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Spastic tetraparesis

MedGen UID:
658719
Concept ID:
C0575059
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Spastic quadriparesis
SNOMED CT: Spastic quadriparesis (298282001); Spastic tetraparesis (298282001)
 
HPO: HP:0001285

Definition

Spastic weakness affecting all four limbs. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVSpastic tetraparesis

Conditions with this feature

Sphingolipid activator protein 1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
120624
Concept ID:
C0268262
Disease or Syndrome
Metachromatic leukodystrophy gets its name from the way cells with an accumulation of sulfatides appear when viewed under a microscope. The sulfatides form granules that are described as metachromatic, which means they pick up color differently than surrounding cellular material when stained for examination.\n\nThe adult form of metachromatic leukodystrophy affects approximately 15 to 20 percent of individuals with the disorder. In this form, the first symptoms appear during the teenage years or later. Often behavioral problems such as alcohol use disorder, drug abuse, or difficulties at school or work are the first symptoms to appear. The affected individual may experience psychiatric symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. People with the adult form of metachromatic leukodystrophy may survive for 20 to 30 years after diagnosis. During this time there may be some periods of relative stability and other periods of more rapid decline.\n\nIn 20 to 30 percent of individuals with metachromatic leukodystrophy, onset occurs between the age of 4 and adolescence. In this juvenile form, the first signs of the disorder may be behavioral problems and increasing difficulty with schoolwork. Progression of the disorder is slower than in the late infantile form, and affected individuals may survive for about 20 years after diagnosis.\n\nThe most common form of metachromatic leukodystrophy, affecting about 50 to 60 percent of all individuals with this disorder, is called the late infantile form. This form of the disorder usually appears in the second year of life. Affected children lose any speech they have developed, become weak, and develop problems with walking (gait disturbance). As the disorder worsens, muscle tone generally first decreases, and then increases to the point of rigidity. Individuals with the late infantile form of metachromatic leukodystrophy typically do not survive past childhood.\n\nIn people with metachromatic leukodystrophy, white matter damage causes progressive deterioration of intellectual functions and motor skills, such as the ability to walk. Affected individuals also develop loss of sensation in the extremities (peripheral neuropathy), incontinence, seizures, paralysis, an inability to speak, blindness, and hearing loss. Eventually they lose awareness of their surroundings and become unresponsive. While neurological problems are the primary feature of metachromatic leukodystrophy, effects of sulfatide accumulation on other organs and tissues have been reported, most often involving the gallbladder.\n\nMetachromatic leukodystrophy is an inherited disorder characterized by the accumulation of fats called sulfatides in cells. This accumulation especially affects cells in the nervous system that produce myelin, the substance that insulates and protects nerves. Nerve cells covered by myelin make up a tissue called white matter. Sulfatide accumulation in myelin-producing cells causes progressive destruction of white matter (leukodystrophy) throughout the nervous system, including in the brain and spinal cord (the central nervous system) and the nerves connecting the brain and spinal cord to muscles and sensory cells that detect sensations such as touch, pain, heat, and sound (the peripheral nervous system).
Tay-Sachs disease, variant AB
MedGen UID:
78657
Concept ID:
C0268275
Disease or Syndrome
Acute infantile GM2 activator deficiency is a neurodegenerative disorder in which infants, who are generally normal at birth, have progressive weakness and slowing of developmental progress between ages four and 12 months. An ensuing developmental plateau is followed by progressively rapid developmental regression. By the second year of life decerebrate posturing, difficulty in swallowing, and worsening seizures lead to an unresponsive vegetative state. Death usually occurs between ages two and three years.
Glutathione synthetase deficiency with 5-oxoprolinuria
MedGen UID:
97988
Concept ID:
C0398746
Disease or Syndrome
Glutathione synthetase deficiency, or 5-oxoprolinuria, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized, in its severe form, by massive urinary excretion of 5-oxoproline, metabolic acidosis, hemolytic anemia, and central nervous system damage. The metabolic defect results in decreased levels of cellular glutathione, which overstimulates the synthesis of gamma-glutamylcysteine and its subsequent conversion to 5-oxoproline (Larsson and Anderson, 2001).
ALG3-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
322026
Concept ID:
C1832736
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by enzymatic defects in the synthesis and processing of asparagine (N)-linked glycans or oligosaccharides on glycoproteins. Type I CDGs comprise defects in the assembly of the dolichol lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) chain and its transfer to the nascent protein. These disorders can be identified by a characteristic abnormal isoelectric focusing profile of plasma transferrin (Leroy, 2006). CDG1D is a type I CDG that generally presents with severe neurologic involvement associated with dysmorphism and visual impairment. Liver involvement is sometimes present (summary by Marques-da-Silva et al., 2017). For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Multiple exostoses with spastic tetraparesis
MedGen UID:
371889
Concept ID:
C1834724
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer disease 3
MedGen UID:
334304
Concept ID:
C1843013
Disease or Syndrome
Alzheimer's disease can be classified as early-onset or late-onset. The signs and symptoms of the early-onset form appear between a person's thirties and mid-sixties, while the late-onset form appears during or after a person's mid-sixties. The early-onset form of Alzheimer's disease is much less common than the late-onset form, accounting for less than 10 percent of all cases of Alzheimer's disease.\n\nIndividuals with Alzheimer's disease usually survive 8 to 10 years after the appearance of symptoms, but the course of the disease can range from 1 to 25 years. Survival is usually shorter in individuals diagnosed after age 80 than in those diagnosed at a younger age. In Alzheimer's disease, death usually results from pneumonia, malnutrition, or general body wasting (inanition).\n\nAs the disorder progresses, some people with Alzheimer's disease experience personality and behavioral changes and have trouble interacting in a socially appropriate manner. Other common symptoms include agitation, restlessness, withdrawal, and loss of language skills. People with Alzheimer's disease usually require total care during the advanced stages of the disease.\n\nMemory loss is the most common sign of Alzheimer's disease. Forgetfulness may be subtle at first, but the loss of memory worsens over time until it interferes with most aspects of daily living. Even in familiar settings, a person with Alzheimer's disease may get lost or become confused. Routine tasks such as preparing meals, doing laundry, and performing other household chores can be challenging. Additionally, it may become difficult to recognize people and name objects. Affected people increasingly require help with dressing, eating, and personal care.\n\nAlzheimer's disease is a degenerative disease of the brain that causes dementia, which is a gradual loss of memory, judgment, and ability to function. This disorder usually appears in people older than age 65, but less common forms of the disease appear earlier in adulthood.
MEHMO syndrome
MedGen UID:
375855
Concept ID:
C1846278
Disease or Syndrome
MEHMO syndrome is a rare intellectual disability disorder that exhibits phenotypic heterogeneity and is variably characterized by mental retardation, epileptic seizures, hypogonadism with hypogenitalism, microcephaly, and obesity. Life expectancy ranges from less than 1 year to adulthood, and the condition is associated with significant morbidity and mortality (summary by Gregory et al., 2019).
Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis
MedGen UID:
342870
Concept ID:
C1853396
Disease or Syndrome
