptoms similar to those of type I, including ARVC, although the hair and skin abnormalities are often milder. Type IV is characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma and woolly and sparse hair, as well as abnormal fingernails and toenails. Type IV does not appear to cause cardiomyopathy.

Keratoderma with woolly hair is a group of related conditions that affect the skin and hair and in many cases increase the risk of potentially life-threatening heart problems. People with these conditions have hair that is unusually coarse, dry, fine, and tightly curled. In some cases, the hair is also sparse. The woolly hair texture typically affects only scalp hair and is present from birth. Starting early in life, affected individuals also develop palmoplantar keratoderma, a condition that causes skin on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet to become thick, scaly, and calloused.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/keratoderma-with-woolly-hair

Clinical features

From HPO
Palmoplantar keratoderma
MedGen UID:
1635750
Concept ID:
C4551675
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormal thickening of the skin of the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.
Sparse eyebrow
MedGen UID:
371332
Concept ID:
C1832446
Finding
Decreased density/number of eyebrow hairs.
Sparse scalp hair
MedGen UID:
346499
Concept ID:
C1857042
Finding
Decreased number of hairs per unit area of skin of the scalp.
Leukonychia
MedGen UID:
68698
Concept ID:
C0240182
Finding
White discoloration of the nails.
Wooly hair
MedGen UID:
87469
Concept ID:
C0343073
Finding
The term woolly hair refers to an abnormal variant of hair that is fine, with tightly coiled curls, and often hypopigmented. Optical microscopy may reveal the presence of tight spirals and a clear diameter reduction as compared with normal hair. Electron microscopy may show flat, oval hair shafts with reduced transversal diameter.
Sparse eyelashes
MedGen UID:
375151
Concept ID:
C1843300
Finding
Decreased density/number of eyelashes.
Sparse body hair
MedGen UID:
350775
Concept ID:
C1862863
Finding
Sparseness of the body hair.
Amniotic constriction ring
MedGen UID:
315953
Concept ID:
C1527388
Congenital Abnormality
Annular constrictions around the digits, limbs, or trunk, occurring congenitally (sometimes causing intrauterine autoamputation) and also associated with a wide variety of disorders. Constrictive amniotic bands are the result of primary amniotic rupture, which can lead to entanglement of fetal tissue (especially limbs) in fibrous amniotic strands.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVWooly hair-palmoplantar keratoderma syndrome

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