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Lissencephaly 8(LIS8)

MedGen UID:
934613
Concept ID:
C4310646
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: LIS8
 
Gene (location): TMTC3 (12q21.32)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014992
OMIM®: 617255

Definition

Lissencephaly-8 (LIS8) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability with poor or absent speech, early-onset refractory seizures, and hypotonia. Brain imaging shows variable features, including cortical gyral abnormalities and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, brainstem, and cerebellum (Jerber et al., 2016). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity lissencephaly, see LIS1 (607432). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Clubfoot
MedGen UID:
3130
Concept ID:
C0009081
Congenital Abnormality
Clubfoot is a congenital limb deformity defined as fixation of the foot in cavus, adductus, varus, and equinus (i.e., inclined inwards, axially rotated outwards, and pointing downwards) with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities (Cardy et al., 2007). Clubfoot may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome (e.g., diastrophic dysplasia, 222600). Clubfoot has been reported with deficiency of long bones and mirror-image polydactyly (Gurnett et al., 2008; Klopocki et al., 2012).
Occipital encephalocele
MedGen UID:
4935
Concept ID:
C0014067
Congenital Abnormality
A type of encephalocele (that is, a a protrusion of part of the cranial contents including brain tissue through a congenital opening in the cranium, typically covered with skin or mucous membrane) in the occipital region of the skull. Occipital encephalocele presents as a midline swelling over the occipital bone. It is usually covered with normal full-thickness scalp.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Delayed ability to walk
MedGen UID:
66034
Concept ID:
C0241726
Finding
A failure to achieve the ability to walk at an appropriate developmental stage. Most children learn to walk in a series of stages, and learn to walk short distances independently between 12 and 15 months.
Polymicrogyria
MedGen UID:
78605
Concept ID:
C0266464
Congenital Abnormality
Polymicrogyria is a congenital malformation of the cerebral cortex characterized by abnormal cortical layering (lamination) and an excessive number of small gyri (folds).
Cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120578
Concept ID:
C0266470
Congenital Abnormality
Cerebellar hypoplasia is a descriptive term implying a cerebellum with a reduced volume, but a normal shape and is stable over time.
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Cobblestone lissencephaly
MedGen UID:
96562
Concept ID:
C0431376
Congenital Abnormality
A form of lissencephaly characterized by an uneven cortical surface with a so called 'cobblestone' appearace. There are no distinguishable cortical layers.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Autistic behavior
MedGen UID:
163547
Concept ID:
C0856975
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Persistent deficits in social interaction and communication and interaction as well as a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest as well as repetitive patterns of behavior.
Delayed gross motor development
MedGen UID:
332508
Concept ID:
C1837658
Finding
A type of motor delay characterized by a delay in acquiring the ability to control the large muscles of the body for walking, running, sitting, and crawling.
Hypoplasia of the brainstem
MedGen UID:
334226
Concept ID:
C1842688
Finding
Underdevelopment of the brainstem.
Retrocerebellar cyst
MedGen UID:
335172
Concept ID:
C1845370
Finding
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Agyria
MedGen UID:
361827
Concept ID:
C1879312
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital abnormality of the cerebral hemisphere characterized by lack of gyrations (convolutions) of the cerebral cortex. Agyria is defined as cortical regions lacking gyration with sulci great than 3 cm apart and cerebral cortex thicker than 5 mm.
Cerebral hypomyelination
MedGen UID:
383084
Concept ID:
C2677328
Finding
Reduced amount of myelin in the nervous system resulting from defective myelinogenesis in the white matter of the central nervous system.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Delayed fine motor development
MedGen UID:
869257
Concept ID:
C4023681
Finding
A type of motor delay characterized by a delay in acquiring the ability to control the fingers and hands.
Appendicular spasticity
MedGen UID:
937224
Concept ID:
C4313257
Finding
A type of spasticity that affects one or more limbs (arms or legs).
Muscular atrophy
MedGen UID:
892680
Concept ID:
C0541794
Pathologic Function
The presence of skeletal muscular atrophy (which is also known as amyotrophy).
Axial hypotonia
MedGen UID:
342959
Concept ID:
C1853743
Finding
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) affecting the musculature of the trunk.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Elevated circulating creatine kinase concentration
MedGen UID:
69128
Concept ID:
C0241005
Finding
An elevation of the level of the enzyme creatine kinase (also known as creatine phosphokinase (CK; EC 2.7.3.2) in the blood. CK levels can be elevated in a number of clinical disorders such as myocardial infarction, rhabdomyolysis, and muscular dystrophy.
Microphthalmia
MedGen UID:
10033
Concept ID:
C0026010
Congenital Abnormality
Microphthalmia is an eye abnormality that arises before birth. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have a condition called coloboma. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or in the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain. Colobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract) and a narrowed opening of the eye (narrowed palpebral fissure). Additionally, affected individuals may have an abnormality called microcornea, in which the clear front covering of the eye (cornea) is small and abnormally curved.\n\nBetween one-third and one-half of affected individuals have microphthalmia as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When microphthalmia occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the optic nerve. Optic atrophy results from the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve and manifesting as a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Disease or Syndrome
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

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Recent clinical studies

Etiology

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Diagnosis

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Therapy

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Prognosis

ENSO Working Group
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Clinical prediction guides

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ENSO Working Group
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Recent systematic reviews

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