ALS2-related disorder involves retrograde degeneration of the upper motor neurons of the pyramidal tracts and comprises a clinical continuum of the following three phenotypes: Infantile ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia (IAHSP), characterized by onset of spasticity with increased reflexes and sustained clonus of the lower limbs within the first two years of life, progressive weakness and spasticity of the upper limbs by age seven to eight years, and wheelchair dependence in the second decade with progression toward severe spastic tetraparesis and a pseudobulbar syndrome caused by progressive cranial nerve involvement. Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis (JPLS), characterized by upper motor neuron findings of pseudobulbar palsy and spastic quadriplegia without dementia or cerebellar, extrapyramidal, or sensory signs. Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (JALS or ALS2), characterized by onset between ages three and 20 years. All affected individuals show a spastic pseudobulbar syndrome (spasticity of speech and swallowing) together with spastic paraplegia. Some individuals are bedridden by age 12 to 50 years.
Sulfite oxidase deficiency due to molybdenum cofactor deficiency type A
MedGen UID:
381530
Concept ID:
C1854988
Disease or Syndrome
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) represents a spectrum, with some individuals experiencing significant signs and symptoms in the neonatal period and early infancy (termed early-onset or severe MoCD) and others developing signs and symptoms in childhood or adulthood (termed late-onset or mild MoCD). Individuals with early-onset MoCD typically present in the first days of life with severe encephalopathy, including refractory seizures, opisthotonos, axial and appendicular hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and apnea. Head imaging may demonstrate loss of gray and white matter differentiation, gyral swelling, sulci injury (typically assessed by evaluating the depth of focal lesional injury within the sulci), diffusely elevated T2-weighted signal, and panlobar diffusion restriction throughout the forebrain and midbrain with relative sparring of the brain stem. Prognosis for early-onset MoCD is poor, with about 75% succumbing in infancy to secondary complications of their neurologic disability (i.e., pneumonia). Late-onset MoCD is typically characterized by milder symptoms, such as acute neurologic decompensation in the setting of infection. Episodes vary in nature but commonly consist of altered mental status, dystonia, choreoathetosis, ataxia, nystagmus, and fluctuating hypotonia and hypertonia. These features may improve after resolution of the inciting infection or progress in a gradual or stochastic manner over the lifetime. Brain imaging may be normal or may demonstrate T2-weighted hyperintense or cystic lesions in the globus pallidus, thinning of the corpus callosum, and cerebellar atrophy.
L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria
MedGen UID:
341029
Concept ID:
C1855995
Disease or Syndrome
2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a condition that causes progressive damage to the brain. The major types of this disorder are called D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D-2-HGA), L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA), and combined D,L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D,L-2-HGA).\n\nThe main features of D-2-HGA are delayed development, seizures, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), and abnormalities in the largest part of the brain (the cerebrum), which controls many important functions such as muscle movement, speech, vision, thinking, emotion, and memory. Researchers have described two subtypes of D-2-HGA, type I and type II. The two subtypes are distinguished by their genetic cause and pattern of inheritance, although they also have some differences in signs and symptoms. Type II tends to begin earlier and often causes more severe health problems than type I. Type II may also be associated with a weakened and enlarged heart (cardiomyopathy), a feature that is typically not found with type I.\n\nL-2-HGA particularly affects a region of the brain called the cerebellum, which is involved in coordinating movements. As a result, many affected individuals have problems with balance and muscle coordination (ataxia). Additional features of L-2-HGA can include delayed development, seizures, speech difficulties, and an unusually large head (macrocephaly). Typically, signs and symptoms of this disorder begin during infancy or early childhood. The disorder worsens over time, usually leading to severe disability by early adulthood.\n\nCombined D,L-2-HGA causes severe brain abnormalities that become apparent in early infancy. Affected infants have severe seizures, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), and breathing and feeding problems. They usually survive only into infancy or early childhood.
Microcephaly 2, primary, autosomal recessive, with or without cortical malformations
MedGen UID:
346929
Concept ID:
C1858535
Disease or Syndrome
In WDR62 primary microcephaly (WDR62-MCPH), microcephaly (occipitofrontal circumference [OFC] = -2 SD) is usually present at birth, but in some instances becomes evident later in the first year of life. Growth is otherwise normal. Except for brain malformations in most affected individuals, no other congenital malformations are observed. Central nervous system involvement can include delayed motor development, mild-to-severe intellectual disability (ID), behavior problems, epilepsy, spasticity, and ataxia.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 2, juvenile
MedGen UID:
349246
Concept ID:
C1859807
Disease or Syndrome
ALS2-related disorder involves retrograde degeneration of the upper motor neurons of the pyramidal tracts and comprises a clinical continuum of the following three phenotypes: Infantile ascending hereditary spastic paraplegia (IAHSP), characterized by onset of spasticity with increased reflexes and sustained clonus of the lower limbs within the first two years of life, progressive weakness and spasticity of the upper limbs by age seven to eight years, and wheelchair dependence in the second decade with progression toward severe spastic tetraparesis and a pseudobulbar syndrome caused by progressive cranial nerve involvement. Juvenile primary lateral sclerosis (JPLS), characterized by upper motor neuron findings of pseudobulbar palsy and spastic quadriplegia without dementia or cerebellar, extrapyramidal, or sensory signs. Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (JALS or ALS2), characterized by onset between ages three and 20 years. All affected individuals show a spastic pseudobulbar syndrome (spasticity of speech and swallowing) together with spastic paraplegia. Some individuals are bedridden by age 12 to 50 years.
Primary lateral sclerosis, adult, 1
MedGen UID:
369357
Concept ID:
C1968845
Disease or Syndrome
Although primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is similar to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; 105400), they are considered to be clinically distinct progressive paralytic neurodegenerative disorders. Following a period of diagnostic confusion, the clinical distinction between ALS and PLS became clear and diagnostic criteria were established (Pringle et al., 1992). PLS is characterized by degeneration of the upper motor neurons and the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts, whereas ALS is a more severe disorder characterized by degeneration of both the upper and lower motor neurons. See 606353 for autosomal recessive juvenile-onset PLS, which is caused by mutations in the ALS2 gene (606352).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 7
MedGen UID:
462336
Concept ID:
C3150986
Disease or Syndrome
KCNQ2-related disorders represent a continuum of overlapping neonatal epileptic phenotypes ranging from self-limited familial neonatal epilepsy (SLFNE) at the mild end to neonatal-onset developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (NEO-DEE) at the severe end. Additional, less common phenotypes consisting of neonatal encephalopathy with non-epileptic myoclonus, infantile or childhood-onset developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE), and isolated intellectual disability (ID) without epilepsy have also been described. KCNQ2-SLFNE is characterized by seizures that start in otherwise healthy infants between two and eight days after term birth and spontaneously disappear between the first and the sixth to 12th month of life. There is always a seizure-free interval between birth and the onset of seizures. Seizures are characterized by sudden onset with prominent motor involvement, often accompanied by apnea and cyanosis; video EEG identifies seizures as focal onset with tonic stiffening of limb(s) and some migration during each seizure's evolution. About 30% of individuals with KCNQ2-SLFNE develop epileptic seizures later in life. KCNQ2-NEO-DEE is characterized by multiple daily seizures beginning in the first week of life that are mostly tonic, with associated focal motor and autonomic features. Seizures generally cease between ages nine months and four years. At onset, EEG shows a burst-suppression pattern or multifocal epileptiform activity; early brain MRI can show basal ganglia hyperdensities and later MRIs may show white matter or general volume loss. Moderate-to-profound developmental impairment is present.
