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Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, musculocontractural type(EDSMC)

MedGen UID:
356497
Concept ID:
C1866294
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Adducted thumb, clubfoot, progressive joint and skin laxity syndrome; Adducted Thumb-Clubfoot Syndrome; ARTHROGRYPOSIS, DISTAL, WITH PECULIAR FACIES AND HYDRONEPHROSIS; DUNDAR SYNDROME; EDSMC
SNOMED CT: Ehlers-Danlos syndrome musculocontractural type (720860004); Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Kosho type (720860004); Adducted thumbs, arthrogryposis syndrome, Dundar type (720860004); Ehlers-Danlos syndrome arthrogryposic type (720860004)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0011142
OMIM®: 601776; 608429
Orphanet: ORPHA2953

Definition

Bleeding problems are common in the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and are caused by unpredictable tearing (rupture) of blood vessels and organs. These complications can lead to easy bruising, internal bleeding, a hole in the wall of the intestine (intestinal perforation), or stroke. During pregnancy, women with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome may experience rupture of the uterus. Additional forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome that involve rupture of the blood vessels include the kyphoscoliotic, classical, and classical-like types.

Other types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome have additional signs and symptoms. The cardiac-valvular type causes severe problems with the valves that control the movement of blood through the heart. People with the kyphoscoliotic type experience severe curvature of the spine that worsens over time and can interfere with breathing by restricting lung expansion. A type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome called brittle cornea syndrome is characterized by thinness of the clear covering of the eye (the cornea) and other eye abnormalities. The spondylodysplastic type features short stature and skeletal abnormalities such as abnormally curved (bowed) limbs. Abnormalities of muscles, including hypotonia and permanently bent joints (contractures), are among the characteristic signs of the musculocontractural and myopathic forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. The periodontal type causes abnormalities of the teeth and gums.

An unusually large range of joint movement (hypermobility) occurs in most forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and it is a hallmark feature of the hypermobile type. Infants and children with hypermobility often have weak muscle tone (hypotonia), which can delay the development of motor skills such as sitting, standing, and walking. The loose joints are unstable and prone to dislocation and chronic pain. In the arthrochalasia type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, infants have hypermobility and dislocations of both hips at birth.

Many people with the Ehlers-Danlos syndromes have soft, velvety skin that is highly stretchy (elastic) and fragile. Affected individuals tend to bruise easily, and some types of the condition also cause abnormal scarring. People with the classical form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome experience wounds that split open with little bleeding and leave scars that widen over time to create characteristic "cigarette paper" scars. The dermatosparaxis type of the disorder is characterized by loose skin that sags and wrinkles, and extra (redundant) folds of skin may be present.

