U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Keratoconjunctivitis

MedGen UID:
44014
Concept ID:
C0022573
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Keratoconjunctivitides
SNOMED CT: Keratoconjunctivitis (88151007); Superficial keratitis with conjunctivitis (88151007)
 
HPO: HP:0001096
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0004768

Definition

Inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, type 1
MedGen UID:
39125
Concept ID:
C0085859
Disease or Syndrome
Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type I (APS1) is characterized by the presence of 2 of 3 major clinical symptoms: Addison disease, and/or hypoparathyroidism, and/or chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (Neufeld et al., 1981). However, variable APS1 phenotypes have been observed, even among sibs. In addition, some patients may exhibit apparent isolated hypoparathyroidism, an early manifestation of APS1 with peak incidence at around age 5 years; over long-term follow-up, the development of additional features of APS1 may be observed (Cranston et al., 2022).
Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, type 2
MedGen UID:
39126
Concept ID:
C0085860
Disease or Syndrome
Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type II (APS2), or Schmidt syndrome, is characterized by the presence of autoimmune Addison disease in association with either autoimmune thyroid disease or type I diabetes mellitus, or both. Chronic candidiasis is not present. APS2 may occur at any age and in both sexes, but is most common in middle-aged females and is very rare in childhood (summary by Betterle et al., 2004). See 240300 for a phenotypic description of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS1).
Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia
MedGen UID:
220887
Concept ID:
C1274795
Congenital Abnormality
Hereditary mucoepithelial dysplasia (HMD) is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by onset in infancy of a panepithelial defect involving the oral, nasal, conjunctival, vaginal, cervical, perineal, urethral, and bladder mucosa. Patients develop cataracts, blindness, nonscarring alopecia, perineal psoriasiform lesions, and follicular keratoses (Witkop et al., 1982). Although 1 family was reported to have progressive severe interstitial lung disease (Witkop et al., 1979), this feature has not been reported in other families and is not considered a criterion for diagnosis. However, the clinical triad of nonscarring alopecia, well-demarcated fiery red mucosa, and psoriasiform perineal involvement has been consistently observed (review by Boralevi et al., 2005).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Sheppard J, Shen Lee B, Periman LM
Ann Med 2023 Dec;55(1):241-252. doi: 10.1080/07853890.2022.2157477. PMID: 36576348Free PMC Article
Mohamed HB, Abd El-Hamid BN, Fathalla D, Fouad EA
Eur J Pharm Sci 2022 Aug 1;175:106206. Epub 2022 May 11 doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2022.106206. PMID: 35568107
Stefanski AL, Tomiak C, Pleyer U, Dietrich T, Burmester GR, Dörner T
Dtsch Arztebl Int 2017 May 26;114(20):354-361. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2017.0354. PMID: 28610655Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Mohanty A, Mitra S, Mallick A, Barik MR, Das S, Priyadarshini S, Sahu SK
Indian J Ophthalmol 2021 Jun;69(6):1537-1543. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1971_20. PMID: 34011737Free PMC Article
Roy N, Levanon S, Asbell PA
Eye Contact Lens 2020 Mar;46 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):S109-S121. doi: 10.1097/ICL.0000000000000688. PMID: 32097185Free PMC Article
Singh M, Acharya M, Gandhi A, Prakash U
Indian J Ophthalmol 2019 Jul;67(7):1176. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_1808_18. PMID: 31238446Free PMC Article
Patel DS, Arunakirinathan M, Stuart A, Angunawela R
BMJ 2017 Nov 2;359:j4706. doi: 10.1136/bmj.j4706. PMID: 29097360
Chen JJ, Applebaum DS, Sun GS, Pflugfelder SC
J Am Acad Dermatol 2014 Mar;70(3):569-75. Epub 2013 Dec 15 doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2013.10.036. PMID: 24342754

Diagnosis

Bruschi G, Ghiglioni DG, Cozzi L, Osnaghi S, Viola F, Marchisio P
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2023 Aug;65(2):277-329. Epub 2023 Sep 2 doi: 10.1007/s12016-023-08970-4. PMID: 37658939Free PMC Article
Reddy AK, Kolfenbach JR, Palestine AG
Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2022 Nov 1;33(6):551-556. Epub 2022 Sep 16 doi: 10.1097/ICU.0000000000000890. PMID: 36165413
Villegas BV, Benitez-Del-Castillo JM
Turk J Ophthalmol 2021 Feb 25;51(1):45-54. doi: 10.4274/tjo.galenos.2020.11456. PMID: 33631915Free PMC Article
La Rosa M, Lionetti E, Reibaldi M, Russo A, Longo A, Leonardi S, Tomarchio S, Avitabile T, Reibaldi A
Ital J Pediatr 2013 Mar 14;39:18. doi: 10.1186/1824-7288-39-18. PMID: 23497516Free PMC Article
Fonacier L, Luchs J, Udell I
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2001 Jul;1(4):389-96. doi: 10.1007/s11882-001-0053-z. PMID: 11892063