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
478062
Concept ID:
C3276432
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome is a severe autosomal recessive disorder of systemic energy metabolism, resulting in weakness, respiratory failure, lack of neurologic development, lactic acidosis, and early death (summary by Seyda et al., 2001). Genetic Heterogeneity of Multiple Mitochondrial Dysfunctions Syndrome See also MMDS2 (614299), caused by mutation in the BOLA3 gene (613183) on chromosome 2p13; MMDS3 (615330), caused by mutation in the IBA57 gene (615316) on chromosome 1q42; MMDS4 (616370), caused by mutation in the ISCA2 gene (615317) on chromosome 14q24; MMDS5 (617613), caused by mutation in the ISCA1 gene (611006) on chromosome 9q21; MMDS6 (617954), caused by mutation in the PMPCB gene (603131) on chromosome 7q22; and MMDS7 (620423), caused by mutation in the GCSH gene (238330) on chromosome 16q23.
Keppen-Lubinsky syndrome
MedGen UID:
481430
Concept ID:
C3279800
Disease or Syndrome
Keppen-Lubinsky syndrome (KPLBS) is a rare disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, generalized lipodystrophy giving an aged appearance, and distinctive dysmorphic features, including microcephaly, prominent eyes, narrow nasal bridge, and open mouth (summary by Masotti et al., 2015).
Microcephaly-capillary malformation syndrome
MedGen UID:
481926
Concept ID:
C3280296
Disease or Syndrome
The defining clinical characteristics of the microcephaly-capillary malformation (MIC-CAP) syndrome are typically present at birth: microcephaly and generalized cutaneous capillary malformations (a few to hundreds of oval/circular macules or patches varying in size from 1-2 mm to several cm), hypoplastic distal phalanges of the hands and/or feet, early-onset intractable epilepsy, and profound developmental delay. Seizures, which can be focal, tonic, and complex partial and can include infantile spasms, appear to stabilize after age two years. Myoclonus of the limbs and eyelids is common; other abnormal movements (dyskinetic, choreiform) may be seen. To date, the diagnosis has been confirmed in 18 individuals from 15 families.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 1
MedGen UID:
483052
Concept ID:
C3463992
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-1 (DEE1) is a severe form of epilepsy characterized by frequent tonic seizures or spasms beginning in infancy with a specific EEG finding of suppression-burst patterns, characterized by high-voltage bursts alternating with almost flat suppression phases. Approximately 75% of DEE1 patients progress to tonic spasms with clustering, arrest of psychomotor development, and hypsarrhythmia on EEG (Kato et al., 2007). DEE1 is part of a phenotypic spectrum of disorders caused by mutation in the ARX gene comprising a nearly continuous series of developmental disorders ranging from lissencephaly (LISX2; 300215) to Proud syndrome (300004) to infantile spasms without brain malformations (DEE) to syndromic (309510) and nonsyndromic (300419) mental retardation. Although males with ARX mutations are often more severely affected, female mutation carriers may also be affected (Kato et al., 2004; Wallerstein et al., 2008). Reviews Deprez et al. (2009) reviewed the genetics of epilepsy syndromes starting in the first year of life and included a diagnostic algorithm. Genetic Heterogeneity of Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy Also see DEE2 (300672), caused by mutation in the CDKL5 gene (300203); DEE3 (609304), caused by mutation in the SLC25A22 gene (609302); DEE4 (612164), caused by mutation in the STXBP1 gene (602926); DEE5 (613477), caused by mutation in the SPTAN1 gene (182810); DEE6A (607208), also known as Dravet syndrome, caused by mutation in the SCN1A gene (182389); DEE6B (619317), also caused by mutation in the SCN1A gene; DEE7 (613720), caused by mutation in the KCNQ2 gene (602235); DEE8 (300607), caused by mutation in the ARHGEF9 gene (300429); DEE9 (300088), caused by mutation in the PCDH19 gene (300460); DEE10 (613402), caused by mutation in the PNKP gene (605610); DEE11 (613721), caused by mutation in the SCN2A gene (182390); DEE12 (613722), caused by mutation in the PLCB1 gene (607120); DEE13 (614558), caused by mutation in the SCN8A gene (600702); DEE14 (614959), caused by mutation in the KCNT1 gene (608167); DEE15 (615006), caused by mutation in the ST3GAL3 gene (606494); DEE16 (615338), caused by mutation in the TBC1D24 gene (613577); DEE17 (615473), caused by mutation in the GNAO1 gene (139311); DEE18 (615476), caused by mutation in the SZT2 gene (615463); DEE19 (615744), caused by mutation in the GABRA1 gene (137160); DEE20 (300868), caused by mutation in the PIGA gene (311770); DEE21 (615833), caused by mutation in the NECAP1 gene (611623); DEE22 (300896), caused by mutation in the SLC35A2 gene (314375); DEE23 (615859), caused by mutation in the DOCK7 gene (615730); DEE24 (615871), caused by mutation in the HCN1 gene (602780); DEE25 (615905), caused by mutation in the SLC13A5 gene (608305); DEE26 (616056), caused by mutation in the KCNB1 gene (600397); DEE27 (616139), caused by mutation in the GRIN2B gene (138252); DEE28 (616211), caused by mutation in the WWOX gene (605131); DEE29 (616339), caused by mutation in the AARS gene (601065); DEE30 (616341), caused by mutation in the SIK1 gene (605705); DEE31A (616346) and DEE31B (620352), caused by mutation in the DNM1 gene (602377); DEE32 (616366), caused by mutation in the KCNA2 gene (176262); DEE33 (616409), caused by mutation in the EEF1A2 gene (602959); DEE34 (616645), caused by mutation in the SLC12A5 gene (606726); DEE35 (616647), caused by mutation in the ITPA gene (147520); DEE36 (300884), caused by mutation in the ALG13 gene (300776); DEE37 (616981), caused by mutation in the FRRS1L gene (604574); DEE38 (617020), caused by mutation in the ARV1 gene (611647); DEE39 (612949), caused by mutation in the SLC25A12 gene (603667); DEE40 (617065), caused by mutation in the GUF1 gene (617064); DEE41 (617105), caused by mutation in the SLC1A2 gene (600300); DEE42 (617106), caused by mutation in the CACNA1A gene (601011); DEE43 (617113), caused by mutation in the GABRB3 gene (137192); DEE44 (617132), caused by mutation in the UBA5 gene (610552); DEE45 (617153), caused by mutation in the GABRB1 gene (137190); DEE46 (617162), caused by mutation in the GRIN2D gene (602717); DEE47 (617166), caused by mutation in the FGF12 gene (601513); DEE48 (617276), caused by mutation in the AP3B2 gene (602166); DEE49 (617281), caused by mutation in the DENND5A gene (617278); DEE50 (616457) caused by mutation in the CAD gene (114010); DEE51 (617339), caused by mutation in the MDH2 gene (154100); DEE52 (617350), caused by mutation in the SCN1B gene (600235); DEE53 (617389), caused by mutation in the SYNJ1 gene (604297); DEE54 (617391), caused by mutation in the HNRNPU gene (602869); DEE55 (617599), caused by mutation in the PIGP gene (605938); DEE56 (617665), caused by mutation in the YWHAG gene (605356); DEE57 (617771), caused by mutation in the KCNT2 gene (610044); DEE58 (617830), caused by mutation in the NTRK2 gene (600456); DEE59 (617904), caused by mutation in the GABBR2 gene (607340); DEE60 (617929), caused by mutation in the CNPY3 gene (610774); DEE61 (617933), caused by mutation in the ADAM22 gene (603709); DEE62 (617938), caused by mutation in the SCN3A gene (182391); DEE63 (617976), caused by mutation in the CPLX1 gene (605032); DEE64 (618004), caused by mutation in the RHOBTB2 gene (607352); DEE65 (618008), caused by mutation in the CYFIP2 gene (606323); DEE66 (618067), caused by mutation in the PACS2 gene (610423); DEE67 (618141), caused by mutation in the CUX2 gene (610648); DEE68 (618201), caused by mutation in the TRAK1 gene (608112); DEE69 (618285), caused by mutation in the CACNA1E gene (601013); DEE70 (618298) caused by mutation in the PHACTR1 gene (608723); DEE71 (618328), caused by mutation in the GLS gene (138280); DEE72 (618374), caused by mutation in the NEUROD2 gene (601725); DEE73 (618379), caused by mutation in the RNF13 gene (609247); DEE74 (618396), caused by mutation in the GABRG2 gene (137164); DEE75 (618437), caused by mutation in the PARS2 gene (612036); DEE76 (618468), caused by mutation in the ACTL6B gene (612458); DEE77 (618548), caused by mutation in the PIGQ gene (605754); DEE78 (618557), caused by mutation in the GABRA2 gene (137140); DEE79 (618559), caused by mutation in the GABRA5 gene (137142); DEE80 (618580), caused by mutation in the PIGB gene (604122); DEE81 (618663), caused by mutation in the DMXL2 gene (612186); DEE82 (618721), caused by mutation in