The various forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome have been classified in several different ways. Originally, 11 forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome were named using Roman numerals to indicate the types (type I, type II, and so on). In 1997, researchers proposed a simpler classification (the Villefranche nomenclature) that reduced the number of types to six and gave them descriptive names based on their major features. In 2017, the classification was updated to include rare forms of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome that were identified more recently. The 2017 classification describes 13 types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of disorders that affect connective tissues supporting the skin, bones, blood vessels, and many other organs and tissues. Defects in connective tissues cause the signs and symptoms of these conditions, which range from mildly loose joints to life-threatening complications. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Hydronephrosis
MedGen UID:
42531
Concept ID:
C0020295
Disease or Syndrome
Severe distention of the kidney with dilation of the renal pelvis and calices.
Nephrotic syndrome
MedGen UID:
10308
Concept ID:
C0027726
Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of findings resulting from glomerular dysfunction with an increase in glomerular capillary wall permeability associated with pronounced proteinuria. Nephrotic syndrome refers to the constellation of clinical findings that result from severe renal loss of protein, with Proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia, edema, and hyperlipidemia.
Arachnodactyly
MedGen UID:
2047
Concept ID:
C0003706
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally long and slender fingers ("spider fingers").
Clubfoot
MedGen UID:
3130
Concept ID:
C0009081
Congenital Abnormality
Clubfoot is a congenital limb deformity defined as fixation of the foot in cavus, adductus, varus, and equinus (i.e., inclined inwards, axially rotated outwards, and pointing downwards) with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities (Cardy et al., 2007). Clubfoot may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome (e.g., diastrophic dysplasia, 222600). Clubfoot has been reported with deficiency of long bones and mirror-image polydactyly (Gurnett et al., 2008; Klopocki et al., 2012).
Thumbs, congenital Clasped
MedGen UID:
98140
Concept ID:
C0431886
Congenital Abnormality
In the resting position, the tip of the thumb is on, or near, the palm, close to the base of the fourth or fifth finger.
Aortic regurgitation
MedGen UID:
8153
Concept ID:
C0003504
Disease or Syndrome
An insufficiency of the aortic valve, leading to regurgitation (backward flow) of blood from the aorta into the left ventricle.
Atrial septal defect
MedGen UID:
6753
Concept ID:
C0018817
Congenital Abnormality
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital abnormality of the interatrial septum that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Mitral regurgitation
MedGen UID:
7670
Concept ID:
C0026266
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of the mitral valve characterized by insufficiency or incompetence of the mitral valve resulting in retrograde leaking of blood through the mitral valve upon ventricular contraction.
Mitral valve prolapse
MedGen UID:
7671
Concept ID:
C0026267
Disease or Syndrome
One or both of the leaflets (cusps) of the mitral valve bulges back into the left atrium upon contraction of the left ventricle.
Tricuspid regurgitation
MedGen UID:
11911
Concept ID:
C0040961
Disease or Syndrome
Failure of the tricuspid valve to close sufficiently upon contraction of the right ventricle, causing blood to regurgitate (flow backward) into the right atrium.
Tricuspid valve prolapse
MedGen UID:
11912
Concept ID:
C0040962
Disease or Syndrome
One or more of the leaflets (cusps) of the tricuspid valve bulges back into the right atrium upon contraction of the right ventricle.
Constipation
MedGen UID:
1101
Concept ID:
C0009806
Sign or Symptom
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of feces.
Intestinal malrotation
MedGen UID:
113153
Concept ID:
C0221210
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of the intestinal rotation and fixation that normally occurs during the development of the gut. This can lead to volvulus, or twisting of the intestine that causes obstruction and necrosis.
Abnormal duodenum morphology
MedGen UID:
871235
Concept ID:
C4025716
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormality of the duodenum, i.e., the first section of the small intestine.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
96566
Concept ID:
C0431478
Congenital Abnormality
A type of abnormal location of the ears in which the position of the ears is characterized by posterior rotation (the superior part of the ears is rotated towards the back of the head, and the inferior part of the ears towards the front).
Hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
235586
Concept ID:
C1384666
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased magnitude of the sensory perception of sound.
Protruding ear
MedGen UID:
343309
Concept ID:
C1855285
Finding
Angle formed by the plane of the ear and the mastoid bone greater than the 97th centile for age (objective); or, outer edge of the helix more than 2 cm from the mastoid at the point of maximum distance (objective).
Dysesthesia
MedGen UID:
97901
Concept ID:
C0392699
Disease or Syndrome
Painful sensations elicited by a nonpainful cutaneous stimulus such as a light touch or gentle stroking over affected areas of the body. Sometimes referred to as hyperpathia or hyperalgesia. Often perceived as an intense burning, dyesthesias may outlast the stimulus by several seconds.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Delayed gross motor development
MedGen UID:
332508
Concept ID:
C1837658
Finding
A type of motor delay characterized by a delay in acquiring the ability to control the large muscles of the body for walking, running, sitting, and crawling.
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Scarring
