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Episodic kinesigenic dyskinesia 1(EKD1)

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Dystonia 10; EKD1; Familial Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia; Paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis; PxMD-PRRT2
Gene (location): PRRT2 (16p11.2)
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0100352
OMIM®: 128200

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: PRRT2-Associated Paroxysmal Movement Disorders
PRRT2-associated paroxysmal movement disorders (PRRT2-PxMD) include paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE), paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC), and hemiplegic migraine (HM). In addition, PRRT2 pathogenic variants have been identified in other childhood-onset movement disorders and different types of seizures, suggesting that the understanding of the spectrum of PRRT2-PxMD is still evolving. The paroxysmal attacks in PKD are characterized by dystonia, choreoathetosis, and less commonly ballismus. The seizures of BFIE are usually focal with or without generalization. Thirty percent of PRRT2-associated PKD is associated with BFIE and is referred to as PKD/IC. [from GeneReviews]
Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari  |  Christelle Moufawad El Achkar  |  Christine Klein   view full author information

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
Familial paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by episodes of abnormal movement that range from mild to severe. In the condition name, the word paroxysmal indicates that the abnormal movements come and go over time, kinesigenic means that episodes are triggered by movement, and dyskinesia refers to involuntary movement of the body.

People with familial paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia experience episodes of irregular jerking or shaking movements that are brought on by sudden motion, such as standing up quickly or being startled. An episode may involve slow, prolonged muscle contractions (dystonia); small, fast, "dance-like" motions (chorea); writhing movements of the limbs (athetosis); or, rarely, flailing movements of the limbs (ballismus). 

Familial paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia may affect one or both sides of the body. The type of abnormal movement varies among affected individuals, even among members of the same family. In many people with familial paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, a pattern of symptoms called an aura immediately precedes the episode. The aura is often described as a crawling or tingling sensation in the affected body part. Individuals with this condition do not lose consciousness during an episode and do not experience any symptoms between episodes.

Individuals with familial paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia usually first experience episodes during childhood or adolescence.  Episodes typically last less than five minutes, and the frequency of episodes ranges from one per month to 100 per day. In most affected individuals, episodes occur less often with age.

In some people with familial paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia the disorder begins in infancy with recurring seizures characteristic of those in a condition called benign familial infantile seizures. These seizures usually develop in the first year of life and stop by age 3. When benign familial infantile seizures are associated with familial paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, the condition is known as infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis (ICCA). In families with ICCA, some individuals develop only benign familial infantile seizures, some have only familial paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia, and others have ICCA, which has features of both conditions.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/familial-paroxysmal-kinesigenic-dyskinesia

Clinical features

From HPO
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Orofacial dyskinesia
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Syndromes which feature dyskinesias as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.
Paroxysmal dystonia
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Sign or Symptom
A form of dystonia characterized by episodes of dystonia (often hemidystonia or generalized) lasting from minutes to hours. There are no dystonic symptoms between episodes.
Paroxysmal choreoathetosis
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Episodes of choreoathetosis that can occur following triggers such as quick voluntary movements.
Infantile spasms
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile spasms represent a subset of "epileptic spasms". Infantile Spasms are epileptic spasms starting in the first year of life (infancy).

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  

Professional guidelines


Cao L, Huang X, Wang N, Wu Z, Zhang C, Gu W, Cong S, Ma J, Wei L, Deng Y, Fang Q, Niu Q, Wang J, Wang Z, Yin Y, Tian J, Tian S, Bi H, Jiang H, Liu X, Lü Y, Sun M, Wu J, Xu E, Chen T, Chen T, Chen X, Li W, Li S, Li Q, Song X, Tang Y, Yang P, Yang Y, Zhang M, Zhang X, Zhang Y, Zhang R, Ouyang Y, Yu J, Hu Q, Ke Q, Yao Y, Zhao Z, Zhao X, Zhao G, Liang F, Cheng N, Han J, Peng R, Chen S, Tang B
Transl Neurodegener 2021 Feb 16;10(1):7. doi: 10.1186/s40035-021-00231-8. PMID: 33588936Free PMC Article
Balagura G, Riva A, Marchese F, Iacomino M, Madia F, Giacomini T, Mancardi MM, Amadori E, Vari MS, Salpietro V, Russo A, Messana T, Vignoli A, Chiesa V, Giordano L, Accorsi P, Caffi L, Orsini A, Bonuccelli A, Santucci M, Vecchi M, Vanadia F, Milito G, Fusco C, Cricchiutti G, Carpentieri M, Margari L, Spalice A, Beccaria F, Benfenati F, Zara F, Striano P
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2020 Sep;28:193-197. Epub 2020 Jun 23 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2020.06.005. PMID: 32651081
Latorre A, Bhatia KP
Neurol Clin 2020 May;38(2):433-447. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2020.01.007. PMID: 32279719

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