U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Gliosis

MedGen UID:
4899
Concept ID:
C0017639
Pathologic Function
Synonyms: Cerebral gliosis; Excess astrocytes in brain; Fibrillary gliosis; Proliferation of glial fibers
SNOMED CT: Gliosis (81415000); Proliferation of glial fibers (81415000); Fibrillary gliosis (359580009)
 
HPO: HP:0002171

Definition

Gliosis is the focal proliferation of glial cells in the central nervous system. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Huntington disease
MedGen UID:
5654
Concept ID:
C0020179
Disease or Syndrome
Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive disorder of motor, cognitive, and psychiatric disturbances. The mean age of onset is 35 to 44 years, and the median survival time is 15 to 18 years after onset.
Leigh syndrome
MedGen UID:
44095
Concept ID:
C0023264
Disease or Syndrome
Leigh syndrome is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder resulting from defective mitochondrial energy generation. It most commonly presents as a progressive and severe neurodegenerative disorder with onset within the first months or years of life, and may result in early death. Affected individuals usually show global developmental delay or developmental regression, hypotonia, ataxia, dystonia, and ophthalmologic abnormalities, such as nystagmus or optic atrophy. The neurologic features are associated with the classic findings of T2-weighted hyperintensities in the basal ganglia and/or brainstem on brain imaging. Leigh syndrome can also have detrimental multisystemic affects on the cardiac, hepatic, gastrointestinal, and renal organs. Biochemical studies in patients with Leigh syndrome tend to show increased lactate and abnormalities of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (summary by Lake et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Leigh Syndrome Leigh syndrome may be a clinical presentation of a primary deficiency caused by genes in any of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes: complex I deficiency (see 252010), complex II deficiency (see 252011), complex III deficiency (see 124000), complex IV deficiency (cytochrome c oxidase; see 220110), and complex V deficiency (see 604273) (summary by Lake et al., 2015). Mutations in mitochondrial genes have also been identified in patients with Leigh syndrome: see MTTV (590105), MTTK (590060), MTTW (590095), and MTTL1 (590050). Leigh syndrome may also be caused by mutations in components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (e.g., DLD, 238331 and PDHA1, 300502). Deficiency of coenzyme Q10 (607426) can present as Leigh syndrome. Some forms of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency can present as Leigh syndrome (see, e.g., 617664).
Azorean disease
MedGen UID:
9841
Concept ID:
C0024408
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), also known as Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia and variable findings including pyramidal signs, a dystonic-rigid extrapyramidal syndrome, significant peripheral amyotrophy and generalized areflexia, progressive external ophthalmoplegia, action-induced facial and lingual fasciculations, and bulging eyes. Neurologic findings tend to evolve as the disorder progresses.
Deficiency of alpha-mannosidase
MedGen UID:
7467
Concept ID:
C0024748
Disease or Syndrome
Alpha-mannosidosis encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from mild to severe. Three major clinical subtypes have been suggested: A mild form recognized after age ten years with absence of skeletal abnormalities, myopathy, and slow progression (type 1). A moderate form recognized before age ten years with presence of skeletal abnormalities, myopathy, and slow progression (type 2). A severe form manifested as prenatal loss or early death from progressive central nervous system involvement or infection (type 3). Individuals with a milder phenotype have mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, impaired hearing, characteristic coarse features, clinical or radiographic skeletal abnormalities, immunodeficiency, and primary central nervous system disease – mainly cerebellar involvement causing ataxia. Periods of psychiatric symptoms are common. Associated medical problems can include corneal opacities, hepatosplenomegaly, aseptic destructive arthritis, and metabolic myopathy. Alpha-mannosidosis is insidiously progressive; some individuals may live into the sixth decade.
Progressive sclerosing poliodystrophy
MedGen UID:
60012
Concept ID:
C0205710
Disease or Syndrome
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+").
Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
66320
Concept ID:
C0220722
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal recessive subtype of cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome caused by mutation(s) in the ERCC6 gene, encoding DNA excision repair protein ERCC-6.
Pick disease
MedGen UID:
116020
Concept ID:
C0236642
Disease or Syndrome
Pick disease refers to the neuropathologic finding of 'Pick bodies,' which are argyrophilic, intraneuronal inclusions, and 'Pick cells,' which are enlarged neurons. The clinical correlates of Pick disease of brain include those of frontotemporal dementia, which encompass the behavioral variant of FTD, semantic dementia, and progressive nonfluent aphasia (summary by Piguet et al., 2011). Kertesz (2003) suggested the term 'Pick complex' to represent the overlapping syndromes of FTD, primary progressive aphasia (PPA), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), progressive supranuclear palsy (601104), and FTD with motor neuron disease. He noted that frontotemporal dementia may also be referred to as 'clinical Pick disease,' and that the term 'Pick disease' should be restricted to the pathologic finding of Pick bodies.
Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency
MedGen UID:
75696
Concept ID:
C0268596
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) represents a clinical spectrum in which presentations can be divided into type I (neonatal onset with congenital anomalies), type II (neonatal onset without congenital anomalies), and type III (late onset). Individuals with type I or II MADD typically become symptomatic in the neonatal period with severe metabolic acidosis, which may be accompanied by profound hypoglycemia and hyperammonemia. Many affected individuals die in the newborn period despite metabolic treatment. In those who survive the neonatal period, recurrent metabolic decompensation resembling Reye syndrome and the development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can occur. Congenital anomalies may include dysmorphic facial features, large cystic kidneys, hypospadias and chordee in males, and neuronal migration defects (heterotopias) on brain MRI. Individuals with type III MADD, the most common presentation, can present from infancy to adulthood. The most common symptoms are muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, and/or muscle pain, although metabolic decompensation with episodes of rhabdomyolysis can also be seen. Rarely, individuals with late-onset MADD (type III) may develop severe sensory neuropathy in addition to proximal myopathy.
Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy
MedGen UID:
82852
Concept ID:
C0270724
Disease or Syndrome
PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) comprises a continuum of three phenotypes with overlapping clinical and radiologic features: Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD). Atypical neuroaxonal dystrophy (atypical NAD). PLA2G6-related dystonia-parkinsonism. INAD usually begins between ages six months and three years with psychomotor regression or delay, hypotonia, and progressive spastic tetraparesis. Many affected children never learn to walk or lose the ability shortly after attaining it. Strabismus, nystagmus, and optic atrophy are common. Disease progression is rapid, resulting in severe spasticity, progressive cognitive decline, and visual impairment. Many affected children do not survive beyond their first decade. Atypical NAD shows more phenotypic variability than INAD. In general, onset is in early childhood but can be as late as the end of the second decade. The presenting signs may be gait instability, ataxia, or speech delay and autistic features, which are sometimes the only evidence of disease for a year or more. Strabismus, nystagmus, and optic atrophy are common. Neuropsychiatric disturbances including impulsivity, poor attention span, hyperactivity, and emotional lability are also common. The course is fairly stable during early childhood and resembles static encephalopathy but is followed by neurologic deterioration between ages seven and 12 years. PLA2G6-related dystonia-parkinsonism has a variable age of onset, but most individuals present in early adulthood with gait disturbance or neuropsychiatric changes. Affected individuals consistently develop dystonia and parkinsonism (which may be accompanied by rapid cognitive decline) in their late teens to early twenties. Dystonia is most common in the hands and feet but may be more generalized. The most common features of parkinsonism in these individuals are bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, and postural instability.
Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus
MedGen UID:
574999
Concept ID:
C0342394
Disease or Syndrome
Neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus is an autosomal dominant disorder of free water conservation characterized by childhood onset of polyuria and polydipsia. Affected individuals are apparently normal at birth, but characteristically develop symptoms of vasopressin deficiency during childhood (summary by Wahlstrom et al., 2004).
Bifunctional peroxisomal enzyme deficiency
MedGen UID:
137982
Concept ID:
C0342870
Pathologic Function
D-bifunctional protein deficiency is a disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. See also peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency (264470), caused by mutation in the ACOX1 gene (609751) on chromosome 17q25. The clinical manifestations of these 2 deficiencies are similar to those of disorders of peroxisomal assembly, including X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD; 300100), Zellweger cerebrohepatorenal syndrome (see 214100) and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD; see 601539) (Watkins et al., 1995). DBP deficiency has been classified into 3 subtypes depending upon the deficient enzyme activity. Type I is a deficiency of both 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase; type II is a deficiency of hydratase activity alone; and type III is a deficiency of dehydrogenase activity alone. Virtually all patients with types I, II, and III have a severe phenotype characterized by infantile-onset of hypotonia, seizures, and abnormal facial features, and most die before age 2 years. McMillan et al. (2012) proposed a type IV deficiency on the basis of less severe features; these patients have a phenotype reminiscent of Perrault syndrome (PRLTS1; 233400). Pierce et al. (2010) noted that Perrault syndrome and DBP deficiency overlap clinically and suggested that DBP deficiency may be underdiagnosed.
X-linked intellectual disability-short stature-overweight syndrome
MedGen UID:
901885
Concept ID:
C0796218
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual developmental disorder-12 (XLID12) is characterized by borderline to severe intellectual disability with variable neurologic features, short stature, and elevated body mass index (BMI) (Kumar et al., 2015).
Supranuclear palsy, progressive, 2
MedGen UID:
324446
Concept ID:
C1836148
Disease or Syndrome
GRN-related frontotemporal lobar degeneration with Tdp43 inclusions
MedGen UID:
375285
Concept ID:
C1843792
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of GRN frontotemporal dementia (GRN-FTD) includes the behavioral variant (bvFTD), primary progressive aphasia (PPA; further subcategorized as progressive nonfluent aphasia [PNFA] and semantic dementia [SD]), and movement disorders with extrapyramidal features such as parkinsonism and corticobasal syndrome (CBS). A broad range of clinical features both within and between families is observed. The age of onset ranges from 35 to 87 years. Behavioral disturbances are the most common early feature, followed by progressive aphasia. Impairment in executive function manifests as loss of judgment and insight. In early stages, PPA often manifests as deficits in naming, word finding, or word comprehension. In late stages, affected individuals often become mute and lose their ability to communicate. Early findings of parkinsonism include rigidity, bradykinesia or akinesia (slowing or absence of movements), limb dystonia, apraxia (loss of ability to carry out learned purposeful movements), and disequilibrium. Late motor findings may include myoclonus, dysarthria, and dysphagia. Most affected individuals eventually lose the ability to walk. Disease duration is three to 12 years.
X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia
MedGen UID:
375832
Concept ID:
C1846171
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked lissencephaly-2 (LISX2) is a developmental disorder characterized by structural brain anomalies, early-onset intractable seizures, severe psychomotor retardation, and ambiguous genitalia. Males are severely affected and often die within the first days or months of life, whereas females may be unaffected or have a milder phenotype (Bonneau et al., 2002). LISX2 is part of a phenotypic spectrum of disorders caused by mutation in the ARX gene comprising a nearly continuous series of developmental disorders ranging from hydranencephaly and lissencephaly to Proud syndrome (300004) to infantile spasms without brain malformations (DEE1; 308350) to syndromic (309510) and nonsyndromic (300419) mental retardation (Kato et al., 2004; Wallerstein et al., 2008). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lissencephaly, see LIS1 (607432).
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17
MedGen UID:
337637
Concept ID:
C1846707
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17) is characterized by ataxia, dementia, and involuntary movements, including chorea and dystonia. Psychiatric symptoms, pyramidal signs, and rigidity are common. The age of onset ranges from three to 55 years. Individuals with full-penetrance alleles develop neurologic and/or psychiatric symptoms by age 50 years. Ataxia and psychiatric abnormalities are frequently the initial findings, followed by involuntary movement, parkinsonism, dementia, and pyramidal signs. Brain MRI shows variable atrophy of the cerebrum, brain stem, and cerebellum. The clinical features correlate with the length of the polyglutamine expansion but are not absolutely predictive of the clinical course.
Spongiform encephalopathy with neuropsychiatric features
MedGen UID:
339812
Concept ID:
C1847650
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2A
MedGen UID:
376379
Concept ID:
C1848526
Disease or Syndrome
TSEN54 pontocerebellar hypoplasia (TSEN54-PCH) comprises three PCH phenotypes (PCH2, 4, and 5) that share characteristic neuroradiologic and neurologic findings. The three PCH phenotypes (which differ mainly in life expectancy) were considered to be distinct entities before their molecular basis was known. PCH2. Children usually succumb before age ten years (those with PCH4 and 5 usually succumb as neonates). Children with PCH2 have generalized clonus, uncoordinated sucking and swallowing, impaired cognitive development, lack of voluntary motor development, cortical blindness, and an increased risk for rhabdomyolysis during severe infections. Epilepsy is present in approximately 50%. PCH4. Neonates often have seizures, multiple joint contractures ("arthrogryposis"), generalized clonus, and central respiratory impairment. PCH5 resembles PCH4 and has been described in one family.
