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Corneal opacity

MedGen UID:
40485
Concept ID:
C0010038
Finding
Synonyms: Corneal Opacities; Corneal Opacity; Leukoma; Leukomas; Opacities, Corneal; Opacity, Corneal
SNOMED CT: Corneal opacity (64634000); Corneal subepithelial haze (413921009); Corneal haze (413921009)
 
HPO: HP:0007957

Definition

A reduction of corneal clarity. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Congenital ocular coloboma
MedGen UID:
1046
Concept ID:
C0009363
Congenital Abnormality
Coloboma is an eye abnormality that occurs before birth. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in one of several parts of the eye, including the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain.\n\nColobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision. Colobomas affecting the iris, which result in a "keyhole" appearance of the pupil, generally do not lead to vision loss. Colobomas involving the retina result in vision loss in specific parts of the visual field. Large retinal colobomas or those affecting the optic nerve can cause low vision, which means vision loss that cannot be completely corrected with glasses or contact lenses.\n\nSome people with coloboma also have a condition called microphthalmia. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.\n\nPeople with coloboma may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract), increased pressure inside the eye (glaucoma) that can damage the optic nerve, vision problems such as nearsightedness (myopia), involuntary back-and-forth eye movements (nystagmus), or separation of the retina from the back of the eye (retinal detachment).\n\nSome individuals have coloboma as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When coloboma occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.\n\nColobomas involving the eyeball should be distinguished from gaps that occur in the eyelids. While these eyelid gaps are also called colobomas, they arise from abnormalities in different structures during early development.
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-I-S
MedGen UID:
6453
Concept ID:
C0026708
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive multisystem disorder with features ranging over a continuum of severity. While affected individuals have traditionally been classified as having one of three MPS I syndromes (Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome, or Scheie syndrome), no easily measurable biochemical differences have been identified and the clinical findings overlap. Affected individuals are best described as having either a phenotype consistent with either severe (Hurler syndrome) or attenuated MPS I, a distinction that influences therapeutic options. Severe MPS I. Infants appear normal at birth. Typical early manifestations are nonspecific (e.g., umbilical or inguinal hernia, frequent upper respiratory tract infections before age 1 year). Coarsening of the facial features may not become apparent until after age one year. Gibbus deformity of the lower spine is common and often noted within the first year. Progressive skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex) involving all bones is universal, as is progressive arthropathy involving most joints. By age three years, linear growth decreases. Intellectual disability is progressive and profound but may not be readily apparent in the first year of life. Progressive cardiorespiratory involvement, hearing loss, and corneal clouding are common. Without treatment, death (typically from cardiorespiratory failure) usually occurs within the first ten years of life. Attenuated MPS I. Clinical onset is usually between ages three and ten years. The severity and rate of disease progression range from serious life-threatening complications leading to death in the second to third decade, to a normal life span complicated by significant disability from progressive joint manifestations and cardiorespiratory disease. While some individuals have no neurologic involvement and psychomotor development may be normal in early childhood, learning disabilities and psychiatric manifestations can be present later in life. Hearing loss, cardiac valvular disease, respiratory involvement, and corneal clouding are common.
Mucopolysaccharidosis type 6
MedGen UID:
44514
Concept ID:
C0026709
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS6) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of arylsulfatase B. Clinical features and severity are variable, but usually include short stature, hepatosplenomegaly, dysostosis multiplex, stiff joints, corneal clouding, cardiac abnormalities, and facial dysmorphism. Intelligence is usually normal (Azevedo et al., 2004).
Mucopolysaccharidosis type 7
MedGen UID:
43108
Concept ID:
C0085132
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS7) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease characterized by the inability to degrade glucuronic acid-containing glycosaminoglycans. The phenotype is highly variable, ranging from severe lethal hydrops fetalis to mild forms with survival into adulthood. Most patients with the intermediate phenotype show hepatomegaly, skeletal anomalies, coarse facies, and variable degrees of mental impairment (Shipley et al., 1993). MPS VII was the first autosomal mucopolysaccharidosis for which chromosomal assignment was achieved.
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-I-H/S
MedGen UID:
88566
Concept ID:
C0086431
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive multisystem disorder with features ranging over a continuum of severity. While affected individuals have traditionally been classified as having one of three MPS I syndromes (Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome, or Scheie syndrome), no easily measurable biochemical differences have been identified and the clinical findings overlap. Affected individuals are best described as having either a phenotype consistent with either severe (Hurler syndrome) or attenuated MPS I, a distinction that influences therapeutic options. Severe MPS I. Infants appear normal at birth. Typical early manifestations are nonspecific (e.g., umbilical or inguinal hernia, frequent upper respiratory tract infections before age 1 year). Coarsening of the facial features may not become apparent until after age one year. Gibbus deformity of the lower spine is common and often noted within the first year. Progressive skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex) involving all bones is universal, as is progressive arthropathy involving most joints. By age three years, linear growth decreases. Intellectual disability is progressive and profound but may not be readily apparent in the first year of life. Progressive cardiorespiratory involvement, hearing loss, and corneal clouding are common. Without treatment, death (typically from cardiorespiratory failure) usually occurs within the first ten years of life. Attenuated MPS I. Clinical onset is usually between ages three and ten years. The severity and rate of disease progression range from serious life-threatening complications leading to death in the second to third decade, to a normal life span complicated by significant disability from progressive joint manifestations and cardiorespiratory disease. While some individuals have no neurologic involvement and psychomotor development may be normal in early childhood, learning disabilities and psychiatric manifestations can be present later in life. Hearing loss, cardiac valvular disease, respiratory involvement, and corneal clouding are common.
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-IV-B
MedGen UID:
43376
Concept ID:
C0086652
Disease or Syndrome