the GOT2 gene (138150); DEE83 (618744), caused by mutation in the UGP2 gene (191760); DEE84 (618792), caused by mutation in the UGDH gene (603370); DEE85 (301044), caused by mutation in the SMC1A gene (300040); DEE86 (618910), caused by mutation in the DALRD3 gene (618904); DEE87 (618916), caused by mutation in the CDK19 gene (614720); DEE88 (618959), caused by mutation in the MDH1 gene (152400); DEE89 (619124), caused by mutation in the GAD1 gene (605363); DEE90 (301058), caused by mutation in the FGF13 gene (300070); DEE91 (617711), caused by mutation in the PPP3CA gene (114105); DEE92 (617829), caused by mutation in the GABRB2 gene (600232); DEE93 (618012), caused by mutation in the ATP6V1A gene (607027); DEE94 (615369), caused by mutation in the CHD2 gene (602119); DEE95 (618143), caused by mutation in the PIGS gene (610271); DEE96 (619340), caused by mutation in the NSF gene (601633); DEE97 (619561), caused by mutation in the iCELF2 gene (602538); DEE98 (619605), caused by mutation in the ATP1A2 gene (182340); DEE99 (619606), caused by mutation in the ATP1A3 gene (182350); DEE100 (619777), caused by mutation in the FBXO28 gene (609100); DEE101 (619814), caused by mutation in the GRIN1 gene (138249); DEE102 (619881), caused by mutation in the SLC38A3 gene (604437); DEE103 (619913), caused by mutation in the KCNC2 gene (176256); DEE104 (619970), caused by mutation in the ATP6V0A1 gene (192130); DEE105 (619983), caused by mutation in the HID1 gene (605752); DEE106 (620028), caused by mutation in the UFSP2 gene (611482); DEE107 (620033), caused by mutation in the NAPB gene (
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 35
MedGen UID:
501249
Concept ID:
C3496228
Disease or Syndrome
Fatty acid hydroxylase-associated neurodegeneration (FAHN) is characterized early in the disease course by central nervous system involvement including corticospinal tract involvement (spasticity), mixed movement disorder (ataxia/dystonia), and eye findings (optic atrophy, oculomotor abnormalities), and later in the disease course by progressive intellectual impairment and seizures. With disease progression, dystonia and spasticity compromise the ability to ambulate, leading to wheelchair dependence. Life expectancy is variable. FAHN is considered to be a subtype of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA).
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
854829
Concept ID:
C3888244
Disease or Syndrome
Most characteristically, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) manifests as an early-onset encephalopathy that usually, but not always, results in severe intellectual and physical disability. A subgroup of infants with AGS present at birth with abnormal neurologic findings, hepatosplenomegaly, elevated liver enzymes, and thrombocytopenia, a picture highly suggestive of congenital infection. Otherwise, most affected infants present at variable times after the first few weeks of life, frequently after a period of apparently normal development. Typically, they demonstrate the subacute onset of a severe encephalopathy characterized by extreme irritability, intermittent sterile pyrexias, loss of skills, and slowing of head growth. Over time, as many as 40% develop chilblain skin lesions on the fingers, toes, and ears. It is becoming apparent that atypical, sometimes milder, cases of AGS exist, and thus the true extent of the phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in the AGS-related genes is not yet known.
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 8
MedGen UID:
862877
Concept ID:
C4014440
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex III deficiency, nuclear type 8, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive neurodegeneration with onset in childhood. Affected individuals may have normal or delayed early development, and often have episodic acute neurologic decompensation and regression associated with febrile illnesses. The developmental regression results in variable intellectual disability and motor deficits, such as hypotonia, axial hypertonia, and spasticity; some patients may lose the ability to walk independently. Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and isolated deficiency of mitochondrial complex III in skeletal muscle and fibroblasts. Brain imaging shows a characteristic pattern of multifocal small cystic lesions in the periventricular and deep cerebral white matter (summary by Dallabona et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex III deficiency, see MC3DN1 (124000).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 1C
MedGen UID:
863597
Concept ID:
C4015160
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1C is a severe autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severe muscle weakness and failure to thrive apparent in the first months of life. Affected infants showed delayed psychomotor development, often with visual and hearing impairment, and may die of respiratory failure. Brain imaging typically shows cerebellar hypoplasia, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, and immature myelination (summary by Boczonadi et al., 2014). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
863781
Concept ID:
C4015344
Disease or Syndrome
Peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA reductase-1 disorder (PFCRD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset in infancy of severely delayed psychomotor development, growth retardation with microcephaly, and seizures. Some patients may have congenital cataracts and develop spasticity later in childhood. Biochemical studies tend to show decreased plasmalogen, consistent with a peroxisomal defect. The disorder is reminiscent of rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (see, e.g., RCDP1, 215100), although the characteristic skeletal abnormalities observed in RCDP are absent (Buchert et al., 2014).
Glucocorticoid deficiency 2
MedGen UID:
891117
Concept ID:
C4049714
Disease or Syndrome
Familial glucocorticoid deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from resistance to the action of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) on the adrenal cortex, which stimulates glucocorticoid production. Affected individuals are deficient in cortisol and, if untreated, are likely to succumb to hypoglycemia or overwhelming infection in infancy or childhood (summary by Metherell et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial glucocorticoid deficiency, see GCCD1 (202200).
Microcephaly 15, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
895496
Concept ID:
C4225310
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive microcephaly, spasticity, and brain imaging abnormalities (NEDMISBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a spectrum of neurologic abnormalities apparent from early infancy. Affected individuals have impaired intellectual development with poor speech, progressive microcephaly, and appendicular spasticity. Brain imaging usually shows abnormalities, including enlarged ventricles, white matter defects, and atrophy or hypoplasia of brain tissue. Some patients have a more severe phenotype with seizures, lack of developmental milestones, and early death (summary by Harel et al., 2018).
Lipoyl transferase 1 deficiency
MedGen UID:
904073
Concept ID:
C4225379
Disease or Syndrome
Lipoyl transferase 1 deficiency is a very rare inborn error of metabolism disorder, with a highly variable phenotype, typically characterized by neonatal to infancy-onset of seizures, psychomotor delay, and abnormal muscle tone that may include hypo- and/or hypertonia, resulting in generalized weakness, dystonic movements, and/or progressive respiratory distress, associated with severe lactic acidosis and elevated lactate, ketoglutarate and 2-oxoacids in urine. Additional manifestations may include dehydration, vomiting, signs of liver dysfunction, extrapyramidal signs, spastic tetraparesis, brisk deep tendon reflexes, speech impairment, swallowing difficulties, and pulmonary hypertension.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 40
MedGen UID:
934704
Concept ID:
C4310737
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-40 (DEE40) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory infantile spasms within the first 6 months of life. Affected infants may have normal or mildly delayed development before the onset of seizures, but thereafter show developmental stagnation and severe neurologic impairment. EEG typically shows hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. Additional features include poor feeding, axial hypotonia with peripheral spasticity, limited eye contact, profoundly impaired intellectual development with absent language, and poor fine motor skills (summary by Alfaiz et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart
MedGen UID:
934739
Concept ID:
C4310772
Disease or Syndrome