Renal coloboma syndrome
MedGen UID:
339002
Concept ID:
C1852759
Disease or Syndrome
PAX2-related disorder is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with renal and eye abnormalities. The disorder was originally referred to as renal coloboma syndrome and characterized by renal hypodysplasia and abnormalities of the optic nerve; with improved access to molecular testing, a wider range of phenotypes has been recognized in association with pathogenic variants in PAX2. Abnormal renal structure or function is noted in 92% of affected individuals and ophthalmologic abnormalities in 77% of affected individuals. Renal abnormalities can be clinically silent in rare individuals. In most individuals, clinically significant renal insufficiency / renal failure is reported. End-stage renal disease requiring renal transplant is not uncommon. Uric acid nephrolithiasis has been reported. Ophthalmologic abnormalities are typically described as optic nerve coloboma or dysplasia. Iris colobomas have not been reported in any individual with PAX2–related disorder. Ophthalmologic abnormalities may significantly impair vision in some individuals, while others have subtle changes only noted after detailed ophthalmologic examination. Additional clinical findings include high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss, soft skin, and ligamentous laxity. PAX2 pathogenic variants have been identified in multiple sporadic and familial cases of nonsyndromic renal disease including renal hypodysplasia and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
Sulfite oxidase deficiency due to molybdenum cofactor deficiency type A
MedGen UID:
381530
Concept ID:
C1854988
Disease or Syndrome
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) represents a spectrum, with some individuals experiencing significant signs and symptoms in the neonatal period and early infancy (termed early-onset or severe MoCD) and others developing signs and symptoms in childhood or adulthood (termed late-onset or mild MoCD). Individuals with early-onset MoCD typically present in the first days of life with severe encephalopathy, including refractory seizures, opisthotonos, axial and appendicular hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and apnea. Head imaging may demonstrate loss of gray and white matter differentiation, gyral swelling, sulci injury (typically assessed by evaluating the depth of focal lesional injury within the sulci), diffusely elevated T2-weighted signal, and panlobar diffusion restriction throughout the forebrain and midbrain with relative sparring of the brain stem. Prognosis for early-onset MoCD is poor, with about 75% succumbing in infancy to secondary complications of their neurologic disability (i.e., pneumonia). Late-onset MoCD is typically characterized by milder symptoms, such as acute neurologic decompensation in the setting of infection. Episodes vary in nature but commonly consist of altered mental status, dystonia, choreoathetosis, ataxia, nystagmus, and fluctuating hypotonia and hypertonia. These features may improve after resolution of the inciting infection or progress in a gradual or stochastic manner over the lifetime. Brain imaging may be normal or may demonstrate T2-weighted hyperintense or cystic lesions in the globus pallidus, thinning of the corpus callosum, and cerebellar atrophy.
Sulfite oxidase deficiency due to molybdenum cofactor deficiency type B
MedGen UID:
340760
Concept ID:
C1854989
Disease or Syndrome
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) represents a spectrum, with some individuals experiencing significant signs and symptoms in the neonatal period and early infancy (termed early-onset or severe MoCD) and others developing signs and symptoms in childhood or adulthood (termed late-onset or mild MoCD). Individuals with early-onset MoCD typically present in the first days of life with severe encephalopathy, including refractory seizures, opisthotonos, axial and appendicular hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and apnea. Head imaging may demonstrate loss of gray and white matter differentiation, gyral swelling, sulci injury (typically assessed by evaluating the depth of focal lesional injury within the sulci), diffusely elevated T2-weighted signal, and panlobar diffusion restriction throughout the forebrain and midbrain with relative sparring of the brain stem. Prognosis for early-onset MoCD is poor, with about 75% succumbing in infancy to secondary complications of their neurologic disability (i.e., pneumonia). Late-onset MoCD is typically characterized by milder symptoms, such as acute neurologic decompensation in the setting of infection. Episodes vary in nature but commonly consist of altered mental status, dystonia, choreoathetosis, ataxia, nystagmus, and fluctuating hypotonia and hypertonia. These features may improve after resolution of the inciting infection or progress in a gradual or stochastic manner over the lifetime. Brain imaging may be normal or may demonstrate T2-weighted hyperintense or cystic lesions in the globus pallidus, thinning of the corpus callosum, and cerebellar atrophy.
L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria
MedGen UID:
341029
Concept ID:
C1855995
Disease or Syndrome
2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a condition that causes progressive damage to the brain. The major types of this disorder are called D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D-2-HGA), L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA), and combined D,L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D,L-2-HGA).\n\nThe main features of D-2-HGA are delayed development, seizures, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), and abnormalities in the largest part of the brain (the cerebrum), which controls many important functions such as muscle movement, speech, vision, thinking, emotion, and memory. Researchers have described two subtypes of D-2-HGA, type I and type II. The two subtypes are distinguished by their genetic cause and pattern of inheritance, although they also have some differences in signs and symptoms. Type II tends to begin earlier and often causes more severe health problems than type I. Type II may also be associated with a weakened and enlarged heart (cardiomyopathy), a feature that is typically not found with type I.\n\nL-2-HGA particularly affects a region of the brain called the cerebellum, which is involved in coordinating movements. As a result, many affected individuals have problems with balance and muscle coordination (ataxia). Additional features of L-2-HGA can include delayed development, seizures, speech difficulties, and an unusually large head (macrocephaly). Typically, signs and symptoms of this disorder begin during infancy or early childhood. The disorder worsens over time, usually leading to severe disability by early adulthood.\n\nCombined D,L-2-HGA causes severe brain abnormalities that become apparent in early infancy. Affected infants have severe seizures, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), and breathing and feeding problems. They usually survive only into infancy or early childhood.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 4
MedGen UID:
384027
Concept ID:
C1856974
Congenital Abnormality
