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LAMB2-related infantile-onset nephrotic syndrome(NPHS5)

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Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: NEPHROTIC SYNDROME, TYPE 5, WITH OCULAR ABNORMALITIES; Nephrotic syndrome, type 5, with or without ocular abnormalities; NEPHROTIC SYNDROME, TYPE 5, WITHOUT OCULAR ABNORMALITIES
Gene (location): LAMB2 (3p21.31)
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0013621
OMIM®: 614199
Orphanet: ORPHA306507


Nephrotic syndrome type 5 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by very early onset of progressive renal failure manifest as proteinuria with consecutive edema starting in utero or within the first 3 months of life. A subset of patients may develop mild ocular anomalies, such as myopia, nystagmus, and strabismus (summary by Hasselbacher et al., 2006). Mutation in the LAMB2 gene can also cause Pierson syndrome (609049), which is characterized by nephrotic syndrome, distinct ocular anomalies, namely microcoria, and neurodevelopmental delay. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nephrotic syndrome, see NPHS1 (256300). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Nephrotic syndrome
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Disease or Syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome is a collection of findings resulting from glomerular dysfunction with an increase in glomerular capillary wall permeability associated with pronounced proteinuria. Nephrotic syndrome refers to the constellation of clinical findings that result from severe renal loss of protein, with Proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia, edema, and hyperlipidemia.
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Increased levels of protein in the urine.
Stage 5 chronic kidney disease
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A degree of kidney failure severe enough to require dialysis or kidney transplantation for survival characterized by a severe reduction in glomerular filtration rate (less than 15 ml/min/1.73 m2) and other manifestations including increased serum creatinine.
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Nearsightedness, also known as myopia, is an eye condition that causes blurry distance vision. People who are nearsighted have more trouble seeing things that are far away (such as when driving) than things that are close up (such as when reading or using a computer). If it is not treated with corrective lenses or surgery, nearsightedness can lead to squinting, eyestrain, headaches, and significant visual impairment.\n\nNearsightedness usually begins in childhood or adolescence. It tends to worsen with age until adulthood, when it may stop getting worse (stabilize). In some people, nearsightedness improves in later adulthood.\n\nFor normal vision, light passes through the clear cornea at the front of the eye and is focused by the lens onto the surface of the retina, which is the lining of the back of the eye that contains light-sensing cells. People who are nearsighted typically have eyeballs that are too long from front to back. As a result, light entering the eye is focused too far forward, in front of the retina instead of on its surface. It is this change that causes distant objects to appear blurry. The longer the eyeball is, the farther forward light rays will be focused and the more severely nearsighted a person will be.\n\nNearsightedness is measured by how powerful a lens must be to correct it. The standard unit of lens power is called a diopter. Negative (minus) powered lenses are used to correct nearsightedness. The more severe a person's nearsightedness, the larger the number of diopters required for correction. In an individual with nearsightedness, one eye may be more nearsighted than the other.\n\nEye doctors often refer to nearsightedness less than -5 or -6 diopters as "common myopia." Nearsightedness of -6 diopters or more is commonly called "high myopia." This distinction is important because high myopia increases a person's risk of developing other eye problems that can lead to permanent vision loss or blindness. These problems include tearing and detachment of the retina, clouding of the lens (cataract), and an eye disease called glaucoma that is usually related to increased pressure within the eye. The risk of these other eye problems increases with the severity of the nearsightedness. The term "pathological myopia" is used to describe cases in which high myopia leads to tissue damage within the eye.
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Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
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A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.

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