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Lissencephaly due to LIS1 mutation(LIS1)

MedGen UID:
1657090
Concept ID:
C4749301
Congenital Abnormality
Synonyms: Isolated Lissencephaly Sequence; LIS1
SNOMED CT: PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly (770560008); PAFAH1B1 (platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b regulatory subunit 1) related lissencephaly (770560008); Lissencephaly due to LIS1 mutation (770560008)
 
Gene (location): PAFAH1B1 (17p13.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0011830
OMIM®: 607432
Orphanet: ORPHA95232

Disease characteristics

PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly / subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) comprises a spectrum of severity. Affected newborns typically have mild-to-moderate hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and poor head control. During the first years, neurologic examination typically demonstrates poor visual tracking and response to sounds, axial hypotonia, and mild distal spasticity that can transition over time to more severe spasticity. Seizures occur in more than 90% of individuals with lissencephaly and often include infantile spasms. Seizures are often drug resistant, but even with good seizure control, the best developmental level achieved (excluding the few individuals with partial lissencephaly) is the equivalent of about age three to five months. In individuals with PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH, developmental delay ranges from mild to severe. Other findings in PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH include feeding issues and aspiration (which may result in need for gastrostomy tube placement), progressive microcephaly, and occasional developmental regression. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Stefanie Brock  |  William B Dobyns  |  Anna Jansen   view full author information

Clinical features

From HPO
Dilation of Virchow-Robin spaces
MedGen UID:
342926
Concept ID:
C1853618
Finding
Increased dimensions of the Virchow-Robin spaces (also known as perivascular spaces), which surround the walls of vessels as they course from the subarachnoid space through the brain parenchyma. Perivascular spaces are commonly microscopic, and not visible on conventional neuroimaging. This term refers to an increase of size of these spaces such that they are visible on neuroimaging (usually magnetic resonance imaging). The dilatations are regular cavities that always contain a patent artery.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Lissencephaly
MedGen UID:
78604
Concept ID:
C0266463
Finding
A spectrum of malformations of cortical development caused by insufficient neuronal migration that subsumes the terms agyria, pachygyria and subcortical band heterotopia. See also neuropathological definitions for 2-, 3-, and 4-layered lissencephaly.
Cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120578
Concept ID:
C0266470
Congenital Abnormality
Cerebellar hypoplasia is a descriptive term implying a cerebellum with a reduced volume, but a normal shape and is stable over time.
Gray matter heterotopia
MedGen UID:
452349
Concept ID:
C0266491
Finding
Heterotopia or neuronal heterotopia are macroscopic clusters of misplaced neurons (gray matter), most often situated along the ventricular walls or within the subcortical white matter.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Spastic tetraparesis
MedGen UID:
658719
Concept ID:
C0575059
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic weakness affecting all four limbs.
Abnormal cerebral white matter morphology
MedGen UID:
181756
Concept ID:
C0948163
Pathologic Function
An abnormality of the cerebral white matter.
Hypoplasia of the brainstem
MedGen UID:
334226
Concept ID:
C1842688
Finding
Underdevelopment of the brainstem.
Subcortical band heterotopia
MedGen UID:
336288
Concept ID:
C1848201
Disease or Syndrome
Subcortical band heterotopia is a condition in which nerve cells (neurons) do not move (migrate) to their proper locations in the fetal brain during early development. (Heterotopia means "out of place.") Normally, the neurons that make up the outer surface of the brain (cerebral cortex) are distributed in a well-organized and multi-layered way. In people with subcortical band heterotopia, some neurons that should be part of the cerebral cortex do not reach it. These neurons stop their migration process in areas of the brain where they are not supposed to be and form band-like clusters of tissue. Since these bands are located beneath the cerebral cortex, they are said to be subcortical. In most cases, the bands are symmetric, which means they occur in the same places on the right and left sides of the brain.\n\nThe abnormal brain development causes neurological problems in people with subcortical band heterotopia. The signs and symptoms of the condition depend on the size of the bands and the lack of development of the cerebral cortex. The signs and symptoms can vary from severe intellectual disability and seizures that begin early in life and affect both sides of the brain (generalized seizures) to normal intelligence with seizures occurring later in life and affecting only one side of the brain (focal seizures). Some affected individuals also have weak muscle tone (hypotonia), loss of fine motor skills such as using utensils, or behavioral problems. Subcortical band heterotopia is typically found when brain imaging is done following the onset of seizures, usually in adolescence or early adulthood.
Agyria
MedGen UID:
361827
Concept ID:
C1879312
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital abnormality of the cerebral hemisphere characterized by lack of gyrations (convolutions) of the cerebral cortex. Agyria is defined as cortical regions lacking gyration with sulci great than 3 cm apart and cerebral cortex thicker than 5 mm.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Pachygyria
MedGen UID:
504794
Concept ID:
CN001193
Finding
Pachygyria is a malformation of cortical development with abnormally wide gyri with sulci 1,5-3 cm apart and abnormally thick cortex measuring more than 5 mm (radiological definition). See also neuropathological definitions for 2-, 3-, and 4-layered lissencephaly.
Secondary microcephaly
MedGen UID:
608952
Concept ID:
C0431352
Finding
Head circumference which falls below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender because of insufficient head growth after birth.
Axial hypotonia
MedGen UID:
342959
Concept ID:
C1853743
Finding
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) affecting the musculature of the trunk.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Accogli A, Severino M, Riva A, Madia F, Balagura G, Iacomino M, Carlini B, Baldassari S, Giacomini T, Croci C, Pisciotta L, Messana T, Boni A, Russo A, Bilo L, Tonziello R, Coppola A, Filla A, Mecarelli O, Casalone R, Pisani F, Falsaperla R, Marino S, Parisi P, Ferretti A, Elia M, Luchetti A, Milani D, Vanadia F, Silvestri L, Rebessi E, Parente E, Vatti G, Mancardi MM, Nobili L, Capra V, Salpietro V, Striano P, Zara F
Seizure 2020 Aug;80:145-152. Epub 2020 Jun 3 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2020.05.023. PMID: 32570172
Leventer RJ
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Guerrini R, Carrozzo R
Seizure 2002 Apr;11 Suppl A:532-43; quiz 544-7. PMID: 12185771