TSEN54 pontocerebellar hypoplasia (TSEN54-PCH) comprises three PCH phenotypes (PCH2, 4, and 5) that share characteristic neuroradiologic and neurologic findings. The three PCH phenotypes (which differ mainly in life expectancy) were considered to be distinct entities before their molecular basis was known. PCH2. Children usually succumb before age ten years (those with PCH4 and 5 usually succumb as neonates). Children with PCH2 have generalized clonus, uncoordinated sucking and swallowing, impaired cognitive development, lack of voluntary motor development, cortical blindness, and an increased risk for rhabdomyolysis during severe infections. Epilepsy is present in approximately 50%. PCH4. Neonates often have seizures, multiple joint contractures ("arthrogryposis"), generalized clonus, and central respiratory impairment. PCH5 resembles PCH4 and has been described in one family.
Congenital lactic acidosis, Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean type
MedGen UID:
387801
Concept ID:
C1857355
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 5 (MC4DN5) is an autosomal recessive severe metabolic multisystemic disorder with onset in infancy. Features include delayed psychomotor development, impaired intellectual development with speech delay, mild dysmorphic facial features, hypotonia, ataxia, and seizures. There is increased serum lactate and episodic hypoglycemia. Some patients may have cardiomyopathy, abnormal breathing, or liver abnormalities, reflecting systemic involvement. Brain imaging shows lesions in the brainstem and basal ganglia, consistent with a diagnosis of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). Affected individuals tend to have episodic metabolic and/or neurologic crises in early childhood, which often lead to early death (summary by Debray et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, Okinawa type
MedGen UID:
346886
Concept ID:
C1858338
Disease or Syndrome
Okinawa-type hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSNO) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by young adult onset of proximal or distal muscle weakness and atrophy, muscle cramps, and fasciculations, with later onset of distal sensory impairment. The disorder is slowly progressive and clinically resembles amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; see 105400) (summary by Ishiura et al., 2012).
Familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies
MedGen UID:
346965
Concept ID:
C1858680
Disease or Syndrome
Familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies (FENIB) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by progressive epilepsy and dementia. Onset of symptoms ranges from the second to fifth decades of life. Severity is variable (summary by Molinari et al., 2003).
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 2
MedGen UID:
349134
Concept ID:
C1859298
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-2 is an neurologic disorder characterized by onset of impaired motor development and ataxic gait in early childhood. Additional features often include loss of fine motor skills, dysarthria, nystagmus, cerebellar signs, and delayed cognitive development with intellectual disability. Brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy. Overall, the disorder is non- or slowly progressive, with survival into adulthood (summary by Jobling et al., 2015).
Adult-onset autosomal dominant demyelinating leukodystrophy
MedGen UID:
356995
Concept ID:
C1868512
Disease or Syndrome
LMNB1-related autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD) is a slowly progressive disorder of central nervous system white matter characterized by onset of autonomic dysfunction in the fourth to fifth decade, followed by pyramidal and cerebellar abnormalities resulting in spasticity, ataxia, and tremor. Autonomic dysfunction can include bladder dysfunction, constipation, postural hypotension, erectile dysfunction, and (less often) impaired sweating. Pyramidal signs are often more prominent in the lower extremities (e.g., spastic weakness, hypertonia, clonus, brisk deep tendon reflexes, and bilateral Babinski signs). Cerebellar signs typically appear at the same time as the pyramidal signs and include gait ataxia, dysdiadochokinesia, intention tremor, dysmetria, and nystagmus. Many individuals have sensory deficits starting in the lower limbs. Pseudobulbar palsy with dysarthria, dysphagia, and forced crying and laughing may appear in the seventh or eighth decade. Although cognitive function is usually preserved or only mildly impaired early in the disease course, dementia and psychiatric manifestations can occur as late manifestations. Affected individuals may survive for decades after onset.
Autosomal dominant Parkinson disease 1
MedGen UID:
357008
Concept ID:
C1868595
Disease or Syndrome
Parkinson disease is the second most common neurogenic disorder after Alzheimer disease (AD; 104300), affecting approximately 1% of the population over age 50. Clinical manifestations include resting tremor, muscular rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Additional features are characteristic postural abnormalities, dysautonomia, dystonic cramps, and dementia (Polymeropoulos et al., 1996). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Parkinson disease, see 168600.
Familial acute necrotizing encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
382634
Concept ID:
C2675556
Finding
Acute necrotizing encephalopathy type 1, also known as susceptibility to infection-induced acute encephalopathy 3 or IIAE3, is a rare type of brain disease (encephalopathy) that occurs following a viral infection such as the flu.\n\nAcute necrotizing encephalopathy type 1 typically appears in infancy or early childhood, although some people do not develop the condition until adolescence or adulthood. People with this condition usually show typical symptoms of an infection, such as fever, cough, congestion, vomiting, and diarrhea, for a few days. Following these flu-like symptoms, affected individuals develop neurological problems, such as seizures, hallucinations, difficulty coordinating movements (ataxia), or abnormal muscle tone. Eventually, most affected individuals go into a coma, which usually lasts for a number of weeks. The condition is described as "acute" because the episodes of illness are time-limited.\n\nPeople with acute necrotizing encephalopathy type 1 develop areas of damage (lesions) in certain regions of the brain. As the condition progresses, these brain regions develop swelling (edema), bleeding (hemorrhage), and then tissue death (necrosis). The progressive brain damage and tissue loss results in encephalopathy.\n\nApproximately one-third of individuals with acute necrotizing encephalopathy type 1 do not survive their illness and subsequent neurological decline. Of those who do survive, about half have permanent brain damage due to tissue necrosis, resulting in impairments in walking, speech, and other basic functions. Over time, many of these skills may be regained, but the loss of brain tissue is permanent. Other individuals who survive their illness appear to recover completely.\n\nIt is estimated that half of individuals with acute necrotizing encephalopathy type 1 are susceptible to recurrent episodes and will have another infection that results in neurological decline; some people may have numerous episodes throughout their lives. Neurological function worsens following each episode as more brain tissue is damaged.
Immunodeficiency 83, susceptibility to viral infections
MedGen UID:
416638
Concept ID:
C2751803
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-83 (IMD83) is characterized by increased susceptibility to severe viral infections, including herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), influenza A virus (IAV), hantavirus, and possibly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The age at onset varies widely from infancy to adulthood, and there is incomplete penetrance. The susceptibility to encephalitis or pneumonitis appears to result from impaired TLR3-dependent interferon production by nonhematopoietic cells that reside within the central nervous system (CNS) or lung epithelial cells (review by Zhang et al., 2013; summary by Mork et al., 2015; Sironi et al., 2017, Lim et al., 2019, Partanen et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description of herpes simplex encephalitis and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of acute infection-induced encephalopathy, see 610551.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 50