RERE-related disorders are characterized by neurodevelopmental problems with or without structural anomalies of the eyes, heart, kidneys, and genitourinary tract and mild sensorineural hearing loss. Hypotonia and feeding problems are common among affected individuals. Developmental delay and intellectual disability range from mild to profound. Behavior problems may include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, self-injurious behavior, and autism spectrum disorder. A variety of eye anomalies (coloboma, optic nerve anomalies, microphthalmia, and/or Peter's anomaly) and vision issues (myopia, anisometropia, astigmatism, exotropia, esotropia) have been reported. Congenital heart defects, most commonly septal defects, have also been described. Genitourinary abnormalities include vesicoureteral reflux, and cryptorchidism and hypospadias in males. Sensorineural hearing loss can be unilateral or bilateral.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, hypotonia, and variable brain anomalies
MedGen UID:
1380860
Concept ID:
C4479566
Disease or Syndrome
NMIHBA is a severe autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy and profoundly impaired intellectual development. Affected individuals have microcephaly with accompanying dysmorphic features, truncal hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, and lack of independent ambulation or speech acquisition. Brain imaging shows variable abnormalities, including cortical atrophy, thin corpus callosum, cerebellar hypoplasia, and delayed myelination (summary by Zollo et al., 2017).
Encephalopathy, neonatal severe, with lactic acidosis and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1624694
Concept ID:
C4540052
Disease or Syndrome
NELABA is a severe autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by onset at birth of progressive encephalopathy associated with increased serum lactate. Affected individuals have little or no psychomotor development and show brain abnormalities, including cerebral atrophy, cysts, and white matter abnormalities. Some patients die in infancy (summary by Habarou et al., 2017).
Epileptic encephalopathy, infantile or early childhood, 3
MedGen UID:
1642888
Concept ID:
C4693934
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE93) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, early-onset refractory seizures, and impaired intellectual development. The severity of the phenotype is highly variable: some patients may be nonverbal and nonambulatory with spastic quadriparesis and poor eye contact, whereas others have moderate intellectual disability (summary by Fassio et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Leukoencephalopathy-thalamus and brainstem anomalies-high lactate syndrome
MedGen UID:
1645614
Concept ID:
C4706421
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-12 (COXPD12) is an autosomal recessive mitochondrial neurologic disorder characterized by onset in infancy of hypotonia and delayed psychomotor development, or early developmental regression, associated with T2-weighted hyperintensities in the deep cerebral white matter, brainstem, and cerebellar white matter. Serum lactate is increased due to a defect in mitochondrial respiration. There are 2 main phenotypic groups: those with a milder disease course and some recovery of skills after age 2 years, and those with a severe disease course resulting in marked disability (summary by Steenweg et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 70
MedGen UID:
1648407
Concept ID:
C4749023
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-70 (DEE70) is neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of epileptic spasms or seizures in the first months of life. EEG may show hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. Affected individuals show severely delayed psychomotor development with impaired or absent walking and language skills; intellectual impairment ranges from moderate to severe (summary by Hamada et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Lissencephaly due to LIS1 mutation
MedGen UID:
1657090
Concept ID:
C4749301
Congenital Abnormality
PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) comprises a spectrum of severity. Affected newborns typically have mild-to-moderate hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and poor head control. During the first years, neurologic examination typically demonstrates poor visual tracking and response to sounds, axial hypotonia, and mild distal spasticity that can transition over time to more severe spasticity. Seizures occur in more than 90% of individuals with lissencephaly and often include infantile spasms. Seizures are often drug resistant, but even with good seizure control, the best developmental level achieved (excluding the few individuals with partial lissencephaly) is the equivalent of about age three to five months. In individuals with PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH, developmental delay ranges from mild to severe. Other findings in PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH include feeding issues and aspiration (which may result in need for gastrostomy tube placement), progressive microcephaly, and occasional developmental regression.
Coffin-Siris syndrome 10
MedGen UID:
1683634
Concept ID:
C4760583
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is classically characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the distal phalanx or nail of the fifth and additional digits, developmental or cognitive delay of varying degree, distinctive facial features, hypotonia, hirsutism/hypertrichosis, and sparse scalp hair. Congenital anomalies can include malformations of the cardiac, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and/or central nervous systems. Other findings commonly include feeding difficulties, slow growth, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and hearing impairment.
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 17
MedGen UID:
1684823
Concept ID:
C5231412
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial depletion syndrome-17 (MTDPS17) is an autosomal recessive dystonic or movement disorder (summary by Shafique et al., 2023). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive mtDNA depletion syndromes, see MTDPS1 (603041).
Spastic tetraplegia and axial hypotonia, progressive
MedGen UID:
1684731
Concept ID:
C5231422
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive spastic tetraplegia and axial hypotonia (STAHP) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of severe and progressive motor dysfunction in the first year of life. Affected individuals have severe axial hypotonia combined with spastic tetraplegia, hyperekplexia, hypertonia, and myokymia, reflecting upper motor neuron involvement. Cognitive development may be affected, but only 2 unrelated patients have been reported (Andersen et al., 2019; Park et al., 2019).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 85, with or without midline brain defects
MedGen UID:
1708832
Concept ID:
C5393312
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-85 with or without midline brain defects (DEE85) is an X-linked neurologic disorder characterized by onset of severe refractory seizures in the first year of life, global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, and dysmorphic facial features. The seizures tend to show a cyclic pattern with clustering. Many patients have midline brain defects on brain imaging, including thin corpus callosum and/or variable forms of holoprosencephaly (HPE). The severity and clinical manifestations are variable. Almost all reported patients are females with de novo mutations predicted to result in a loss of function (LOF). However, some patients may show skewed X inactivation, and the pathogenic mechanism may be due to a dominant-negative effect. The SMC1A protein is part of the multiprotein cohesin complex involved in chromatid cohesion during DNA replication and transcriptional regulation; DEE85 can thus be classified as a 'cohesinopathy' (summary by Symonds et al., 2017 and Kruszka et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with epilepsy, spasticity, and brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
1717952
Concept ID:
C5394027
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with epilepsy, spasticity, and brain atrophy (NEDESBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severely impaired global development apparent soon after birth. Affected individuals develop seizures in the first year of life and achieve almost no psychomotor progress, resulting in feeding difficulties and an inability to walk or speak. Other features include hypotonia, peripheral spasticity with contractures, cortical visual impairment, and dysmorphic features, including microcephaly. Death in childhood may occur (summary by Van Bergen et al., 2020). Van Bergen et al. (2020) noted that the molecular mechanism of this disorder can be classified into a group of similar phenotypes resulting from mutations in genes associated with transport protein particles, sometimes referred to as 'TRAPPopathies' (review by Sacher et al., 2019).