GLB1-related disorders comprise two phenotypically distinct lysosomal storage disorders: GM1 gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis type IVB (MPS IVB). The phenotype of GM1 gangliosidosis constitutes a spectrum ranging from severe (infantile) to intermediate (late-infantile and juvenile) to mild (chronic/adult). Type I (infantile) GM1 gangliosidosis begins before age 12 months. Prenatal manifestations may include nonimmune hydrops fetalis, intrauterine growth restriction, and placental vacuolization; congenital dermal melanocytosis (Mongolian spots) may be observed. Macular cherry-red spot is detected on eye exam. Progressive central nervous system dysfunction leads to spasticity and rapid regression; blindness, deafness, decerebrate rigidity, seizures, feeding difficulties, and oral secretions are observed. Life expectancy is two to three years. Type II can be subdivided into the late-infantile (onset age 1-3 years) and juvenile (onset age 3-10 years) phenotypes. Central nervous system dysfunction manifests as progressive cognitive, motor, and speech decline as measured by psychometric testing. There may be mild corneal clouding, hepatosplenomegaly, and/or cardiomyopathy; the typical course is characterized by progressive neurologic decline, progressive skeletal disease in some individuals (including kyphosis and avascular necrosis of the femoral heads), and progressive feeding difficulties leading to aspiration risk. Type III begins in late childhood to the third decade with generalized dystonia leading to unsteady gait and speech disturbance followed by extrapyramidal signs including akinetic-rigid parkinsonism. Cardiomyopathy develops in some and skeletal involvement occurs in most. Intellectual impairment is common late in the disease with prognosis directly related to the degree of neurologic impairment. MPS IVB is characterized by skeletal dysplasia with specific findings of axial and appendicular dysostosis multiplex, short stature (below 15th centile in adults), kyphoscoliosis, coxa/genu valga, joint laxity, platyspondyly, and odontoid hypoplasia. First signs and symptoms may be apparent at birth. Bony involvement is progressive, with more than 84% of adults requiring ambulation aids; life span does not appear to be limited. Corneal clouding is detected in some individuals and cardiac valvular disease may develop.
Hurler syndrome
MedGen UID:
39698
Concept ID:
C0086795
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive multisystem disorder with features ranging over a continuum of severity. While affected individuals have traditionally been classified as having one of three MPS I syndromes (Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome, or Scheie syndrome), no easily measurable biochemical differences have been identified and the clinical findings overlap. Affected individuals are best described as having either a phenotype consistent with either severe (Hurler syndrome) or attenuated MPS I, a distinction that influences therapeutic options. Severe MPS I. Infants appear normal at birth. Typical early manifestations are nonspecific (e.g., umbilical or inguinal hernia, frequent upper respiratory tract infections before age 1 year). Coarsening of the facial features may not become apparent until after age one year. Gibbus deformity of the lower spine is common and often noted within the first year. Progressive skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex) involving all bones is universal, as is progressive arthropathy involving most joints. By age three years, linear growth decreases. Intellectual disability is progressive and profound but may not be readily apparent in the first year of life. Progressive cardiorespiratory involvement, hearing loss, and corneal clouding are common. Without treatment, death (typically from cardiorespiratory failure) usually occurs within the first ten years of life. Attenuated MPS I. Clinical onset is usually between ages three and ten years. The severity and rate of disease progression range from serious life-threatening complications leading to death in the second to third decade, to a normal life span complicated by significant disability from progressive joint manifestations and cardiorespiratory disease. While some individuals have no neurologic involvement and psychomotor development may be normal in early childhood, learning disabilities and psychiatric manifestations can be present later in life. Hearing loss, cardiac valvular disease, respiratory involvement, and corneal clouding are common.
Radial aplasia-thrombocytopenia syndrome
MedGen UID:
61235
Concept ID:
C0175703
Disease or Syndrome
Thrombocytopenia absent radius (TAR) syndrome is characterized by bilateral absence of the radii with the presence of both thumbs, and thrombocytopenia that is generally transient. Thrombocytopenia may be congenital or may develop within the first few weeks to months of life; in general, thrombocytopenic episodes decrease with age. Cow's milk allergy is common and can be associated with exacerbation of thrombocytopenia. Other anomalies of the skeleton (upper and lower limbs, ribs, and vertebrae), heart, and genitourinary system (renal anomalies and agenesis of uterus, cervix, and upper part of the vagina) can occur.
Larsen syndrome
MedGen UID:
104500
Concept ID:
C0175778
Disease or Syndrome
The FLNB disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from mild to severe. At the mild end are spondylocarpotarsal synostosis (SCT) syndrome and Larsen syndrome; at the severe end are the phenotypic continuum of atelosteogenesis types I (AOI) and III (AOIII) and Piepkorn osteochondrodysplasia (POCD). SCT syndrome is characterized by postnatal disproportionate short stature, scoliosis and lordosis, clubfeet, hearing loss, dental enamel hypoplasia, carpal and tarsal synostosis, and vertebral fusions. Larsen syndrome is characterized by congenital dislocations of the hip, knee, and elbow; clubfeet (equinovarus or equinovalgus foot deformities); scoliosis and cervical kyphosis, which can be associated with a cervical myelopathy; short, broad, spatulate distal phalanges; distinctive craniofacies (prominent forehead, depressed nasal bridge, malar flattening, and widely spaced eyes); vertebral anomalies; and supernumerary carpal and tarsal bone ossification centers. Individuals with SCT syndrome and Larsen syndrome can have midline cleft palate and hearing loss. AOI and AOIII are characterized by severe short-limbed dwarfism; dislocated hips, knees, and elbows; and clubfeet. AOI is lethal in the perinatal period. In individuals with AOIII, survival beyond the neonatal period is possible with intensive and invasive respiratory support. Piepkorn osteochondrodysplasia (POCD) is a perinatal-lethal micromelic dwarfism characterized by flipper-like limbs (polysyndactyly with complete syndactyly of all fingers and toes, hypoplastic or absent first digits, and duplicated intermediate and distal phalanges), macrobrachycephaly, prominant forehead, hypertelorism, and exophthalmos. Occasional features include cleft palate, omphalocele, and cardiac and genitourinary anomalies. The radiographic features at mid-gestation are characteristic.
Mucolipidosis type IV
MedGen UID:
68663
Concept ID:
C0238286
Disease or Syndrome
Mucolipidosis IV (MLIV) is an ultra-rare lysosomal storage disorder characterized by severe psychomotor delay, progressive visual impairment, and achlorhydria. Individuals with MLIV typically present by the end of the first year of life with delayed developmental milestones (due to a developmental brain abnormality) and impaired vision (resulting from a combination of corneal clouding and retinal degeneration). By adolescence, all individuals with MLIV have severe visual impairment. A neurodegenerative component of MLIV has become more widely appreciated, with the majority of individuals demonstrating progressive spastic quadriparesis and loss of psychomotor skills starting in the second decade of life. About 5% of individuals have atypical MLIV, manifesting with less severe psychomotor impairment, but still exhibiting progressive retinal degeneration and achlorhydria.
Atrophia bulborum hereditaria
MedGen UID:
75615
Concept ID:
C0266526
Congenital Abnormality
Norrie disease is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by very early childhood blindness due to degenerative and proliferative changes of the neuroretina. Approximately 50% of patients show some form of progressive mental disorder, often with psychotic features, and about one-third of patients develop sensorineural deafness in the second decade. In addition, some patients have more complex phenotypes, including growth failure and seizures (Berger et al., 1992). Warburg (1966) noted confusion of the terms 'pseudoglioma' and microphthalmia with Norrie disease in the literature. 'Pseudoglioma' is a nonspecific term for any condition resembling retinoblastoma and can have diverse causes, including inflammation, hemorrhage, trauma, neoplasia, or congenital malformation, and often shows unilateral involvement. Thus, 'pseudoglioma' is not an acceptable clinical or pathologic diagnosis (Duke-Elder, 1958).
Multiple sulfatase deficiency
MedGen UID:
75664
Concept ID:
C0268263
Disease or Syndrome
Initial symptoms of multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) can develop from infancy through early childhood, and presentation is widely variable. Some individuals display the multisystemic features characteristic of mucopolysaccharidosis disorders (e.g., developmental regression, organomegaly, skeletal deformities) while other individuals present primarily with neurologic regression (associated with leukodystrophy). Based on age of onset, rate of progression, and disease severity, several different clinical subtypes of MSD have been described: Neonatal MSD is the most severe with presentation in the prenatal period or at birth with rapid progression and death occurring within the first two years of life. Infantile MSD is the most common variant and may be characterized as attenuated (slower clinical course with cognitive disability and neurodegeneration identified in the 2nd year of life) or severe (loss of the majority of developmental milestones by age 5 years). Juvenile MSD is the rarest subtype with later onset of symptoms and subacute clinical presentation. Many of the features found in MSD are progressive, including neurologic deterioration, heart disease, hearing loss, and airway compromise.
Reis-Bucklers corneal dystrophy
MedGen UID:
83284
Concept ID:
C0339278
Disease or Syndrome
Reis-Bucklers corneal dystrophy (CDRB) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the superficial corneal stroma that manifests as recurrent corneal erosions in early childhood. Affected individuals develop corneal opacities that result in significant visual impairment. Microscopically, CDRB may be differentiated from other forms of corneal dystrophy by confluent opacities in the Bowman layer and subepithelium, which are the product of extracellular bodies that stain red with Masson trichrome stain and appear as crystalloid rod-shaped bodies on transmission electron microscopy (summary by Tanhehco et al., 2006).
Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome
MedGen UID:
95931
Concept ID:
C0392475
Disease or Syndrome
ESCO2 spectrum disorder is characterized by mild-to-severe prenatal growth restriction, limb malformations (which can include bilateral symmetric tetraphocomelia or hypomelia caused by mesomelic shortening), hand anomalies (including oligodactyly, thumb aplasia or hypoplasia, and syndactyly), elbow and knee flexion contractures (involving elbows, wrists, knees, ankles, and feet [talipes equinovarus]), and craniofacial abnormalities (which can include bilateral cleft lip and/or cleft palate, micrognathia, widely spaced eyes, exophthalmos, downslanted palpebral fissures, malar flattening, and underdeveloped ala nasi), ear malformation, and corneal opacities. Intellectual disability (ranging from mild to severe) is common. Early mortality is common among severely affected pregnancies and newborns; mildly affected individuals may survive to adulthood.
Winchester syndrome
MedGen UID:
98152
Concept ID:
C0432289
Disease or Syndrome
Winchester syndrome (WNCHRS) presents with severe osteolysis in the hands and feet and generalized osteoporosis and bone thinning, similar to multicentric osteolysis, nodulosis, and arthropathy (MONA; 259600), but subcutaneous nodules are characteristically absent. Various additional features including coarse face, corneal opacities, gum hypertrophy, and EKG changes have been reported (summary by Zankl et al., 2007). Reviews Winter (1989) provided a review of Winchester syndrome. De Vos et al. (2019) reviewed Winchester syndrome, Frank-Ter Haar syndrome (249420), and MONA, tabulating the clinical features of 63 reported patients and noting significant overlap, including craniofacial malformations, reduced bone density, skeletal and cardiac anomalies, and dermal fibrosis. Because the protein products of all 3 causative genes (MMP14; SH3PXD2B, 613293; MMP2, 120360) are involved in collagen remodeling, the authors suggested grouping them together in a revised nosologic classification, designated 'defective collagen-remodeling spectrum (DECORS).'
3MC syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
208657
Concept ID:
C0796032
Disease or Syndrome
The term '3MC syndrome' encompasses 4 rare autosomal recessive disorders that were previously designated the Carnevale, Mingarelli, Malpuech, and Michels syndromes, respectively. The main features of these syndromes are facial dysmorphism that includes hypertelorism, blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis, and highly arched eyebrows, which are present in 70 to 95% of cases. Cleft lip and palate, postnatal growth deficiency, cognitive impairment, and hearing loss are also consistent findings, occurring in 40 to 68% of cases. Craniosynostosis, radioulnar synostosis, and genital and vesicorenal anomalies occur in 20 to 30% of cases. Rare features include anterior chamber defects, cardiac anomalies, caudal appendage, umbilical hernia (omphalocele), and diastasis recti (summary by Rooryck et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3MC syndrome, see 3MC1 (257920).
Microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphedema, or intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
320559
Concept ID:
C1835265
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly with or without chorioretinopathy, lymphedema, or impaired intellectual development (MCLMR) is an autosomal dominant disorder that involves an overlapping but variable spectrum of central nervous system and ocular developmental anomalies. Microcephaly ranges from mild to severe and is often associated with mild to moderate developmental delay and a characteristic facial phenotype with upslanting palpebral fissures, broad nose with rounded tip, long philtrum with thin upper lip, prominent chin, and prominent ears. Chorioretinopathy is the most common eye abnormality, but retinal folds, microphthalmia, and myopic and hypermetropic astigmatism have also been reported, and some individuals have no overt ocular phenotype. Congenital lymphedema, when present, is typically confined to the dorsa of the feet, and lymphoscintigraphy reveals the absence of radioactive isotope uptake from the webspaces between the toes (summary by Ostergaard et al., 2012). Robitaille et al. (2014) found that MCLMR includes a broader spectrum of ocular disease, including retinal detachment with avascularity of the peripheral retina, and noted phenotypic overlap with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR; see EVR1, 133780). Birtel et al. (2017) observed intrafamilial and intraindividual variability in retinal phenotype, and noted that syndromic manifestations in some patients are too subtle to be detected during a routine ophthalmologic evaluation. Variable expressivity and reduced penetrance have also been observed in some families (Jones et al., 2014; Li et al., 2016). Autosomal recessive forms of microcephaly with chorioretinopathy have been reported (see 251270). See also Mirhosseini-Holmes-Walton syndrome (autosomal recessive microcephaly with pigmentary retinopathy and impaired intellectual development; 268050), which has been mapped to chromosome 8q21.3-q22.1.
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis 11
MedGen UID:
332073
Concept ID:
C1835851
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a heterogeneous group of disorders of keratinization characterized primarily by abnormal skin scaling over the whole body. These disorders are limited to skin, with approximately two-thirds of patients presenting severe symptoms. The main skin phenotypes are lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NCIE), although phenotypic overlap within the same patient or among patients from the same family can occur (summary by Fischer, 2009). Neither histopathologic findings nor ultrastructural features clearly distinguish between NCIE and LI. In addition, mutations in several genes have been shown to cause both lamellar and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythrodermal phenotypes (Akiyama et al., 2003). At the First Ichthyosis Consensus Conference in Soreze in 2009, the term 'autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis' (ARCI) was designated to encompass LI, NCIE, and harlequin ichthyosis (ARCI4B; 242500) (Oji et al., 2010). NCIE is characterized by prominent erythroderma and fine white, superficial, semiadherent scales. Most patients present with collodion membrane at birth and have palmoplantar keratoderma, often with painful fissures, digital contractures, and loss of pulp volume. In half of the cases, a nail dystrophy including ridging, subungual hyperkeratosis, or hypoplasia has been described. Ectropion, eclabium, scalp involvement, and loss of eyebrows and lashes seem to be more frequent in NCIE than in lamellar ichthyosis (summary by Fischer et al., 2000). In LI, the scales are large, adherent, dark, and pigmented with no skin erythema. Overlapping phenotypes may depend on the age of the patient and the region of the body. The terminal differentiation of the epidermis is perturbed in both forms, leading to reduced barrier function and defects of lipid composition in the stratum corneum (summary by Lefevre et al., 2006). In later life, the skin in ARCI may have scales that cover the entire body surface, including the flexural folds, and the scales are highly variable in size and color. Erythema may be very mild and almost invisible. Some affected persons exhibit scarring alopecia, and many have secondary anhidrosis (summary by Eckl et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis, see ARCI1 (242300).