MedGen UID:
442869
Concept ID:
C2752008
Disease or Syndrome
AP-4-associated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), also known as AP-4 deficiency syndrome, is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a progressive, complex spastic paraplegia with onset typically in infancy or early childhood. Early-onset hypotonia evolves into progressive lower-extremity spasticity. The majority of children become nonambulatory and usually wheelchair bound. Over time spasticity progresses to involve the upper extremities, resulting in a spastic tetraplegia. Associated complications include dysphagia, contractures, foot deformities, dysregulation of bladder and bowel function, and a pseudobulbar affect. About 50% of affected individuals have seizures. Postnatal microcephaly (usually in the -2SD to -3SD range) is common. All have developmental delay. Speech development is significantly impaired and many affected individuals remain nonverbal. Intellectual disability in older children is usually moderate to severe.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 15
MedGen UID:
477090
Concept ID:
C3275459
Disease or Syndrome
Any amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the UBQLN2 gene.
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
477139
Concept ID:
C3275508
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome-2 (MCAHS2) is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, neonatal hypotonia, early-onset myoclonic seizures, and variable congenital anomalies involving the central nervous, cardiac, and urinary systems. Some affected individuals die in infancy (summary by Johnston et al., 2012). The phenotype shows clinical variability with regard to severity and extraneurologic features. However, most patients present in infancy with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy associated with developmental arrest and subsequent severe neurologic disability; these features are consistent with a form of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) (summary by Belet et al., 2014, Kato et al., 2014). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MCAHS, see MCAHS1 (614080). For a discussion of nomenclature and genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Neonatal-onset encephalopathy with rigidity and seizures
MedGen UID:
482659
Concept ID:
C3281029
Disease or Syndrome
Lethal neonatal rigidity and multifocal seizure syndrome (RMFSL) is a severe autosomal recessive epileptic encephalopathy characterized by onset of rigidity and intractable seizures at or soon after birth. Affected infants achieve no developmental milestones and die within the first months or years of life (summary by Saitsu et al., 2014).
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 1
MedGen UID:
762097
Concept ID:
C3541471
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive mitochondrial complex III deficiency is a severe multisystem disorder with onset at birth of lactic acidosis, hypotonia, hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, encephalopathy, and delayed psychomotor development. Visceral involvement, including hepatopathy and renal tubulopathy, may also occur. Many patients die in early childhood, but some may show longer survival (de Lonlay et al., 2001; De Meirleir et al., 2003). Genetic Heterogeneity of Mitochondrial Complex III Deficiency Mitochondrial complex III deficiency can be caused by mutation in several different nuclear-encoded genes. See MC3DN2 (615157), caused by mutation in the TTC19 gene (613814) on chromosome 17p12; MC3DN3 (615158), caused by mutation in the UQCRB gene (191330) on chromosome 8q; MC3DN4 (615159), caused by mutation in the UQCRQ gene (612080) on chromosome 5q31; MC3DN5 (615160), caused by mutation in the UQCRC2 gene (191329) on chromosome 16p12; MC3DN6 (615453), caused by mutation in the CYC1 gene (123980) on chromosome 8q24; MC3DN7 (615824), caused by mutation in the UQCC2 gene (614461) on chromosome 6p21; MC3DN8 (615838), caused by mutation in the LYRM7 gene (615831) on chromosome 5q23; MC3DN9 (616111), caused by mutation in the UQCC3 gene (616097) on chromosome 11q12; and MC3DN10 (618775), caused by mutation in the UQCRFS1 gene (191327) on chromosome 19q12. See also MTYCB (516020) for a discussion of a milder phenotype associated with isolated mitochondrial complex III deficiency and mutations in a mitochondrial-encoded gene.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 14
MedGen UID:
767109
Concept ID:
C3554195
Disease or Syndrome
KCNT1-related epilepsy is most often associated with two phenotypes: epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) and autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE). EIMFS is characterized by seizures, typically focal and asynchronous, beginning in the first six months of life with associated developmental plateau or regression. Autonomic manifestations (e.g., perioral cyanosis, flushing, apnea) are common. Seizures are intractable to multiple anticonvulsants and progress to become nearly continuous by age six to nine months. ADNFLE is characterized by clusters of nocturnal motor seizures that vary from simple arousals to hyperkinetic events with tonic or dystonic features. Individuals with KCNT1-related ADNFLE are more likely to develop seizures at a younger age, have cognitive comorbidity, and display psychiatric and behavioral problems than individuals with ADNFLE resulting from other causes. Less common seizure phenotypes in individuals with KCNT1-related epilepsy include West syndrome, Ohtahara syndrome, early myoclonic encephalopathy, leukodystrophy and/or leukoencephalopathy, focal epilepsy, and multifocal epilepsy. Additional neurologic features include hypotonia, microcephaly developing by age 12 months, strabismus, profound developmental delay, and additional movement disorders. Other systemic manifestations including pulmonary hemorrhage caused by prominent systemic-to-pulmonary collateral arteries or cardiac arrhythmia have been reported.
Microcephalic primordial dwarfism due to ZNF335 deficiency
MedGen UID:
767413
Concept ID:
C3554499
Disease or Syndrome
Primary microcephaly-10 (MCPH10) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by extremely small head size (-9 SD) at birth and death usually by 1 year of age. Neuropathologic examination shows severe loss of neurons as well as neuronal loss of polarity and abnormal dendritic maturation (summary by Yang et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly, see MCPH1 (251200).
Cardioencephalomyopathy, fatal infantile, due to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency 2
MedGen UID:
767448
Concept ID:
C3554534
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 6 (MC4DN6) is an autosomal recessive multisystem metabolic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some patients present in the neonatal period with encephalomyopathic features, whereas others present later in the first year of life with developmental regression. Manifestations include hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and global developmental delay. Many, but not all, patients develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, which may result in early death. Additional more variable features may include poor overall growth, microcephaly, seizures, neurodegeneration, spasticity, visual defects, retinopathy, and hepatic steatosis. Brain imaging in some patients shows features consistent with Leigh syndrome (see 256000). Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (summary by Kennaway et al., 1990 and Oquendo et al., 2004). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1