Therapy

Bruschi G, Ghiglioni DG, Cozzi L, Osnaghi S, Viola F, Marchisio P
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2023 Aug;65(2):277-329. Epub 2023 Sep 2 doi: 10.1007/s12016-023-08970-4. PMID: 37658939Free PMC Article
Ghiglioni DG, Zicari AM, Parisi GF, Marchese G, Indolfi C, Diaferio L, Brindisi G, Ciprandi G, Marseglia GL, Miraglia Del Giudice M
Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 Nov;31(6):2828-2842. Epub 2021 May 31 doi: 10.1177/11206721211022153. PMID: 34058899
Mueller RS, Hartmann K
Vet J 2021 May;271:105648. Epub 2021 Feb 24 doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2021.105648. PMID: 33840487
La Rosa M, Lionetti E, Reibaldi M, Russo A, Longo A, Leonardi S, Tomarchio S, Avitabile T, Reibaldi A
Ital J Pediatr 2013 Mar 14;39:18. doi: 10.1186/1824-7288-39-18. PMID: 23497516Free PMC Article
Pitts JF, Barker NH, Gibbons DC, Jay JL
Br J Ophthalmol 1993 May;77(5):284-8. doi: 10.1136/bjo.77.5.284. PMID: 8318464Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Villegas BV, Benitez-Del-Castillo JM
Turk J Ophthalmol 2021 Feb 25;51(1):45-54. doi: 10.4274/tjo.galenos.2020.11456. PMID: 33631915Free PMC Article
Gu J, Su QQ, Zuo TT, Chen YB
Infection 2021 Feb;49(1):1-13. Epub 2020 Jul 27 doi: 10.1007/s15010-020-01484-7. PMID: 32720128Free PMC Article
Singhal D, Sahay P, Maharana PK, Raj N, Sharma N, Titiyal JS
Surv Ophthalmol 2019 May-Jun;64(3):289-311. Epub 2018 Dec 12 doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2018.12.001. PMID: 30550738
Pitts JF, Barker NH, Gibbons DC, Jay JL
Br J Ophthalmol 1993 May;77(5):284-8. doi: 10.1136/bjo.77.5.284. PMID: 8318464Free PMC Article
McCulley JP
Int Ophthalmol Clin 1984 Summer;24(2):65-77. doi: 10.1097/00004397-198424020-00009. PMID: 6233233

Clinical prediction guides

Fukuda K, Kishimoto T, Sumi T, Yamashiro K, Ebihara N
Allergol Int 2023 Apr;72(2):234-244. Epub 2022 Nov 1 doi: 10.1016/j.alit.2022.09.005. PMID: 36333219
Isik P, Harbiyeli II, Ozturk G, Erdem E, Yagmur M, Yarkin F
Jpn J Infect Dis 2022 Nov 22;75(6):592-596. Epub 2022 Jul 29 doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2022.210. PMID: 35908877
Messina A, Palmigiano A, Tosto C, Romeo DA, Sturiale L, Garozzo D, Leonardi A
Allergy 2021 Aug;76(8):2500-2509. Epub 2021 Mar 15 doi: 10.1111/all.14775. PMID: 33583051
Lee CS, Lee AY, Akileswaran L, Stroman D, Najafi-Tagol K, Kleiboeker S, Chodosh J, Magaret A, Wald A, Van Gelder RN; BAYnovation Study Group
Ophthalmology 2018 Sep;125(9):1344-1353. Epub 2018 Mar 27 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2018.02.016. PMID: 29602567Free PMC Article
Suzuki T, Teramukai S, Kinoshita S
Ocul Surf 2015 Apr;13(2):133-49. Epub 2015 Feb 18 doi: 10.1016/j.jtos.2014.12.002. PMID: 25881997

Recent systematic reviews

Bruschi G, Ghiglioni DG, Cozzi L, Osnaghi S, Viola F, Marchisio P
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2023 Aug;65(2):277-329. Epub 2023 Sep 2 doi: 10.1007/s12016-023-08970-4. PMID: 37658939Free PMC Article
Hutchison DM, Duffens A, Yale K, Park A, Cardenas K, Mesinkovska NA
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2022 Apr;36(4):536-546. Epub 2021 Dec 31 doi: 10.1111/jdv.17877. PMID: 34919300
Dammacco R, Guerriero S, Alessio G, Dammacco F
Int Ophthalmol 2022 Feb;42(2):689-711. Epub 2021 Nov 21 doi: 10.1007/s10792-021-02058-8. PMID: 34802085Free PMC Article
Gu J, Su QQ, Zuo TT, Chen YB
Infection 2021 Feb;49(1):1-13. Epub 2020 Jul 27 doi: 10.1007/s15010-020-01484-7. PMID: 32720128Free PMC Article
Turk MA, Hayworth JL, Nevskaya T, Pope JE
J Rheumatol 2021 Jan 1;48(1):25-34. Epub 2020 May 1 doi: 10.3899/jrheum.190768. PMID: 32358156

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Consumer resources

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...