Al-Gazali syndrome
MedGen UID:
373020
Concept ID:
C1836121
Disease or Syndrome
Al-Gazali syndrome (ALGAZ) is characterized by prenatal growth retardation, skeletal anomalies including joint contractures, camptodactyly, and bilateral talipes equinovarus, small mouth, anterior segment eye anomalies, and early lethality (summary by Ben-Mahmoud et al., 2018).
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia-cone-rod dystrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
324684
Concept ID:
C1837073
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with cone-rod dystrophy (SMDCRD) is characterized by postnatal growth deficiency resulting in profound short stature, rhizomelia with bowing of the lower extremities, platyspondyly with anterior vertebral protrusions, progressive metaphyseal irregularity and cupping with shortened tubular bones, and early-onset progressive visual impairment associated with a pigmentary maculopathy and electroretinographic evidence of cone-rod dysfunction (summary by Hoover-Fong et al., 2014). Yamamoto et al. (2014) reviewed 16 reported cases of SMDCRD, noting that all affected individuals presented uniform skeletal findings, with rhizomelia and bowed lower limbs observed in the first year of life, whereas retinal dystrophy had a more variable age of onset. There was severe disproportionate short stature, with a final height of less than 100 cm; scoliosis was usually mild. Visual loss was progressive, with stabilization in adolescence.
Intellectual disability-brachydactyly-Pierre Robin syndrome
MedGen UID:
325196
Concept ID:
C1837564
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual disability-brachydactyly-Pierre Robin syndrome is a rare developmental defect during embryogenesis syndrome characterized by mild to moderate intellectual disability and phsychomotor delay, Robin sequence (incl. severe micrognathia and soft palate cleft) and distinct dysmorphic facial features (e.g. synophris, short palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, small, low-set, and posteriorly angulated ears, bulbous nose, long/flat philtrum, and bow-shaped upper lip). Skeletal anomalies, such as brachydactyly, clinodactyly, small hands and feet, and oral manifestations (e.g. bifid, short tongue, oligodontia) are also associated. Additional features reported include microcephaly, capillary hemangiomas on face and scalp, ventricular septal defect, corneal clouding, nystagmus and profound sensorineural deafness.
X-linked corneal dermoid
MedGen UID:
375481
Concept ID:
C1844671
Disease or Syndrome
An exceedingly rare, benign, congenital, corneal tumour characterised by bilateral opacification of the cornea with superficial greyish layers and irregular raised whitish plaques, as well as fine blood vessels covering the central cornea, and intact peripheral corneal borders. No other ocular or systemic abnormality is noted. The pattern of inheritance described in the affected family is consistent with X-linked transmission.
Brachyolmia type 1, Hobaek type
MedGen UID:
338605
Concept ID:
C1849055
Disease or Syndrome
Rock et al. (2008) provided an overview of the brachyolmias, a heterogeneous group of skeletal dysplasias that affect primarily the spine. Type 1 brachyolmia includes the Hobaek and Toledo (BCYM1B; 271630) forms, which are inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. Both forms of type 1 are characterized by scoliosis, platyspondyly with rectangular and elongated vertebral bodies, overfaced pedicles, and irregular, narrow intervertebral spaces. The Toledo form is distinguished by the presence of corneal opacities and precocious calcification of the costal cartilage. Type 2 brachyolmia (BCYM2; 613678), sometimes referred to as the Maroteaux type, is also an autosomal recessive disorder, primarily distinguished from type 1 by rounded vertebral bodies and less overfaced pedicles. Some cases are associated with precocious calcification of the falx cerebri. Type 3 brachyolmia (BCYM3; 113500) is an autosomal dominant form, caused by mutation in the TRPV4 gene (605427), with severe kyphoscoliosis and flattened, irregular cervical vertebrae. Paradoxically, although the limbs are mildly shortened in all types of brachyolmia, they show minimal epiphyseal and metaphyseal abnormalities on radiographs. Type 4 brachyolmia (BCYM4; 612847) is an autosomal recessive form, caused by mutation in the PAPSS2 gene (603005), with mild epiphyseal and metaphyseal changes.
Multicentric osteolysis nodulosis arthropathy spectrum
MedGen UID:
342428
Concept ID:
C1850155
Disease or Syndrome
Multicentric osteolysis nodulosis and arthropathy (MONA) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by progressive osteolysis (particularly of the carpal and tarsal bones), osteoporosis, subcutaneous nodules on the palms and soles, and progressive arthropathy (joint contractures, pain, swelling, and stiffness). Other manifestations include coarse facies, pigmented skin lesions, cardiac defects, and corneal opacities. Onset is usually between ages six months and six years (range: birth to 11 years).
Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy 1
MedGen UID:
343836
Concept ID:
C1852555
Disease or Syndrome
A posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy that has material basis in autosomal dominant inheritance of mutation in the OVOL2 gene on chromosome 20p11.23.
Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy 2
MedGen UID:
377757
Concept ID:
C1852795
Disease or Syndrome
Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy-2 (PPCD2) is characterized by formation of blister-like lesions within the corneal endothelium or by regions of endothelial basement membrane thickening with associated corneal edema. The normal amitotic endothelial cells are replaced by epithelial-like cells that possess abundant intermediate filaments, desmosomes, and microvilli. The endothelium becomes multilayered and the abnormally proliferating cells may extend outwards from the cornea over the trabecular meshwork to cause glaucoma (summary by Biswas et al., 2001). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PPCD, see PPCD1 (122000).
Congenital primary aphakia
MedGen UID:
339935
Concept ID:
C1853230
Congenital Abnormality
Anterior segment dysgeneses are a heterogeneous group of developmental disorders affecting the anterior segment of the eye, including the cornea, iris, lens, trabecular meshwork, and Schlemm canal. The clinical features of ASGD include iris hypoplasia, an enlarged or reduced corneal diameter, corneal vascularization and opacity, posterior embryotoxon, corectopia, polycoria, an abnormal iridocorneal angle, ectopia lentis, and anterior synechiae between the iris and posterior corneal surface (summary by Cheong et al., 2016). Anterior segment dysgenesis is sometimes divided into subtypes, including aniridia (see 106210), Axenfeld and Rieger anomalies, iridogoniodysgenesis, Peters anomaly, and posterior embryotoxon (Gould and John, 2002). Some patients with ASGD2 have been reported with a congenital primary aphakia subtype. Congenital primary aphakia is a rare developmental disorder characterized by absence of the lens, the development of which is normally induced during the fourth to fifth week of human embryogenesis. This original failure leads, in turn, to complete aplasia of the anterior segment of the eye, which is the diagnostic histologic criterion for CPAK. In contrast, in secondary aphakia, lens induction occurs and the lens vesicle develops to some degree, but is progressively resorbed perinatally, resulting in less severe ocular defects (summary by Valleix et al., 2006).