MedGen UID:
854771
Concept ID:
C3888102
Disease or Syndrome
C9orf72 frontotemporal dementia and/or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (C9orf72-FTD/ALS) is characterized most often by frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and upper and lower motor neuron disease (MND); however, atypical presentations also occur. Age at onset is usually between 50 and 64 years (range: 20-91 years) irrespective of the presenting manifestations, which may be pure FTD, pure amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), or a combination of the two phenotypes. The clinical presentation is highly heterogeneous and may differ between and within families, causing an unpredictable pattern and age of onset of clinical manifestations. The presence of MND correlates with an earlier age of onset and a worse overall prognosis.
ADNP-related multiple congenital anomalies - intellectual disability - autism spectrum disorder
MedGen UID:
862975
Concept ID:
C4014538
Disease or Syndrome
ADNP-related disorder is characterized by hypotonia, severe speech and motor delay, mild-to-severe intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features (prominent forehead, high anterior hairline, wide and depressed nasal bridge, and short nose with full, upturned nasal tip) based on a cohort of 78 individuals. Features of autism spectrum disorder are common (stereotypic behavior, impaired social interaction). Other common findings include additional behavioral problems, sleep disturbance, brain abnormalities, seizures, feeding issues, gastrointestinal problems, visual dysfunction (hypermetropia, strabismus, cortical visual impairment), musculoskeletal anomalies, endocrine issues including short stature and hormonal deficiencies, cardiac and urinary tract anomalies, and hearing loss.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 24
MedGen UID:
864080
Concept ID:
C4015643
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-24 (COXPD24) is an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder with wide phenotypic variability. Most patients present in infancy with delayed neurodevelopment, refractory seizures, hypotonia, and hearing impairment due to auditory neuropathy. Less common features may include cortical blindness, renal dysfunction, and/or liver involvement, suggestive of Alpers syndrome (MTDPS4A; 203700). Patients with the severe phenotype tend to have brain abnormalities on imaging, including cerebral atrophy and hyperintensities in the basal ganglia and brainstem, consistent with Leigh syndrome. Laboratory values may be normal or show increased lactate and evidence of mitochondrial respiratory chain defects, particularly in muscle. Some patients achieve little developmental milestones and may die in infancy or early childhood. However, some patients have a less severe phenotype manifest only by myopathy (summary by Sofou et al., 2015, Vanlander et al., 2015, and Mizuguchi et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Early-onset progressive diffuse brain atrophy-microcephaly-muscle weakness-optic atrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
934638
Concept ID:
C4310671
Disease or Syndrome
PEBAT is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development apparent soon after birth or in infancy, profound intellectual disability, poor or absent speech, and seizures. Most patients are never able to walk due to hypotonia or spasticity. Brain imaging shows cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, thin corpus callosum, and secondary hypomyelination. The disorder shows progressive features, including microcephaly, consistent with a neurodegenerative process (summary by Miyake et al., 2016; Flex et al., 2016).
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2D
MedGen UID:
1376619
Concept ID:
C4479409
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type IID (ARCL2D) is characterized by generalized skin wrinkling with sparse subcutaneous fat and dysmorphic progeroid facial features. Most patients also exhibit severe hypotonia as well as cardiovascular and neurologic involvement (summary by Van Damme et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see ARCL1A (219100).
Supranuclear palsy, progressive, 1
MedGen UID:
1640811
Concept ID:
C4551863
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of clinical manifestations of MAPT-related frontotemporal dementia (MAPT-FTD) has expanded from its original description of frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonian manifestations to include changes in behavior, motor function, memory, and/or language. A recent retrospective study suggested that the majority of affected individuals have either behavioral changes consistent with a diagnosis of behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) or, less commonly, a parkinsonian syndrome (i.e., progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal syndrome, or Parkinson disease). Fewer than 5% of people with MAPT-FTD have primary progressive aphasia or Alzheimer disease. Clinical presentation may differ between and within families with the same MAPT variant. MAPT-FTD is a progressive disorder that commonly ends with a relatively global dementia in which some affected individuals become mute. Progression of motor impairment in affected individuals results in some becoming chairbound and others bedbound. Mean disease duration is 9.3 (SD: 6.4) years but is individually variable and can be more than 30 years in some instances.
Polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy 1
MedGen UID:
1648386
Concept ID:
C4721893
Disease or Syndrome
Polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy (PLOSL) is characterized by fractures (resulting from radiologically demonstrable polycystic osseous lesions), frontal lobe syndrome, and progressive presenile dementia beginning in the fourth decade. The clinical course of PLOSL can be divided into four stages: 1. The latent stage is characterized by normal early development. 2. The osseous stage (3rd decade of life) is characterized by pain and tenderness, mostly in ankles and feet, usually following strain or injury. Fractures are typically diagnosed several years later, most commonly in the bones of the extremities. 3. In the early neurologic stage (4th decade of life), a change of personality begins to develop insidiously. Affected individuals show a frontal lobe syndrome (loss of judgment, euphoria, loss of social inhibitions, disturbance of concentration, and lack of insight, libido, and motor persistence) leading to serious social problems. 4. The late neurologic stage is characterized by progressive dementia and loss of mobility. Death usually occurs before age 50 years.
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 2
MedGen UID:
1648466
Concept ID:
C4748737
Disease or Syndrome
Ferro-cerebro-cutaneous syndrome
MedGen UID:
1658844
Concept ID:
C4751570
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic metabolic liver disease with characteristics of progressive neurodegeneration, cutaneous abnormalities including varying degrees of ichthyosis or seborrheic dermatitis, and systemic iron overload. Patients manifest with infantile-onset seizures, encephalopathy, abnormal eye movements, axial hypotonia with peripheral hypertonia, brisk reflexes, cortical blindness and deafness, myoclonus and hepato/splenomegaly, as well as oral manifestations including microdontia, widely spaced and pointed teeth with delayed eruption and gingival overgrowth.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 14
MedGen UID:
1663069
Concept ID:
C4755312