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 8
MedGen UID:
1765544
Concept ID:
C5436689
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 8 (MC4DN8) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of neuromuscular symptoms in the first decade of life after normal early development. Affected individuals develop a slowly progressive decline in neurologic function with gait difficulties, spasticity, dysarthria, hypotonia, and variable intellectual disability. Other features may include facial hypotonia, optic atrophy with visual impairment, nystagmus, muscle rigidity, and loss of ambulation. Rare patients may have renal tubulopathy. Brain imaging shows T2-weighted hyperintensities in the basal ganglia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). Serum lactate is often increased, and patient tissues show decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (summary by Seeger et al., 2010). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 17
MedGen UID:
1730423
Concept ID:
C5436718
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 17 (MC4DN17) is an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder with somewhat variable clinical manifestations and severity. Most affected individuals present in early childhood with motor and gait difficulties after normal early development. These motor abnormalities progress to spastic tetraparesis, sometimes resulting in loss of ambulation. Many patients also show episodic developmental regression: some have impaired cognition and dysarthria, although others have normal speech and cognition. More variable features include seizures and sensorimotor polyneuropathy. The clinical features tend to stabilize over time. Brain imaging shows a cavitating leukodystrophy, and laboratory studies show variably decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV in patient tissues (Melchionda et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Microcephaly 26, primary, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1779629
Concept ID:
C5543048
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant primary microcephaly-26 (MCPH26) is characterized by progressive microcephaly beginning at birth and associated with global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development. Some patients may have only mild learning difficulties or speech delay, whereas other are more severely affected with the inability to walk or speak. Additional features may include short stature, spasticity, feeding difficulties requiring tube feeding, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging in some patients shows a simplified gyral pattern or dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, suggesting abnormal neuronal migration (summary by Cristofoli et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly, see MCPH1 (251200).
KINSSHIP syndrome
MedGen UID:
1779339
Concept ID:
C5543317
Disease or Syndrome
KINSSHIP syndrome (KINS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a recognizable pattern of anomalies including developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, seizures, mesomelic dysplasia, dysmorphic facial features, horseshoe or hypoplastic kidney, and failure to thrive (summary by Voisin et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with motor and speech delay and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794164
Concept ID:
C5561954
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with motor and speech delay and behavioral abnormalities (NEDMOSBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. There is significant phenotypic variability: some patients achieve walking and talking after a few years, whereas others develop spastic tetraplegia with inability to walk independently and never gain proper speech. Affected individuals may have variable additional features, including poor overall growth, hypotonia, tremor, ocular anomalies, seizures, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features (summary by Polla et al., 2021).
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
1794176
Concept ID:
C5561966
Disease or Syndrome
Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome-9 (AGS9) is a type I interferonopathy characterized by severe developmental delay and progressive neurologic deterioration. Patients present in infancy with irritability and spasticity. Brain imaging shows diffusely abnormal white matter, cerebral atrophy, and intracranial calcification. Premature death has been associated with renal and/or hepatic failure (Uggenti et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, see AGS1 (225750).
Neurodevelopmental disorder, nonprogressive, with spasticity and transient opisthotonus
MedGen UID:
1794250
Concept ID:
C5562040
Disease or Syndrome
Nonprogressive neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and transient opisthotonus (NEDSTO) is an autosomal recessive complex neurologic disorder characterized by delay of gross motor milestones, particularly walking, associated with axial hypotonia and peripheral spasticity apparent from infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals often show transient opisthotonic posturing in infancy, and later show abnormal involuntary movements, including chorea, dystonia, and dyspraxia. Some patients have impaired intellectual development, although the severity is highly variable; most have speech delay and articulation difficulties and a happy overall demeanor. Brain imaging shows myelination defects in some patients. The disorder is nonprogressive, and many patients may catch up developmentally in the second or third decades (summary by Wagner et al., 2020).
Mitochondrial complex V (ATP synthase) deficiency, nuclear type 4A
MedGen UID:
1841116
Concept ID:
C5830480
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex V deficiency nuclear type 4A (MC5DN4A) is an autosomal dominant metabolic disorder characterized by poor feeding and failure to thrive in early infancy. Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate, alanine, and ammonia, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction. Some affected individuals show spontaneous resolution of these symptoms in early childhood and have subsequent normal growth and development, whereas others show developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and movement abnormalities, including dystonia, ataxia, or spasticity; these neurologic deficits are persistent (Lines et al., 2021, Zech et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex V deficiency, nuclear types, see MC5DN1 (604273).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with intracranial hemorrhage, seizures, and spasticity
MedGen UID:
1841145
Concept ID:
C5830509
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with intracranial hemorrhage, seizures, and spasticity (NEDIHSS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by prenatal or neonatal onset of intracranial hemorrhage, usually with ventriculomegaly and calcifications, resulting in parenchymal brain damage. Some affected individuals have symptoms incompatible with life and die in utero. Those that survive show profound global developmental delay with almost no motor or cognitive skills, hypotonia, spasticity, and seizures. Other features may include facial dysmorphism, retinal vascular abnormalities, and poor overall growth. The pathogenesis of the disease likely results from dysfunction of vascular endothelial cells in the brain (Lecca et al., 2023).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and speech delay, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1841290
Concept ID:
C5830654
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and speech delay, with or without seizures (NEDHSS) is characterized by global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech, and fine and gross motor delay. Most affected individuals are severely affected and may be unable to walk, have feeding difficulties requiring tube-feeding, and develop early-onset seizures. Additional features may include cortical blindness and nonspecific structural brain abnormalities. Rare individuals present only with hypotonia and mild developmental delay (Paul et al., 2023).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Cavusoglu D, Sınmaz EE, Dundar NO, Can FK, Anil AB, Sarioglu B
Pediatr Emerg Care 2021 Jul 1;37(7):360-364. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0000000000001914. PMID: 32149989
Biancheri R, Grossi S, Regis S, Rossi A, Corsolini F, Rossi DP, Cavalli P, Severino M, Filocamo M
Clin Genet 2014 Mar;85(3):267-72. Epub 2013 May 27 doi: 10.1111/cge.12154. PMID: 23711321
Albright AL, Turner M, Pattisapu JV
J Neurosurg 2006 Apr;104(4 Suppl):233-9. doi: 10.3171/ped.2006.104.4.233. PMID: 16619633