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Liu JS
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Gleeson JG
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Diagnosis

Simoes C, Graña M, Rodriguez S, Baltar Yanes F, Tapié A, Dell'Oca N, Naya H, Raggio V, Spangenberg L
BMC Pediatr 2022 Sep 14;22(1):545. doi: 10.1186/s12887-022-03595-6. PMID: 36100855Free PMC Article
Accogli A, Severino M, Riva A, Madia F, Balagura G, Iacomino M, Carlini B, Baldassari S, Giacomini T, Croci C, Pisciotta L, Messana T, Boni A, Russo A, Bilo L, Tonziello R, Coppola A, Filla A, Mecarelli O, Casalone R, Pisani F, Falsaperla R, Marino S, Parisi P, Ferretti A, Elia M, Luchetti A, Milani D, Vanadia F, Silvestri L, Rebessi E, Parente E, Vatti G, Mancardi MM, Nobili L, Capra V, Salpietro V, Striano P, Zara F
Seizure 2020 Aug;80:145-152. Epub 2020 Jun 3 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2020.05.023. PMID: 32570172
Fry AE, Cushion TD, Pilz DT
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2014 Jun;166C(2):198-210. Epub 2014 May 23 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31402. PMID: 24862549
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Mol Med Today 2000 Jul;6(7):277-84. doi: 10.1016/s1357-4310(00)01730-5. PMID: 10859564

Therapy

Kolbjer S, Martin DA, Pettersson M, Dahlin M, Anderlid BM
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2021 Jan;30:71-81. Epub 2021 Jan 8 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2020.12.011. PMID: 33453472
Fallet-Bianco C, Loeuillet L, Poirier K, Loget P, Chapon F, Pasquier L, Saillour Y, Beldjord C, Chelly J, Francis F
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Tjoelker LW, Stafforini DM
Biochim Biophys Acta 2000 Oct 31;1488(1-2):102-23. doi: 10.1016/s1388-1981(00)00114-1. PMID: 11080681

Prognosis

Kolbjer S, Martin DA, Pettersson M, Dahlin M, Anderlid BM
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2021 Jan;30:71-81. Epub 2021 Jan 8 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2020.12.011. PMID: 33453472
Di Donato N, Chiari S, Mirzaa GM, Aldinger K, Parrini E, Olds C, Barkovich AJ, Guerrini R, Dobyns WB
Am J Med Genet A 2017 Jun;173(6):1473-1488. Epub 2017 Apr 25 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38245. PMID: 28440899Free PMC Article
Uyanik G, Morris-Rosendahl DJ, Stiegler J, Klapecki J, Gross C, Berman Y, Martin P, Dey L, Spranger S, Korenke GC, Schreyer I, Hertzberg C, Neumann TE, Burkart P, Spaich C, Meng M, Holthausen H, Adès L, Seidel J, Mangold E, Buyse G, Meinecke P, Schara U, Zeschnigk C, Muller D, Helland G, Schulze B, Wright ML, Kortge-Jung S, Hehr A, Bogdahn U, Schuierer G, Kohlhase J, Aigner L, Wolff G, Hehr U, Winkler J
Neurology 2007 Jul 31;69(5):442-7. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000266629.98503.d0. PMID: 17664403
Leventer RJ
J Child Neurol 2005 Apr;20(4):307-12. doi: 10.1177/08830738050200040701. PMID: 15921231
Kato M, Dobyns WB
Hum Mol Genet 2003 Apr 1;12 Spec No 1:R89-96. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddg086. PMID: 12668601

Clinical prediction guides

Kolbjer S, Martin DA, Pettersson M, Dahlin M, Anderlid BM
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2021 Jan;30:71-81. Epub 2021 Jan 8 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2020.12.011. PMID: 33453472
Di Donato N, Chiari S, Mirzaa GM, Aldinger K, Parrini E, Olds C, Barkovich AJ, Guerrini R, Dobyns WB
Am J Med Genet A 2017 Jun;173(6):1473-1488. Epub 2017 Apr 25 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38245. PMID: 28440899Free PMC Article
Uyanik G, Morris-Rosendahl DJ, Stiegler J, Klapecki J, Gross C, Berman Y, Martin P, Dey L, Spranger S, Korenke GC, Schreyer I, Hertzberg C, Neumann TE, Burkart P, Spaich C, Meng M, Holthausen H, Adès L, Seidel J, Mangold E, Buyse G, Meinecke P, Schara U, Zeschnigk C, Muller D, Helland G, Schulze B, Wright ML, Kortge-Jung S, Hehr A, Bogdahn U, Schuierer G, Kohlhase J, Aigner L, Wolff G, Hehr U, Winkler J
Neurology 2007 Jul 31;69(5):442-7. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000266629.98503.d0. PMID: 17664403
McManus MF, Golden JA
J Child Neurol 2005 Apr;20(4):280-6. doi: 10.1177/08830738050200040301. PMID: 15921227
Reiner O, Cahana A, Escamez T, Martinez S
Mol Psychiatry 2002;7(1):12-6. doi: 10.1038/sj.mp.4000975. PMID: 11803439

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