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of FARS2 deficiency ranges from the infantile-onset phenotype, characterized by epileptic encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and poor prognosis (70% of affected individuals), to the later-onset phenotype, characterized by spastic paraplegia, less severe neurologic manifestations, and longer survival (30% of affected individuals). To date FARS2 deficiency has been reported in 37 individuals from 25 families. Infantile-onset phenotype. Seizures are difficult to control and may progress quickly at an early age to intractable seizures with frequent status epilepticus; some children have hypsarrhythmia on EEG. All have developmental delay; most are nonverbal and unable to walk. Feeding difficulties are common. More than half of affected children die in early childhood. Later-onset phenotype. All affected individuals have spastic paraplegia manifested by weakness, spasticity, and exaggerated reflexes of the lower extremities associated with walking difficulties; some have developmental delay/intellectual disability; some have brief seizures that resolve over time.
NAD(P)HX dehydratase deficiency
MedGen UID:
1681210
Concept ID:
C5193026
Disease or Syndrome
Early-onset progressive encephalopathy with brain edema and/or leukoencephalopathy-2 (PEBEL2) is an autosomal recessive severe neurometabolic disorder characterized by rapidly progressive neurologic deterioration that is usually associated with a febrile illness. Affected infants tend to show normal early development followed by acute psychomotor regression with ataxia, hypotonia, and sometimes seizures, resulting in death in the first years of life. Brain imaging shows multiple abnormalities, including brain edema and signal abnormalities in the cortical and subcortical regions (summary by Van Bergen et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PEBEL, see PEBEL1 (617186).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 71
MedGen UID:
1680812
Concept ID:
C5193030
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-71 (DEE71) is characterized by early neonatal refractory seizures, respiratory failure, structural brain abnormalities and cerebral edema, with death within weeks after birth. Glutamine levels are significantly increased (z score 3.2-11.7). Three patients have been described (summary by Rumping et al., 2019).
Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 27
MedGen UID:
1672866
Concept ID:
C5193058
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-27 (SCAR27) is an adult-onset neurologic disorder characterized by gait difficulties and other cerebellar signs, such as eye movement abnormalities, dysarthria, and difficulty writing. The disorder is progressive, and some patients may lose independent ambulation. Additional features include spasticity of the lower limbs and cognitive impairment. Brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy (summary by Eidhof et al., 2018).
Diets-Jongmans syndrome
MedGen UID:
1714920
Concept ID:
C5394263
Disease or Syndrome
Diets-Jongmans syndrome (DIJOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by mild to moderately impaired intellectual development with a recognizable facial gestalt (summary by Diets et al., 2019).
Cardioencephalomyopathy, fatal infantile, due to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency 1
MedGen UID:
1748867
Concept ID:
C5399977
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 2 (MC4DN2) is an autosomal recessive multisystem metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of symptoms at birth or in the first weeks or months of life. Affected individuals have severe hypotonia, often associated with feeding difficulties and respiratory insufficiency necessitating tube feeding and mechanical ventilation. The vast majority of patients develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the first days or weeks of life, which usually leads to death in infancy or early childhood. Patients also show neurologic abnormalities, including developmental delay, nystagmus, fasciculations, dystonia, EEG changes, and brain imaging abnormalities compatible with a diagnosis of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). There may also be evidence of systemic involvement with hepatomegaly and myopathy, although neurogenic muscle atrophy is more common and may resemble spinal muscular atrophy type I (SMA1; 253300). Serum lactate is increased, and laboratory studies show decreased mitochondrial complex IV protein and activity levels in various tissues, including heart and skeletal muscle. Most patients die in infancy of cardiorespiratory failure (summary by Papadopoulou et al., 1999). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Leukoencephalopathy, diffuse hereditary, with spheroids 1
MedGen UID:
1794139
Concept ID:
C5561929
Disease or Syndrome
CSF1R-related adult-onset leukoencephalopathy with axonal spheroids and pigmented glia (ALSP) is characterized by executive dysfunction, memory decline, personality changes, motor impairments, and seizures. A frontal lobe syndrome (e.g., loss of judgment, lack of social inhibitors, lack of insight, and motor persistence) usually appears early in the disease course. The mean age of onset is usually in the fourth decade. Affected individuals eventually become bedridden with spasticity and rigidity. The disease course ranges from two to 30 or more years (mean: 8 years).
Neurodegeneration, childhood-onset, with progressive microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1801540
Concept ID:
C5676972
Disease or Syndrome
Childhood-onset neurodegeneration with progressive microcephaly (CONPM) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy. The phenotype is highly variable: the most severely affected individuals have severe and progressive microcephaly, early-onset seizures, lack of visual tracking, and almost no developmental milestones, resulting in early death. Less severely affected individuals have a small head circumference and severely impaired intellectual development with poor speech and motor delay. Additional features may include poor overall growth, axial hypotonia, limb hypertonia with spasticity, undescended testes, and cerebral atrophy with neuronal loss (Lam et al., 2019 and Vanoevelen et al., 2022).
Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter 1
MedGen UID:
1830482
Concept ID:
C5779972
Disease or Syndrome
Any leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter in which the cause of the disease is a variation in the EIF2B1 gene.
Congenital disorder of deglycosylation 1
MedGen UID:
989503
Concept ID:
CN306977
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with NGLY1-related congenital disorder of deglycosylation (NGLY1-CDDG) typically display a clinical tetrad of developmental delay / intellectual disability in the mild to profound range, hypo- or alacrima, elevated liver transaminases that may spontaneously resolve in childhood, and a complex hyperkinetic movement disorder that can include choreiform, athetoid, dystonic, myoclonic, action tremor, and dysmetric movements. About half of affected individuals will develop clinical seizures. Other findings may include obstructive and/or central sleep apnea, oral motor defects that affect feeding ability, auditory neuropathy, constipation, scoliosis, and peripheral neuropathy.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Brennan GP, Henshall DC
Nat Rev Neurol 2020 Sep;16(9):506-519. Epub 2020 Jun 16 doi: 10.1038/s41582-020-0369-8. PMID: 32546757
Jagannath VA, Filippini G, Di Pietrantonj C, Asokan GV, Robak EW, Whamond L, Robinson SA
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Sep 24;9(9):CD008422. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008422.pub3. PMID: 30246874Free PMC Article
Henshall DC, Hamer HM, Pasterkamp RJ, Goldstein DB, Kjems J, Prehn JHM, Schorge S, Lamottke K, Rosenow F
Lancet Neurol 2016 Dec;15(13):1368-1376. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(16)30246-0. PMID: 27839653