MedGen UID:
3093
Concept ID:
C0008767
Pathologic Function
A scar refers to a lesion in which wound, burn, or sore has not healed completely and fibrous connective tissue has developed.
Joint dislocation
MedGen UID:
41614
Concept ID:
C0012691
Injury or Poisoning
Displacement or malalignment of joints.
Umbilical hernia
MedGen UID:
9232
Concept ID:
C0019322
Anatomical Abnormality
Protrusion of abdominal contents through a defect in the abdominal wall musculature around the umbilicus. Skin and subcutaneous tissue overlie the defect.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Brachycephaly
MedGen UID:
113165
Concept ID:
C0221356
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a decreased anterior-posterior diameter. That is, a cephalic index greater than 81%. Alternatively, an apparently shortened anteroposterior dimension (length) of the head compared to width.
Diastasis recti
MedGen UID:
113171
Concept ID:
C0221766
Disease or Syndrome
A separation of the rectus abdominis muscle into right and left halves (which are normally joined at the midline at the linea alba).
Distal arthrogryposis
MedGen UID:
120512
Concept ID:
C0265213
Disease or Syndrome
An inherited primary limb malformation disorder characterized by congenital contractures of two or more different body areas and without primary neurologic and/or muscle disease that affects limb function.
Delayed cranial suture closure
MedGen UID:
75805
Concept ID:
C0277828
Finding
Infants normally have two fontanels at birth, the diamond-shaped anterior fontanelle at the junction of the coronal and sagittal sutures, and the posterior fontanelle at the intersection of the occipital and parietal bones. The posterior fontanelle usually closes by the 8th week of life, and the anterior fontanel closes by the 18th month of life on average. This term applies if there is delay of closure of the fontanelles beyond the normal age.
Large fontanelles
MedGen UID:
105329
Concept ID:
C0456132
Finding
In newborns, the two frontal bones, two parietal bones, and one occipital bone are joined by fibrous sutures, which form a small posterior fontanelle, and a larger, diamond-shaped anterior fontanelle. These regions allow for the skull to pass the birth canal and for later growth. The fontanelles gradually ossify, whereby the posterior fontanelle usually closes by eight weeks and the anterior fontanelle by the 9th to 16th month of age. Large fontanelles are diagnosed if the fontanelles are larger than age-dependent norms.
Microretrognathia
MedGen UID:
326907
Concept ID:
C1839546
Finding
A form of developmental hypoplasia of the mandible in which the mandible is mislocalised posteriorly.
Joint hypermobility
MedGen UID:
336793
Concept ID:
C1844820
Finding
The capability that a joint (or a group of joints) has to move, passively and/or actively, beyond normal limits along physiological axes.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Pectus excavatum
MedGen UID:
781174
Concept ID:
C2051831
Finding
A defect of the chest wall characterized by a depression of the sternum, giving the chest ("pectus") a caved-in ("excavatum") appearance.
Hiatus hernia
MedGen UID:
483347
Concept ID:
C3489393
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of a hernia in which the upper part of the stomach, i.e., mainly the gastric cardia protrudes through the diaphragmatic esophageal hiatus.
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita
MedGen UID:
1830310
Concept ID:
C5779613
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital contractures in different body areas.
Pneumothorax
MedGen UID:
19365
Concept ID:
C0032326
Disease or Syndrome
Accumulation of air in the pleural cavity leading to a partially or completely collapsed lung.
Recurrent skin infections
MedGen UID:
377848
Concept ID:
C1853193
Disease or Syndrome
Infections of the skin that happen multiple times.
Narrow mouth
MedGen UID:
44435
Concept ID:
C0026034
Congenital Abnormality
Distance between the commissures of the mouth more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased width of the oral aperture (subjective).
Abnormality of the mouth
MedGen UID:
6447
Concept ID:
C0026633
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of the mouth.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Telecanthus
MedGen UID:
140836
Concept ID:
C0423113
Finding
Distance between the inner canthi more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparently increased distance between the inner canthi.
Abnormal facial shape
MedGen UID:
98409
Concept ID:
C0424503
Finding
An abnormal morphology (form) of the face or its components.
Facial asymmetry
MedGen UID:
266298
Concept ID:
C1306710
Finding
An abnormal difference between the left and right sides of the face.
Broad forehead
MedGen UID:
338610
Concept ID:
C1849089
Finding
Width of the forehead or distance between the frontotemporales is more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or apparently increased distance between the two sides of the forehead.
Short nose
MedGen UID:
343052
Concept ID:
C1854114
Finding
Distance from nasion to subnasale more than two standard deviations below the mean, or alternatively, an apparently decreased length from the nasal root to the nasal tip.
Short columella
MedGen UID:
341783
Concept ID:
C1857479
Finding
Reduced distance from the anterior border of the naris to the subnasale.
Flat forehead
MedGen UID:
347463
Concept ID:
C1857485
Finding
A forehead with abnormal flatness.
Long philtrum
MedGen UID:
351278
Concept ID:
C1865014
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Thin upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
355352
Concept ID:
C1865017
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the midline more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Ecchymosis
MedGen UID:
8524
Concept ID:
C0013491
Finding
A purpuric lesion that is larger than 1 cm in diameter.
Atrophic scars
MedGen UID:
57875
Concept ID:
C0162154
Pathologic Function
Scars that form a depression compared to the level of the surrounding skin because of damage to the collagen, fat or other tissues below the skin.
Hyperextensible skin
MedGen UID:
66023
Concept ID:
C0241074
Finding
A condition in which the skin can be stretched beyond normal, and then returns to its initial position.
Fragile skin
MedGen UID:
66826
Concept ID:
C0241181
Finding
Skin that splits easily with minimal injury.
Bruising susceptibility
MedGen UID:
140849
Concept ID:
C0423798
Finding
An ecchymosis (bruise) refers to the skin discoloration caused by the escape of blood into the tissues from ruptured blood vessels. This term refers to an abnormally increased susceptibility to bruising. The corresponding phenotypic abnormality is generally elicited on medical history as a report of frequent ecchymoses or bruising without adequate trauma.
Astigmatism
MedGen UID:
2473
Concept ID:
C0004106
Disease or Syndrome
Astigmatism (from the Greek 'a' meaning absence and 'stigma' meaning point) is a condition in which the parallel rays of light entering the eye through the refractive media are not focused on a single point. Both corneal and noncorneal factors contribute to refractive astigmatism. Corneal astigmatism is mainly the result of an aspheric anterior surface of the cornea, which can be measured readily by means of a keratometer; in a small fraction of cases (approximately 1 in 10) the effect is neutralized by the back surface. The curvature of the back surface of the cornea is not considered in most studies, because it is more difficult to measure; moreover, in the case of severe corneal astigmatism, there is evidence that both surfaces have the same configuration. Noncorneal factors are errors in the curvature of the 2 surfaces of the crystalline lens, irregularity in the refractive index of the lens, and an eccentric lens position. Since the cornea is the dominant component of the eye's refracting system, a highly astigmatic cornea is likely to result in a similarly astigmatic ocular refraction (summary by Clementi et al., 1998).
Glaucoma
MedGen UID:
42224
Concept ID:
C0017601
Disease or Syndrome
Glaucoma refers loss of retinal ganglion cells in a characteristic pattern of optic neuropathy usually associated with increased intraocular pressure.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Myopia
MedGen UID:
44558
Concept ID:
C0027092
Disease or Syndrome
Nearsightedness, also known as myopia, is an eye condition that causes blurry distance vision. People who are nearsighted have more trouble seeing things that are far away (such as when driving) than things that are close up (such as when reading or using a computer). If it is not treated with corrective lenses or surgery, nearsightedness can lead to squinting, eyestrain, headaches, and significant visual impairment.\n\nNearsightedness usually begins in childhood or adolescence. It tends to worsen with age until adulthood, when it may stop getting worse (stabilize). In some people, nearsightedness improves in later adulthood.\n\nFor normal vision, light passes through the clear cornea at the front of the eye and is focused by the lens onto the surface of the retina, which is the lining of the back of the eye that contains light-sensing cells. People who are nearsighted typically have eyeballs that are too long from front to back. As a result, light entering the eye is focused too far forward, in front of the retina instead of on its surface. It is this change that causes distant objects to appear blurry. The longer the eyeball is, the farther forward light rays will be focused and the more severely nearsighted a person will be.\n\nNearsightedness is measured by how powerful a lens must be to correct it. The standard unit of lens power is called a diopter. Negative (minus) powered lenses are used to correct nearsightedness. The more severe a person's nearsightedness, the larger the number of diopters required for correction. In an individual with nearsightedness, one eye may be more nearsighted than the other.\n\nEye doctors often refer to nearsightedness less than -5 or -6 diopters as "common myopia." Nearsightedness of -6 diopters or more is commonly called "high myopia." This distinction is important because high myopia increases a person's risk of developing other eye problems that can lead to permanent vision loss or blindness. These problems include tearing and detachment of the retina, clouding of the lens (cataract), and an eye disease called glaucoma that is usually related to increased pressure within the eye. The risk of these other eye problems increases with the severity of the nearsightedness. The term "pathological myopia" is used to describe cases in which high myopia leads to tissue damage within the eye.
Retinal detachment
MedGen UID:
19759
Concept ID:
C0035305
Disease or Syndrome
Primary or spontaneous detachment of the retina occurs due to underlying ocular disease and often involves the vitreous as well as the retina. The precipitating event is formation of a retinal tear or hole, which permits fluid to accumulate under the sensory layers of the retina and creates an intraretinal cleavage that destroys the neurosensory process of visual reception. Vitreoretinal degeneration and tear formation are painless phenomena, and in most cases, significant vitreoretinal pathology is found only after detachment of the retina starts to cause loss of vision or visual field. Without surgical intervention, retinal detachment will almost inevitably lead to total blindness (summary by McNiel and McPherson, 1971).
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.
Microcornea
MedGen UID:
78610
Concept ID:
C0266544
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital abnormality of the cornea in which the cornea and the anterior segment of the eye are smaller than normal. The horizontal diameter of the cornea does not reach 10 mm even in adulthood.
Blue sclerae
MedGen UID:
154236
Concept ID:
C0542514
Finding
An abnormal bluish coloration of the sclera.
Abnormal anterior chamber morphology
MedGen UID:
463532
Concept ID:
C3152182
Finding
Abnormality of the anterior chamber, which is the space in the eye that is behind the cornea and in front of the iris.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVEhlers-Danlos syndrome, musculocontractural type