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Solazzi R, Nanni G, Esposito S, Estienne M, Freri E, Zibordi F, Canafoglia L, Castellotti B, Granata T
Pediatr Neurol 2023 Oct;147:24-27. Epub 2023 Jun 22 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2023.06.012. PMID: 37542971
Cavusoglu D, Sınmaz EE, Dundar NO, Can FK, Anil AB, Sarioglu B
Pediatr Emerg Care 2021 Jul 1;37(7):360-364. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0000000000001914. PMID: 32149989
Rattay TW, Lindig T, Baets J, Smets K, Deconinck T, Söhn AS, Hörtnagel K, Eckstein KN, Wiethoff S, Reichbauer J, Döbler-Neumann M, Krägeloh-Mann I, Auer-Grumbach M, Plecko B, Münchau A, Wilken B, Janauschek M, Giese AK, De Bleecker JL, Ortibus E, Debyser M, Lopez de Munain A, Pujol A, Bassi MT, D'Angelo MG, De Jonghe P, Züchner S, Bauer P, Schöls L, Schüle R
Brain 2019 Jun 1;142(6):1561-1572. doi: 10.1093/brain/awz102. PMID: 31135052Free PMC Article
Caselli TB, Lomazi EA, Montenegro MAS, Bellomo-Brandão MA
Arq Gastroenterol 2017 Dec;54(4):292-296. Epub 2017 Sep 21 doi: 10.1590/S0004-2803.201700000-48. PMID: 28954047
Di Silvestre M, Guizzardi S, Gargiulo G, Savini R
Chir Organi Mov 1991 Apr-Jun;76(2):179-91. PMID: 1756679