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Sewaybricker LE, Huang A, Chandrasekaran S, Melhorn SJ, Schur EA
Endocr Rev 2023 Mar 4;44(2):281-296. doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnac023. PMID: 36251886Free PMC Article
Cairns DM, Itzhaki RF, Kaplan DL
J Alzheimers Dis 2022;88(3):1189-1200. doi: 10.3233/JAD-220287. PMID: 35754275
Hammond TR, Marsh SE, Stevens B
Immunity 2019 Apr 16;50(4):955-974. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2019.03.016. PMID: 30995509Free PMC Article
Whitechurch BC, Welton JM, Collins SJ, Lawson VA
Adv Neurobiol 2017;15:335-364. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-57193-5_13. PMID: 28674988
Dutra JR, Cortés EP, Vonsattel JP
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2015 Oct;15(10):67. doi: 10.1007/s11910-015-0592-7. PMID: 26299276

Diagnosis

Guerrieri M, Di Mauro R, Di Girolamo S, Di Stadio A
Subcell Biochem 2023;103:279-290. doi: 10.1007/978-3-031-26576-1_12. PMID: 37120472
Sewaybricker LE, Huang A, Chandrasekaran S, Melhorn SJ, Schur EA
Endocr Rev 2023 Mar 4;44(2):281-296. doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnac023. PMID: 36251886Free PMC Article
Tinnirello A, Mazzoleni S, Santi C
Biomolecules 2021 Aug 23;11(8) doi: 10.3390/biom11081256. PMID: 34439922Free PMC Article
Calkins DJ, Pekny M, Cooper ML, Benowitz L; Lasker/IRRF Initiative on Astrocytes and Glaucomatous Neurodegeneration Participants
Exp Eye Res 2017 Apr;157:28-33. Epub 2017 Jan 30 doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2017.01.007. PMID: 28153739Free PMC Article
Dorfman MD, Thaler JP
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2015 Oct;22(5):325-30. doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000182. PMID: 26192704Free PMC Article

Therapy

Brennan GP, Henshall DC
Nat Rev Neurol 2020 Sep;16(9):506-519. Epub 2020 Jun 16 doi: 10.1038/s41582-020-0369-8. PMID: 32546757
Ji RR, Nackley A, Huh Y, Terrando N, Maixner W
Anesthesiology 2018 Aug;129(2):343-366. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000002130. PMID: 29462012Free PMC Article
Devinsky O, Vezzani A, Najjar S, De Lanerolle NC, Rogawski MA
Trends Neurosci 2013 Mar;36(3):174-84. Epub 2013 Jan 5 doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2012.11.008. PMID: 23298414
Sofroniew MV
Trends Neurosci 2009 Dec;32(12):638-47. Epub 2009 Sep 24 doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2009.08.002. PMID: 19782411Free PMC Article
Yoshiyama Y, Higuchi M, Zhang B, Huang SM, Iwata N, Saido TC, Maeda J, Suhara T, Trojanowski JQ, Lee VM
Neuron 2007 Feb 1;53(3):337-51. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2007.01.010. PMID: 17270732

Prognosis

Sewaybricker LE, Huang A, Chandrasekaran S, Melhorn SJ, Schur EA
Endocr Rev 2023 Mar 4;44(2):281-296. doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnac023. PMID: 36251886Free PMC Article
Phan J, Ramos M, Soares T, Parmar MS
Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022;2022:7692215. Epub 2022 Oct 26 doi: 10.1155/2022/7692215. PMID: 36338344Free PMC Article
Mathur D, Mishra BK, Rout S, Lopez-Iranzo FJ, Lopez-Rodas G, Vallamkondu J, Kandimalla R, Casanova B
Int J Mol Sci 2021 Sep 25;22(19) doi: 10.3390/ijms221910323. PMID: 34638664Free PMC Article
Dubey D, Wilson MR, Clarkson B, Giannini C, Gandhi M, Cheville J, Lennon VA, Eggers S, Devine MF, Mandel-Brehm C, Kryzer T, Hinson SR, Khazaie K, Hales C, Kattah J, Pavelko KD, Andrews P, Eaton JE, Jitprapaikulsan J, Mills JR, Flanagan EP, Zekeridou A, Leibovich B, Fryer J, Torre M, Kaufman C, Thoreson JB, Sagen J, Linnoila JJ, DeRisi JL, Howe CL, McKeon A, Pittock SJ
JAMA Neurol 2020 Nov 1;77(11):1420-1429. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.2231. PMID: 32744608Free PMC Article
Prieto R, Pascual JM, Hofecker V, Winter E, Castro-Dufourny I, Carrasco R, Barrios L
Neurosurg Rev 2020 Apr;43(2):453-472. Epub 2018 Jul 24 doi: 10.1007/s10143-018-1010-9. PMID: 30043262

Clinical prediction guides

McMahon CL, Castro J, Silvas J, Muniz Perez A, Estrada M, Carrion R Jr, Hsieh J
Brain Behav Immun 2023 Aug;112:188-205. Epub 2023 Jun 16 doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2023.06.015. PMID: 37329995Free PMC Article
Sonnefeld L, Rohmann N, Geisler C, Laudes M
Eur J Endocrinol 2023 Mar 2;188(3):R37-R45. doi: 10.1093/ejendo/lvad030. PMID: 36883605
Sewaybricker LE, Huang A, Chandrasekaran S, Melhorn SJ, Schur EA
Endocr Rev 2023 Mar 4;44(2):281-296. doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnac023. PMID: 36251886Free PMC Article
Escartin C, Guillemaud O, Carrillo-de Sauvage MA
Glia 2019 Dec;67(12):2221-2247. Epub 2019 Aug 19 doi: 10.1002/glia.23687. PMID: 31429127
Bussian TJ, Aziz A, Meyer CF, Swenson BL, van Deursen JM, Baker DJ
Nature 2018 Oct;562(7728):578-582. Epub 2018 Sep 19 doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0543-y. PMID: 30232451Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Murray HC, Osterman C, Bell P, Vinnell L, Curtis MA
Acta Neuropathol Commun 2022 Aug 6;10(1):108. doi: 10.1186/s40478-022-01413-9. PMID: 35933388Free PMC Article
Kurz C, Walker L, Rauchmann BS, Perneczky R
Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2022 Apr;48(3):e12782. Epub 2022 Feb 2 doi: 10.1111/nan.12782. PMID: 34823269
Viejo L, Noori A, Merrill E, Das S, Hyman BT, Serrano-Pozo A
Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2022 Feb;48(1):e12753. Epub 2021 Aug 17 doi: 10.1111/nan.12753. PMID: 34297416Free PMC Article
Jagannath VA, Filippini G, Di Pietrantonj C, Asokan GV, Robak EW, Whamond L, Robinson SA
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Sep 24;9(9):CD008422. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008422.pub3. PMID: 30246874Free PMC Article
Wong JC, Armstrong MJ, Lang AE, Hazrati LN
Mov Disord 2013 Mar;28(3):274-81. Epub 2012 Oct 31 doi: 10.1002/mds.25232. PMID: 23114877

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Consumer resources

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...