Cornea plana 2
MedGen UID:
346616
Concept ID:
C1857574
Disease or Syndrome
Cornea plana is clinically characterized by reduced corneal curvature leading in most cases to hyperopia, hazy corneal limbus, and arcus lipoides at an early age. CNA2 is a severe form of the disorder, which is frequently associated with additional ocular manifestations (summary by Tahvanainen et al., 1996). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CNA, see CNA1 (121400).
Cataract 21 multiple types
MedGen UID:
347538
Concept ID:
C1857768
Congenital Abnormality
Mutations in the MAF gene have been found to cause multiple types of cataract, which have been described as cortical pulverulent, lamellar, nuclear, nuclear pulverulent, nuclear stellate, anterior polar, anterior subcapsular, posterior subcapsular, and cerulean. In some cases, the cataracts are of juvenile onset. The preferred title of this entry was formerly 'Cataract, Pulverulent, Juvenile-Onset,' with an 'Included' title/symbol of 'Cataract, Congenital, Cerulean Type, 4; CCA4.'
Mandibulofacial dysostosis-macroblepharon-macrostomia syndrome
MedGen UID:
355927
Concept ID:
C1865181
Disease or Syndrome
Mandibulofacial dysostosis-macroblepharon-macrostomia syndrome is a rare developmental defect during embryogenesis disorder characterized by macroblepharon, ectropion, and facial dysmorphism which includes severe hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, posteriorly rotated ears, broad nasal bridge, long and smooth philtrum, and macrostomia with thin upper lip vermilion border. Other features may include large fontanelles, prominent metopic ridge, thick eyebrows, mild synophrys, increased density of upper eyelashes, anterverted nares, abnormal dentition and capillary hemangioma.
Acroosteolysis-keloid-like lesions-premature aging syndrome
MedGen UID:
400936
Concept ID:
C1866182
Disease or Syndrome
Penttinen syndrome (PENTT) is characterized by a prematurely aged appearance involving lipoatrophy and epidermal and dermal atrophy, as well as hypertrophic lesions that resemble scars, thin hair, proptosis, underdeveloped cheekbones, and marked acroosteolysis (Johnston et al., 2015).
Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
370100
Concept ID:
C1969783
Disease or Syndrome
Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV), also termed 'persistent fetal vasculature,' is a developmental malformation of the eye in which the primary vitreous fails to regress in utero, resulting in the presence of a retrolental fibrovascular membrane with persistence of the posterior portion of the tunica vasculosa lentis and hyaloid artery. This abnormality is usually unilateral and associated with microphthalmia, cataract, glaucoma, and congenital retinal nonattachment (see Haddad et al., 1978; Khaliq et al., 2001; Prasov et al., 2012). PHPV shares phenotypic overlap with Norrie disease (310600). Genetic Heterogeneity of Persistent Hyperplastic Primary Vitreous A dominant form of PHPV has been described (PHPVAD; 611308).
Multicentric carpo-tarsal osteolysis with or without nephropathy
MedGen UID:
436237
Concept ID:
C2674705
Disease or Syndrome
Multicentric carpotarsal osteolysis syndrome is a rare skeletal disorder, usually presenting in early childhood with a clinical picture mimicking juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Progressive destruction of the carpal and tarsal bone usually occurs and other bones may also be involved. Chronic renal failure is a frequent component of the syndrome. Mental retardation and minor facial anomalies have been noted in some patients. Autosomal dominant inheritance has been documented in many families (Pai and Macpherson, 1988). See also Torg-Winchester syndrome (259600), an autosomal recessive multicentric osteolysis syndrome.
Wilms tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, intellectual disability, and obesity syndrome
MedGen UID:
382718
Concept ID:
C2675904
Disease or Syndrome
For a detailed discussion of the WAGR syndrome, see 194072. In a subgroup of individuals with the WAGR syndrome, obesity develops. The phenotype in this subset is associated with haploinsufficiency for the BDNF gene.
X-linked endothelial corneal dystrophy
MedGen UID:
413518
Concept ID:
C2749049
Disease or Syndrome
A rare subtype of posterior corneal dystrophy with characteristics of congenital ground glass corneal clouding or a diffuse corneal haze, and blurred vision in male patients. Prevalence of this rare corneal dystrophy is unknown. Males are affected more severely than females. The condition is progressive in males and non-progressive in females. Has been mapped to the long arm of the X-chromosome (Xq25) but the causative gene has not been identified. Transmission is X-linked recessive.
Corneal dystrophy, Fuchs endothelial, 3
MedGen UID:
442479
Concept ID:
C2750451
Disease or Syndrome
Late-onset Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is a degenerative disorder affecting roughly 4% of the population older than 40 years. It is distinguished from other corneal disorders by the progressive formation of guttae, which are microscopic refractile excrescences of the Descemet membrane, a collagen-rich basal lamina secreted by the corneal endothelium. From onset, it usually takes 2 decades for FECD to impair endothelial cell function seriously, leading to stromal edema and impaired vision (Sundin et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy, see FECD1 (136800).
Glaucoma 3, primary congenital, D
MedGen UID:
416524
Concept ID:
C2751316
Disease or Syndrome
Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is characterized by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), enlargement of the globe (buphthalmos), edema, and opacification of the cornea with rupture of Descemet's membrane (Haab's striae), thinning of the anterior sclera and iris atrophy, anomalously deep anterior chamber, and structurally normal posterior segment except for progressive glaucomatous optic atrophy. Symptoms include photophobia, blepharospasm, and excessive tearing. Typically, the diagnosis is made in the first year of life. Depending on when treatment is instituted, visual acuity may be reduced and/or visual fields may be restricted. In untreated individuals, blindness invariably occurs.
Morquio syndrome C
MedGen UID:
443986
Concept ID:
C2931140
Disease or Syndrome
Morquio syndrome is an autosomal recessive mucopolysaccharidosis characterized by short trunk dwarfism, fine corneal opacities, skeletal changes, and normal intelligence. Morquio syndromes A (MPS4A; 253000) and B (MPS4B; 253010) are caused by mutations in the N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS; 612222) and beta-galactosidase (GLB1; 611458) genes, respectively. MPS4A and MPS4B are characterized biochemically by increased urinary excretion of keratan sulfate (Beck et al., 1986). There is some evidence of an additional form of Morquio syndrome, referred to here as type C, in which urinary excretion of keratan sulfate is absent. However, McKusick (1972) suggested that the nonkeratosulfate- excreting Morquio syndrome may be allelic to other forms of Morquio syndrome.
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A5
MedGen UID:
461763
Concept ID:
C3150413
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A), which includes both the more severe Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) and the slightly less severe muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB), is an autosomal recessive disorder with characteristic brain and eye malformations, profound mental retardation, congenital muscular dystrophy, and death usually in the first years of life. It represents the most severe end of a phenotypic spectrum of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of DAG1 (128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (Beltran-Valero de Bernabe et al., 2004). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type A, see MDDGA1 (236670).
Anterior segment dysgenesis 7
MedGen UID:
462967
Concept ID:
C3151617
Disease or Syndrome