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Stephenson KJ, Shewmake CN, Bowman SM, Kalkwarf KJ, Wyrick DL, Dassinger MS, Maxson RT
Am J Surg 2022 Dec;224(6):1445-1449. Epub 2022 Aug 29 doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2022.08.017. PMID: 36058750

Diagnosis

Sandal S, Kaur A, Panigrahi I
BMJ Case Rep 2018 Sep 23;2018 doi: 10.1136/bcr-2018-226165. PMID: 30249733Free PMC Article
Kosho T
Pediatr Int 2016 Feb;58(2):88-99. doi: 10.1111/ped.12878. PMID: 26646600

Therapy

Faber ML, Oldham RAA, Thakur A, Rademacher MJ, Kubicka E, Dlugi TA, Gifford SA, McKillop WM, Schloemer NJ, Lum LG, Medin JA
Front Immunol 2023;14:1225610. Epub 2023 Aug 14 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2023.1225610. PMID: 37646042Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Ho JPY, Park SY, Nam HS, Cho JH, Lee YS
Knee 2023 Dec;45:35-45. Epub 2023 Sep 27 doi: 10.1016/j.knee.2023.09.003. PMID: 37774563
Stephenson KJ, Shewmake CN, Bowman SM, Kalkwarf KJ, Wyrick DL, Dassinger MS, Maxson RT
Am J Surg 2022 Dec;224(6):1445-1449. Epub 2022 Aug 29 doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2022.08.017. PMID: 36058750
Uehara M, Oba H, Hatakenaka T, Ikegami S, Kuraishi S, Takizawa T, Munakata R, Mimura T, Yamaguchi T, Kosho T, Takahashi J
World Neurosurg 2020 Nov;143:454-461. Epub 2020 Aug 19 doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2020.08.085. PMID: 32822956

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