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Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter 1(VWM1)

MedGen UID:
1830482
Concept ID:
C5779972
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: CHILDHOOD ATAXIA WITH CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM HYPOMYELINIZATION; Cree leukoencephalopathy; Vanishing white matter leukodystrophy; VWM1
 
Gene (location): EIF2B1 (12q24.31)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0020507
OMIM®: 603896
Orphanet: ORPHA99854

Definition

Any leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter in which the cause of the disease is a variation in the EIF2B1 gene. [from MONDO]

Clinical features

From HPO
Premature ovarian insufficiency
MedGen UID:
9963
Concept ID:
C0025322
Disease or Syndrome
Amenorrhea due to loss of ovarian function before the age of 40. Primary ovarian inssuficiency (POI) is a state of female hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. It can manifest as primary amenorrhea with onset before menarche or secondary amenorrhea.
Primary amenorrhea
MedGen UID:
115918
Concept ID:
C0232939
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormally late or absent menarche in a female with normal secondary sexual characteristics.
Secondary amenorrhea
MedGen UID:
115919
Concept ID:
C0232940
Disease or Syndrome
The cessation of menstruation for six months or more in a female that is not pregnant, breastfeeding or menopausal.
Delusion
MedGen UID:
3715
Concept ID:
C0011253
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A delusion is a fixed false belief held despite evidence to the contrary. The term delusion broadly encompasses all false judgments that possess the following external characteristics to a significant, albeit unspecified, extent
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Dysarthric speech is a general description referring to a neurological speech disorder characterized by poor articulation. Depending on the involved neurological structures, dysarthria may be further classified as spastic, flaccid, ataxic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic, or mixed.
Gliosis
MedGen UID:
4899
Concept ID:
C0017639
Pathologic Function
Gliosis is the focal proliferation of glial cells in the central nervous system.
Lethargy
MedGen UID:
7310
Concept ID:
C0023380
Sign or Symptom
A state of disinterest, listlessness, and indifference, resulting in difficulty performing simple tasks or concentrating.
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Emotional lability
MedGen UID:
39319
Concept ID:
C0085633
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Unstable emotional experiences and frequent mood changes; emotions that are easily aroused, intense, and/or disproportionate to events and circumstances.
Unsteady gait
MedGen UID:
68544
Concept ID:
C0231686
Finding
A shaky or wobbly manner of walking.
Memory impairment
MedGen UID:
68579
Concept ID:
C0233794
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
An impairment of memory as manifested by a reduced ability to remember things such as dates and names, and increased forgetfulness.
Personality changes
MedGen UID:
66817
Concept ID:
C0240735
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
An abnormal shift in patterns of thinking, acting, or feeling.
Leukoencephalopathy
MedGen UID:
78722
Concept ID:
C0270612
Disease or Syndrome
This term describes abnormality of the white matter of the cerebrum resulting from damage to the myelin sheaths of nerve cells.
CNS demyelination
MedGen UID:
137898
Concept ID:
C0338474
Disease or Syndrome
A loss of myelin from nerve fibers in the central nervous system.
Gait disturbance
MedGen UID:
107895
Concept ID:
C0575081
Finding
The term gait disturbance can refer to any disruption of the ability to walk. In general, this can refer to neurological diseases but also fractures or other sources of pain that is triggered upon walking. However, in the current context gait disturbance refers to difficulty walking on the basis of a neurological or muscular disease.
Developmental regression
MedGen UID:
324613
Concept ID:
C1836830
Disease or Syndrome
Loss of developmental skills, as manifested by loss of developmental milestones.
Cerebral hypomyelination
MedGen UID:
383084
Concept ID:
C2677328
Finding
Reduced amount of myelin in the nervous system resulting from defective myelinogenesis in the white matter of the central nervous system.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
745757
Concept ID:
C2243051
Finding
Occipitofrontal (head) circumference greater than 97th centile compared to appropriate, age matched, sex-matched normal standards. Alternatively, a apparently increased size of the cranium.
Cessation of head growth
MedGen UID:
870859
Concept ID:
C4025319
Anatomical Abnormality
Stagnation of head growth seen as flattening of the head circumference curve.
Fever
MedGen UID:
5169
Concept ID:
C0015967
Sign or Symptom
Body temperature elevated above the normal range.
Decreased circulating progesterone
MedGen UID:
347772
Concept ID:
C1858995
Finding
An reduced concentration of progesterone in the blood.
Primary gonadal insufficiency
MedGen UID:
349078
Concept ID:
C1859014
Finding
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the optic nerve. Optic atrophy results from the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve and manifesting as a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy.
Blindness
MedGen UID:
99138
Concept ID:
C0456909
Disease or Syndrome
Blindness is the condition of lacking visual perception defined as a profound reduction in visual perception. On the 6m visual acuity scale, blindness is defined as less than 3/60. On the 20ft visual acuity scale, blindness is defined as less than 20/400. On the decimal visual acuity scale, blindness is defined as less than 0.05. Blindness is typically characterized by a visual field of no greater than 10 degrees in radius around central fixation.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Gujral J, Sethuram S
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Steck AJ
J Neuroimmunol 2021 Dec 15;361:577725. Epub 2021 Sep 28 doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2021.577725. PMID: 34610502
Turk BR, Theda C, Fatemi A, Moser AB
Int J Dev Neurosci 2020 Feb;80(1):52-72. Epub 2020 Jan 26 doi: 10.1002/jdn.10003. PMID: 31909500Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Ashrafi MR, Amanat M, Garshasbi M, Kameli R, Nilipour Y, Heidari M, Rezaei Z, Tavasoli AR
Expert Rev Neurother 2020 Jan;20(1):65-84. Epub 2019 Dec 12 doi: 10.1080/14737175.2020.1699060. PMID: 31829048
Jan F, Jafri SK, Ibrahim SH
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2019 Jul;29(7):649-653. doi: 10.29271/jcpsp.2019.07.649. PMID: 31253217
Lynch DS, Wade C, Paiva ARB, John N, Kinsella JA, Merwick Á, Ahmed RM, Warren JD, Mummery CJ, Schott JM, Fox NC, Houlden H, Adams ME, Davagnanam I, Murphy E, Chataway J
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2019 May;90(5):543-554. Epub 2018 Nov 22 doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2018-319481. PMID: 30467211Free PMC Article
Debette S, Schilling S, Duperron MG, Larsson SC, Markus HS
JAMA Neurol 2019 Jan 1;76(1):81-94. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2018.3122. PMID: 30422209Free PMC Article
Duncombe J, Kitamura A, Hase Y, Ihara M, Kalaria RN, Horsburgh K
Clin Sci (Lond) 2017 Oct 1;131(19):2451-2468. Epub 2017 Sep 28 doi: 10.1042/CS20160727. PMID: 28963120