Anterior segment dysgeneses (ASGD or ASMD) are a heterogeneous group of developmental disorders affecting the anterior segment of the eye, including the cornea, iris, lens, trabecular meshwork, and Schlemm canal. The clinical features of ASGD include iris hypoplasia, an enlarged or reduced corneal diameter, corneal vascularization and opacity, posterior embryotoxon, corectopia, polycoria, an abnormal iridocorneal angle, ectopia lentis, and anterior synechiae between the iris and posterior corneal surface (summary by Cheong et al., 2016). In sclerocornea there is congenital, nonprogressive corneal opacification that may be peripheral, sectoral, or central in location. Visual prognosis is related to the central corneal involvement. The cornea has a flat curvature. The majority of cases are bilateral (summary by Smith and Traboulsi, 2012). Isolated sclerocornea is caused by displacement of the limbal arcades and may be associated with cornea plana; in this condition, the anterior chamber is visible and the eye is not microphthalmic. In complex sclerocornea, however, corneal opacification is associated with microphthalmia, cataract, and/or infantile glaucoma. The central cornea is usually relatively clear, but the thickness is normal or increased, never reduced (summary by Nischal, 2007).
Cutis laxa, autosomal dominant 3
MedGen UID:
899774
Concept ID:
C4225268
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant cutis laxa-3 (ADCL3) is characterized by thin skin with visible veins and wrinkles, cataract or corneal clouding, clenched fingers, pre- and postnatal growth retardation, and moderate intellectual disability. In addition, patients exhibit a combination of muscular hypotonia with brisk muscle reflexes (Fischer-Zirnsak et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant cutis laxa, see ARCL1 (123700).
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A1
MedGen UID:
924974
Concept ID:
C4284790
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A), which includes both the more severe Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) and the slightly less severe muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB), is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder with characteristic brain and eye malformations, profound mental retardation, congenital muscular dystrophy, and early death. The phenotype commonly includes cobblestone (type II) lissencephaly, cerebellar malformations, and retinal malformations. More variable features include macrocephaly or microcephaly, hypoplasia of midline brain structures, ventricular dilatation, microphthalmia, cleft lip/palate, and congenital contractures (Dobyns et al., 1989). Those with a more severe phenotype characterized as Walker-Warburg syndrome often die within the first year of life, whereas those characterized as having muscle-eye-brain disease may rarely acquire the ability to walk and to speak a few words. These are part of a group of disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of DAG1 (128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (Godfrey et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Muscular Dystrophy-Dystroglycanopathy with Brain and Eye Anomalies (Type A) Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A) is genetically heterogeneous and can be caused by mutation in other genes involved in DAG1 glycosylation: see MDDGA2 (613150), caused by mutation in the POMT2 gene (607439); MDDGA3 (253280), caused by mutation in the POMGNT1 gene (606822); MDDGA4 (253800), caused by mutation in the FKTN gene (607440); MDDGA5 (613153), caused by mutation in the FKRP gene (606596); MDDGA6 (613154), caused by mutation in the LARGE gene (603590); MDDGA7 (614643), caused by mutation in the ISPD gene (CRPPA; 614631); MDDGA8 (614830) caused by mutation in the GTDC2 gene (POMGNT2; 614828); MDDGA9 (616538), caused by mutation in the DAG1 gene (128239); MDDGA10 (615041), caused by mutation in the TMEM5 gene (RXYLT1; 605862); MDDGA11 (615181), caused by mutation in the B3GALNT2 gene (610194); MDDGA12 (615249), caused by mutation in the SGK196 gene (POMK; 615247); MDDGA13 (615287), caused by mutation in the B3GNT1 gene (B4GAT1; 605517); and MDDGA14 (615350), caused by mutation in the GMPPB gene (615320).
Anterior segment dysgenesis 8
MedGen UID:
934589
Concept ID:
C4310622
Congenital Abnormality
Anterior segment dysgeneses (ASGD or ASMD) are a heterogeneous group of developmental disorders affecting the anterior segment of the eye, including the cornea, iris, lens, trabecular meshwork, and Schlemm canal. The clinical features of ASGD include iris hypoplasia, an enlarged or reduced corneal diameter, corneal vascularization and opacity, posterior embryotoxon, corectopia, polycoria, an abnormal iridocorneal angle, ectopia lentis, and anterior synechiae between the iris and posterior corneal surface (summary by Cheong et al., 2016).
Anterior segment dysgenesis 6
MedGen UID:
934590
Concept ID:
C4310623
Disease or Syndrome
Anterior segment dysgeneses (ASGD or ASMD) are a heterogeneous group of developmental disorders affecting the anterior segment of the eye, including the cornea, iris, lens, trabecular meshwork, and Schlemm canal. The clinical features of ASGD include iris hypoplasia, an enlarged or reduced corneal diameter, corneal vascularization and opacity, posterior embryotoxon, corectopia, polycoria, an abnormal iridocorneal angle, ectopia lentis, and anterior synechiae between the iris and posterior corneal surface (summary by Cheong et al., 2016). Anterior segment dysgenesis is sometimes divided into subtypes including aniridia (see 106210), Axenfeld and Rieger anomalies, iridogoniodysgenesis, Peters anomaly, and posterior embryotoxon (Gould and John, 2002). Patients with ASGD6 have been reported with the Peters anomaly subtype. Peters anomaly consists of corneal opacity, defects in the posterior structures of the cornea, and iridocorneal and/or keratolenticular adhesions. Over 50% of patients develop glaucoma in childhood (summary by Vincent et al., 2001).
Harel-Yoon syndrome
MedGen UID:
934644
Concept ID:
C4310677
Disease or Syndrome
Harel-Yoon syndrome is a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, truncal hypotonia, spasticity, and peripheral neuropathy. Other more variable features such as optic atrophy may also occur. Laboratory studies in some patients show evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction (summary by Harel et al., 2016).
Fraser syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1639061
Concept ID:
C4551480
Disease or Syndrome
Fraser syndrome is an autosomal recessive malformation disorder characterized by cryptophthalmos, syndactyly, and abnormalities of the respiratory and urogenital tract (summary by van Haelst et al., 2008). Genetic Heterogeneity of Fraser Syndrome Fraser syndrome-2 (FRASRS2) is caused by mutation in the FREM2 gene (608945) on chromosome 13q13, and Fraser syndrome-3 (FRASRS3; 617667) is caused by mutation in the GRIP1 gene (604597) on chromosome 12q14. See Bowen syndrome (211200) for a comparable but probably distinct syndrome of multiple congenital malformations.
Brain small vessel disease 1 with or without ocular anomalies
MedGen UID:
1647320
Concept ID:
C4551998
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of COL4A1-related disorders includes: small-vessel brain disease of varying severity including porencephaly, variably associated with eye defects (retinal arterial tortuosity, Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly, cataract) and systemic findings (kidney involvement, muscle cramps, cerebral aneurysms, Raynaud phenomenon, cardiac arrhythmia, and hemolytic anemia). On imaging studies, small-vessel brain disease is manifest as diffuse periventricular leukoencephalopathy, lacunar infarcts, microhemorrhage, dilated perivascular spaces, and deep intracerebral hemorrhages. Clinically, small-vessel brain disease manifests as infantile hemiparesis, seizures, single or recurrent hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke, and isolated migraine with aura. Porencephaly (fluid-filled cavities in the brain detected by CT or MRI) is typically manifest as infantile hemiparesis, seizures, and intellectual disability; however, on occasion it can be an incidental finding. HANAC (hereditary angiopathy with nephropathy, aneurysms, and muscle cramps) syndrome usually associates asymptomatic small-vessel brain disease, cerebral large vessel involvement (i.e., aneurysms), and systemic findings involving the kidney, muscle, and small vessels of the eye. Two additional phenotypes include isolated retinal artery tortuosity and nonsyndromic autosomal dominant congenital cataract.