Diagnosis

Solazzi R, Nanni G, Esposito S, Estienne M, Freri E, Zibordi F, Canafoglia L, Castellotti B, Granata T
Pediatr Neurol 2023 Oct;147:24-27. Epub 2023 Jun 22 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2023.06.012. PMID: 37542971
Cavusoglu D, Sınmaz EE, Dundar NO, Can FK, Anil AB, Sarioglu B
Pediatr Emerg Care 2021 Jul 1;37(7):360-364. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0000000000001914. PMID: 32149989
Atwal PS, Midei M, Adams D, Fay A, Heerinckx F, Milner P
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 Jul 29;15(1):195. doi: 10.1186/s13023-020-01479-5. PMID: 32727524Free PMC Article
Meher RK, Aghoram R, Nair PP
BMJ Case Rep 2020 Mar 12;13(3) doi: 10.1136/bcr-2019-233036. PMID: 32169980Free PMC Article
Iivanainen M, Haltia M, Lydecken K
Dev Med Child Neurol 1977 Oct;19(5):663-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.1977.tb08000.x. PMID: 913906

Therapy

Cavusoglu D, Sınmaz EE, Dundar NO, Can FK, Anil AB, Sarioglu B
Pediatr Emerg Care 2021 Jul 1;37(7):360-364. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0000000000001914. PMID: 32149989
Meher RK, Aghoram R, Nair PP
BMJ Case Rep 2020 Mar 12;13(3) doi: 10.1136/bcr-2019-233036. PMID: 32169980Free PMC Article
Lehnerer SM, Scheibe F, Buchert R, Kliesch S, Meisel A
BMJ Case Rep 2017 Jul 24;2017 doi: 10.1136/bcr-2017-220305. PMID: 28739616Free PMC Article
Pirzada NA, Ali II
Mayo Clin Proc 2001 May;76(5):559-62. doi: 10.4065/76.5.559. PMID: 11357804
Rudez J, Sepcić K, Sepcić J
J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1999;37(7):877-9. doi: 10.1081/clt-100102470. PMID: 10630274

Prognosis

Rua EC, de Oliveira SA, de Oliveira Vianna RA, Dalcastel LAB, de Castro Sarmet Dos Santos TC, Cardoso CAA, Fernandes AR
Eur J Pediatr 2022 Mar;181(3):991-999. Epub 2021 Oct 18 doi: 10.1007/s00431-021-04280-z. PMID: 34661750
De Mori R, Severino M, Mancardi MM, Anello D, Tardivo S, Biagini T, Capra V, Casella A, Cereda C, Copeland BR, Gagliardi S, Gamucci A, Ginevrino M, Illi B, Lorefice E, Musaev D, Stanley V, Micalizzi A, Gleeson JG, Mazza T, Rossi A, Valente EM
Brain 2019 Oct 1;142(10):2965-2978. doi: 10.1093/brain/awz247. PMID: 31412107Free PMC Article
Rattay TW, Lindig T, Baets J, Smets K, Deconinck T, Söhn AS, Hörtnagel K, Eckstein KN, Wiethoff S, Reichbauer J, Döbler-Neumann M, Krägeloh-Mann I, Auer-Grumbach M, Plecko B, Münchau A, Wilken B, Janauschek M, Giese AK, De Bleecker JL, Ortibus E, Debyser M, Lopez de Munain A, Pujol A, Bassi MT, D'Angelo MG, De Jonghe P, Züchner S, Bauer P, Schöls L, Schüle R
Brain 2019 Jun 1;142(6):1561-1572. doi: 10.1093/brain/awz102. PMID: 31135052Free PMC Article
Inui Y, Miyamoto H, Sumi M, Uno K
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2011 May 1;36(10):794-9. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181e531a1. PMID: 20736889
Di Silvestre M, Guizzardi S, Gargiulo G, Savini R
Chir Organi Mov 1991 Apr-Jun;76(2):179-91. PMID: 1756679

Clinical prediction guides

Mariano V, Kanellopoulos AK, Ricci C, Di Marino D, Borrie SC, Dupraz S, Bradke F, Achsel T, Legius E, Odent S, Billuart P, Bienvenu T, Bagni C
Biol Psychiatry 2024 Jan 15;95(2):161-174. Epub 2023 Sep 11 doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2023.08.027. PMID: 37704042
Rua EC, de Oliveira SA, de Oliveira Vianna RA, Dalcastel LAB, de Castro Sarmet Dos Santos TC, Cardoso CAA, Fernandes AR
Eur J Pediatr 2022 Mar;181(3):991-999. Epub 2021 Oct 18 doi: 10.1007/s00431-021-04280-z. PMID: 34661750
Atwal PS, Midei M, Adams D, Fay A, Heerinckx F, Milner P
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 Jul 29;15(1):195. doi: 10.1186/s13023-020-01479-5. PMID: 32727524Free PMC Article
Romani M, Kraoua I, Micalizzi A, Klaa H, Benrhouma H, Drissi C, Turki I, Castellana S, Mazza T, Valente EM, Gouider-Khouja N
Eur J Neurol 2015 Jan;22(1):178-86. Epub 2014 Aug 27 doi: 10.1111/ene.12552. PMID: 25164370
Inui Y, Miyamoto H, Sumi M, Uno K
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2011 May 1;36(10):794-9. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181e531a1. PMID: 20736889

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