Diagnosis

Ashrafi MR, Amanat M, Garshasbi M, Kameli R, Nilipour Y, Heidari M, Rezaei Z, Tavasoli AR
Expert Rev Neurother 2020 Jan;20(1):65-84. Epub 2019 Dec 12 doi: 10.1080/14737175.2020.1699060. PMID: 31829048
Lynch DS, Wade C, Paiva ARB, John N, Kinsella JA, Merwick Á, Ahmed RM, Warren JD, Mummery CJ, Schott JM, Fox NC, Houlden H, Adams ME, Davagnanam I, Murphy E, Chataway J
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2019 May;90(5):543-554. Epub 2018 Nov 22 doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2018-319481. PMID: 30467211Free PMC Article
Tikka S, Baumann M, Siitonen M, Pasanen P, Pöyhönen M, Myllykangas L, Viitanen M, Fukutake T, Cognat E, Joutel A, Kalimo H
Brain Pathol 2014 Sep;24(5):525-44. doi: 10.1111/bpa.12181. PMID: 25323668Free PMC Article
Poll-The BT, Engelen M
Semin Neurol 2012 Feb;32(1):42-50. Epub 2012 Mar 15 doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1306385. PMID: 22422205
Renaud DL
Semin Neurol 2012 Feb;32(1):3-8. Epub 2012 Mar 15 doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1306380. PMID: 22422201