Linear nevus sebaceous syndrome
MedGen UID:
1646345
Concept ID:
C4552097
Disease or Syndrome
Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims syndrome, also known as linear sebaceous nevus syndrome, is characterized by sebaceous nevi, often on the face, associated with variable ipsilateral abnormalities of the central nervous system, ocular anomalies, and skeletal defects (summary by Happle, 1991 and Ernst et al., 2007). The linear sebaceous nevi follow the lines of Blaschko (Hornstein and Knickenberg, 1974; Bouwes Bavinck and van de Kamp, 1985). All cases are sporadic. The syndrome is believed to be caused by an autosomal dominant lethal mutation that survives by somatic mosaicism (Gorlin et al., 2001).
Chromosome 1p36.33 duplication syndrome, atad3 gene cluster, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1708515
Concept ID:
C5394150
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant chromosome 1p36.33 duplication syndrome is a severe multisystemic disorder characterized by neonatal respiratory insufficiency, hypotonia, and cardiomyopathy, resulting in death in the first weeks of life. Affected infants may also have seizures, contractures, and corneal opacities. Brain imaging shows variable anomalies, such as white matter changes, and laboratory studies suggest that the phenotype results from metabolic defects in mitochondrial and cholesterol homeostasis (summary by Gunning et al., 2020).
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with corneal dystrophy
MedGen UID:
1714019
Concept ID:
C5394555
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with corneal dystrophy (SMDCD) is characterized by short stature due to short proximal and distal long bones. Affected individuals also exhibit narrow thorax with pulmonary hypoplasia and respiratory failure, as well as corneal dystrophy. Severe developmental delay has been observed (Ben-Salem et al., 2018).
Multiple congenital anomalies-neurodevelopmental syndrome, X-linked
MedGen UID:
1788942
Concept ID:
C5542341
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked multiple congenital anomalies-neurodevelopmental syndrome (MCAND) is an X-linked recessive congenital multisystemic disorder characterized by poor growth, global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, and variable abnormalities of the cardiac, skeletal, and genitourinary systems. Most affected individuals also have hypotonia and dysmorphic craniofacial features. Brain imaging typically shows enlarged ventricles and thin corpus callosum; some have microcephaly, whereas others have hydrocephalus. The severity of the disorder is highly variable, ranging from death in early infancy to survival into the second or third decade. Pathogenetically, the disorder results from disrupted gene expression and signaling during embryogenesis, thus affecting multiple systems (summary by Tripolszki et al., 2021 and Beck et al., 2021). Beck et al. (2021) referred to the disorder as LINKED syndrome (LINKage-specific deubiquitylation deficiency-induced Embryonic Defects).
Olmsted syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1778121
Concept ID:
C5542829
Disease or Syndrome
Olmsted syndrome-1 (OLMS1) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by bilateral mutilating palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) and periorificial keratotic plaques with severe pruritus of lesions. Diffuse alopecia, constriction of digits, and onychodystrophy have also been reported. Infections and squamous cell carcinomas can arise on the keratotic areas (summary by Lin et al., 2012). The digital constriction ('pseudoainhum') may progress to autoamputation of fingers and toes (Olmsted, 1927). Genetic Heterogeneity of Olmsted Syndrome Olmsted syndrome-2 (OLMS2; 619208) is caused by mutation in the PERP gene (609301) on chromosome 6q23. An X-linked form of Olmsted syndrome (OLMSX; 300918) is caused by mutation in the MBTPS2 gene (300294) on chromosome Xp22.
Bartsocas-Papas syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1778443
Concept ID:
C5543445
Disease or Syndrome
Bartsocas-Papas syndrome-2 (BPS2) is a severe form of popliteal pterygium disorder characterized by cutaneous webbing across one or more joints, cleft lip and/or palate, syndactyly, and genital malformations (summary by Leslie et al., 2015).
Cranial dysinnervation disorder, congenital, with absent corneal reflex and developmental delay
MedGen UID:
1848439
Concept ID:
C5882675
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorder with absent corneal reflex and developmental delay (CCDDRD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by abnormal development of the proximal cranial sensory ganglia and nerves, mainly CN V (trigeminal nerve) and CN VIII (vestibulocochlear nerve). Affected individuals present at birth or in early infancy with corneal opacities due to absent blinking. Most patients also have sensorineural deafness associated with hypoplastic or malformed cochlea and hypoplasia or agenesis of CN VIII. Developmental delay with poor speech and autistic behavior are also present. Additional features may include expressionless face, feeding or chewing difficulties due to oromotor dysfunction, and dysmorphic facial features (Dupont et al., 2021; Sheth et al., 2023).
Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy with variable ectodermal abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1847702
Concept ID:
C5882696
Disease or Syndrome
Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy with variable ectodermal abnormalities (ARCME) is characterized by severe dilated cardiomyopathy resulting in death or cardiac transplantation in childhood. Ventricular tachycardia, sustained or nonsustained, has been reported. In addition, some patients exhibit ectodermal manifestations including woolly or wiry hair, dental anomalies, dry skin, and/or dystrophic nails. Cleft lip and palate and corneal abnormalities have also been observed (Robinson et al., 2020; Henry et al., 2022).
Congenital disorder of deglycosylation 1
MedGen UID:
989503
Concept ID:
CN306977
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with NGLY1-related congenital disorder of deglycosylation (NGLY1-CDDG) typically display a clinical tetrad of developmental delay / intellectual disability in the mild to profound range, hypo- or alacrima, elevated liver transaminases that may spontaneously resolve in childhood, and a complex hyperkinetic movement disorder that can include choreiform, athetoid, dystonic, myoclonic, action tremor, and dysmetric movements. About half of affected individuals will develop clinical seizures. Other findings may include obstructive and/or central sleep apnea, oral motor defects that affect feeding ability, auditory neuropathy, constipation, scoliosis, and peripheral neuropathy.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Chang MS, Jun I, Kim EK
Korean J Ophthalmol 2023 Aug;37(4):340-347. Epub 2023 Jun 19 doi: 10.3341/kjo.2023.0032. PMID: 37336511Free PMC Article
Koseki M, Yamashita S, Ogura M, Ishigaki Y, Ono K, Tsukamoto K, Hori M, Matsuki K, Yokoyama S, Harada-Shiba M
J Atheroscler Thromb 2021 Aug 1;28(8):802-810. Epub 2021 May 14 doi: 10.5551/jat.RV17053. PMID: 33994407Free PMC Article
Koganti R, Yadavalli T, Naqvi RA, Shukla D, Naqvi AR
Exp Eye Res 2021 Apr;205:108483. Epub 2021 Feb 6 doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108483. PMID: 33556334Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Garcia PN, Chamon W, Allemann N
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Jul;259(7):1915-1923. Epub 2021 Mar 25 doi: 10.1007/s00417-021-05161-9. PMID: 33763731
Choe S, Yoon CH, Kim MK, Hyon JY, Yu YS, Oh JY
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2020 Feb;258(2):359-366. Epub 2019 Nov 25 doi: 10.1007/s00417-019-04526-5. PMID: 31768679
Solebo AL, Teoh L, Rahi J
Arch Dis Child 2017 Sep;102(9):853-857. Epub 2017 May 2 doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2016-310532. PMID: 28465303
Vanathi M, Panda A, Vengayil S, Chaudhuri Z, Dada T
Surv Ophthalmol 2009 Mar-Apr;54(2):245-71. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2008.12.011. PMID: 19298903
Aquavella JV, Gearinger MD, Akpek EK, McCormick GJ
Ophthalmology 2007 May;114(5):989-94. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.01.027. PMID: 17467531