Therapy

Kjaergaard AD, Ellervik C, Witte DR, Nordestgaard BG, Frikke-Schmidt R, Bojesen SE
Eur J Epidemiol 2022 Dec;37(12):1273-1284. Epub 2022 Nov 4 doi: 10.1007/s10654-022-00923-z. PMID: 36333541
Mühlbauer V, Möhler R, Dichter MN, Zuidema SU, Köpke S, Luijendijk HJ
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Dec 17;12(12):CD013304. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013304.pub2. PMID: 34918337Free PMC Article
Bosnjak Kuharic D, Markovic D, Brkovic T, Jeric Kegalj M, Rubic Z, Vuica Vukasovic A, Jeroncic A, Puljak L
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Sep 17;9(9):CD012820. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012820.pub2. PMID: 34532852Free PMC Article
Zhu J, Eichler F, Biffi A, Duncan CN, Williams DA, Majzoub JA
Endocr Rev 2020 Aug 1;41(4):577-93. doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnaa013. PMID: 32364223Free PMC Article
McShane R, Westby MJ, Roberts E, Minakaran N, Schneider L, Farrimond LE, Maayan N, Ware J, Debarros J
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Prognosis

Feng J, Huang C, Liang L, Li C, Wang X, Ma J, Guan X, Jiang B, Huang S, Qin P
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2023 Sep;24(9):1363-1373.e6. Epub 2023 Jul 29 doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2023.06.025. PMID: 37527793
Jacob MA, Cai M, van de Donk V, Bergkamp M, Marques J, Norris DG, Kessels RPC, Claassen JAHR, Duering M, Tuladhar AM, Leeuw FE
Am J Psychiatry 2023 Jul 1;180(7):508-518. Epub 2023 Apr 19 doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.20220380. PMID: 37073486
Balestrieri A, Lucatelli P, Suri HS, Montisci R, Suri JS, Wintermark M, Serra A, Cheng X, Jinliang C, Sanfilippo R, Saba L
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Aug;30(8):105905. Epub 2021 Jun 6 doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105905. PMID: 34107418
Moroni F, Ammirati E, Hainsworth AH, Camici PG
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2020 Aug;13(8):e010460. Epub 2020 Jul 28 doi: 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.120.010460. PMID: 33232175
Poll-The BT, Engelen M
Semin Neurol 2012 Feb;32(1):42-50. Epub 2012 Mar 15 doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1306385. PMID: 22422205

Clinical prediction guides

Man JHK, van Gelder CAGH, Breur M, Molenaar D, Abbink T, Altelaar M, Bugiani M, van der Knaap MS
Acta Neuropathol Commun 2023 Jun 22;11(1):103. doi: 10.1186/s40478-023-01599-6. PMID: 37349783Free PMC Article
Benzoni C, Moscatelli M, Farina L, Magri S, Ciano C, Scaioli V, Alverà S, Cammarata G, Bianchi-Marzoli S, Castellani M, Zito FM, Marotta G, Piacentini S, Villacara A, Mantegazza R, Gellera C, Durães J, Gouveia A, Matos A, do Carmo Macário M, Pareyson D, Taroni F, Di Bella D, Salsano E
J Neurol 2023 Sep;270(9):4219-4234. Epub 2023 May 12 doi: 10.1007/s00415-023-11762-7. PMID: 37171481
Balestrieri A, Lucatelli P, Suri HS, Montisci R, Suri JS, Wintermark M, Serra A, Cheng X, Jinliang C, Sanfilippo R, Saba L
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Aug;30(8):105905. Epub 2021 Jun 6 doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105905. PMID: 34107418
Crow YJ, Marshall H, Rice GI, Seabra L, Jenkinson EM, Baranano K, Battini R, Berger A, Blair E, Blauwblomme T, Bolduc F, Boddaert N, Buckard J, Burnett H, Calvert S, Caumes R, Ng AC, Chiang D, Clifford DB, Cordelli DM, de Burca A, Demic N, Desguerre I, De Waele L, Di Fonzo A, Dunham SR, Dyack S, Elmslie F, Ferrand M, Fisher G, Karimiani EG, Ghoumid J, Gibbon F, Goel H, Hilmarsen HT, Hughes I, Jacob A, Jones EA, Kumar R, Leventer RJ, MacDonald S, Maroofian R, Mehta SG, Metz I, Monfrini E, Neumann D, Noetzel M, O'Driscoll M, Õunap K, Panzer A, Parikh S, Prabhakar P, Ramond F, Sandford R, Saneto R, Soh C, Stutterd CA, Subramanian GM, Talbot K, Thomas RH, Toro C, Touraine R, Wakeling E, Wassmer E, Whitney A, Livingston JH, O'Keefe RT, Badrock AP
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Recent systematic reviews

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