Diagnosis

Kylat RI
Acta Paediatr 2022 May;111(5):948-951. Epub 2022 Jan 31 doi: 10.1111/apa.16260. PMID: 35044009
Charpentier S, Keilani C, Maréchal M, Friang C, De Faria A, Froussart-Maille F, Delbarre M
J Fr Ophtalmol 2021 Nov;44(9):1425-1438. Epub 2021 Sep 17 doi: 10.1016/j.jfo.2021.05.006. PMID: 34538661
Dohlman TH, Yin J, Dana R
Semin Ophthalmol 2019;34(4):205-210. Epub 2019 Jun 12 doi: 10.1080/08820538.2019.1620796. PMID: 31188043
Denion E, Béraud G, Marshall ML, Denion G, Lux AL
J Fr Ophtalmol 2018 Jan;41(1):62-77. Epub 2017 Dec 13 doi: 10.1016/j.jfo.2017.08.003. PMID: 29246385
Moshirfar M, Hazin R, Khalifa YM
Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2010 Jul;21(4):274-9. doi: 10.1097/ICU.0b013e32833a8cb2. PMID: 20531192

Therapy

Elbasiony E, Cho W, Mittal SK, Chauhan SK
Sci Rep 2022 Jan 11;12(1):494. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-04418-x. PMID: 35017561Free PMC Article
Charpentier S, Keilani C, Maréchal M, Friang C, De Faria A, Froussart-Maille F, Delbarre M
J Fr Ophtalmol 2021 Nov;44(9):1425-1438. Epub 2021 Sep 17 doi: 10.1016/j.jfo.2021.05.006. PMID: 34538661
Vinciguerra R, Borgia A, Tredici C, Vinciguerra P
Exp Eye Res 2021 May;206:108537. Epub 2021 Mar 12 doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108537. PMID: 33716013
Tomás-Juan J, Murueta-Goyena Larrañaga A, Hanneken L
J Optom 2015 Jul-Sep;8(3):149-69. Epub 2014 Oct 23 doi: 10.1016/j.optom.2014.09.001. PMID: 25444646Free PMC Article
Wright HR, Turner A, Taylor HR
Lancet 2008 Jun 7;371(9628):1945-54. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60836-3. PMID: 18539226

Prognosis

Rajagopal RN, Fernandes M
Semin Ophthalmol 2023 Apr;38(3):275-282. Epub 2023 Feb 14 doi: 10.1080/08820538.2023.2176238. PMID: 36788651
Kylat RI
Acta Paediatr 2022 May;111(5):948-951. Epub 2022 Jan 31 doi: 10.1111/apa.16260. PMID: 35044009
Elsana B, Gradstein L, Imtirat A, Yagev R, Barrett C, Ling G, Abu Tailakh M, Baidousi A, Tsumi E
Br J Ophthalmol 2022 Sep;106(9):1217-1221. Epub 2021 Mar 22 doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2020-317464. PMID: 33753408
Choe S, Yoon CH, Kim MK, Hyon JY, Yu YS, Oh JY
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2020 Feb;258(2):359-366. Epub 2019 Nov 25 doi: 10.1007/s00417-019-04526-5. PMID: 31768679
Aquavella JV, Gearinger MD, Akpek EK, McCormick GJ
Ophthalmology 2007 May;114(5):989-94. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.01.027. PMID: 17467531

Clinical prediction guides

Pereira-Souza AL, Ambrósio R Jr, Bandeira F, Salomão MQ, Souza Lima A, Wilson SE
J Refract Surg 2022 Nov;38(11):741-746. Epub 2022 Nov 1 doi: 10.3928/1081597X-20221018-02. PMID: 36367262
Saffren B, Price JM, Zhang QE, Hamershock RA, Sharpe J, Levin AV
J AAPOS 2021 Apr;25(2):97.e1-97.e5. Epub 2021 Apr 24 doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2020.11.017. PMID: 33901671
Garcia PN, Chamon W, Allemann N
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2021 Jul;259(7):1915-1923. Epub 2021 Mar 25 doi: 10.1007/s00417-021-05161-9. PMID: 33763731
Nguyen AX, Wu AY
Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2021 Jul 4;29(5):1023-1028. Epub 2020 Mar 11 doi: 10.1080/09273948.2020.1726969. PMID: 32159404Free PMC Article
Inoue M
Dev Ophthalmol 2014;54:87-91. Epub 2014 Aug 26 doi: 10.1159/000360453. PMID: 25196756

Recent systematic reviews

Alexander JL, Wei L, Palmer J, Darras A, Levin MR, Berry JL, Ludeman E
Eye (Lond) 2021 Jan;35(1):265-276. Epub 2020 Sep 22 doi: 10.1038/s41433-020-01184-4. PMID: 32963311Free PMC Article
Flaxman SR, Bourne RRA, Resnikoff S, Ackland P, Braithwaite T, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Jonas JB, Keeffe J, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Silvester A, Stevens GA, Tahhan N, Wong TY, Taylor HR; Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study
Lancet Glob Health 2017 Dec;5(12):e1221-e1234. Epub 2017 Oct 11 doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(17)30393-5. PMID: 29032195
O'Gallagher M, Banteka M, Bunce C, Larkin F, Tuft S, Dahlmann-Noor A
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 May 30;2016(5):CD011750. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011750.pub2. PMID: 27236587Free PMC Article
Lansingh VC
BMJ Clin Evid 2016 Feb 9;2016 PMID: 26860629Free PMC Article
Solomon A, Mabey D
BMJ Clin Evid 2007 Nov 7;2007 PMID: 19450349Free PMC Article

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