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Usher syndrome(RP21, FORMERLY; RP8, FORMERLY)

MedGen UID:
78754
Concept ID:
C0271097
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Usher Syndromes; Usher's syndrome
SNOMED CT: Retinitis pigmentosa-deafness-ataxia syndrome (73119000); Hallgren's syndrome (73119000); Usher syndrome (57838006); Retinitis pigmentosa-deafness syndrome (57838006); Usher's syndrome (57838006)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Related genes: USH1G, PCDH15, CDH23, USH1C, CLRN1, MYO7A, HARS1
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0019501
OMIM®: 500004; 590085
OMIM® Phenotypic series: PS276900
Orphanet: ORPHA886

Definition

Usher syndrome is a condition characterized by partial or total hearing loss and vision loss that worsens over time. The hearing loss is classified as sensorineural, which means that it is caused by abnormalities of the inner ear. The loss of vision is caused by an eye disease called retinitis pigmentosa (RP), which affects the layer of light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye (the retina). Vision loss occurs as the light-sensing cells of the retina gradually break down. Loss of night vision begins first, followed by blind spots that develop in the side (peripheral) vision. Over time, these blind spots enlarge and merge to produce tunnel vision. In some cases, vision is further impaired by clouding of the lens of the eye (cataracts). However, many people with retinitis pigmentosa retain some central vision throughout their lives.

Researchers have identified three major types of Usher syndrome, designated as types I, II, and III. These types are distinguished by the severity of hearing loss, the presence or absence of balance problems, and the age at which signs and symptoms appear. The types are further divided into subtypes based on their genetic cause.

Most individuals with Usher syndrome type I are born with severe to profound hearing loss. Worsening vision loss caused by retinitis pigmentosa becomes apparent in childhood. This type of Usher syndrome also causes abnormalities of the vestibular system, which is the part of the inner ear that helps maintain the body's balance and orientation in space. As a result of the vestibular abnormalities, children with the condition have trouble with balance. They begin sitting independently and walking later than usual, and they may have difficulty riding a bicycle and playing certain sports.

Usher syndrome type II is characterized by hearing loss from birth and progressive vision loss that begins in adolescence or adulthood. The hearing loss associated with this form of Usher syndrome ranges from mild to severe and mainly affects the ability to hear high-frequency sounds. For example, it is difficult for affected individuals to hear high, soft speech sounds, such as those of the letters d and t. The degree of hearing loss varies within and among families with this condition, and it may become more severe over time. Unlike the other forms of Usher syndrome, type II is not associated with vestibular abnormalities that cause difficulties with balance.

People with Usher syndrome type III experience hearing loss and vision loss beginning somewhat later in life. Unlike the other forms of Usher syndrome, type III is usually associated with normal hearing at birth. Hearing loss typically begins during late childhood or adolescence, after the development of speech, and becomes more severe over time. By middle age, most affected individuals have profound hearing loss. Vision loss caused by retinitis pigmentosa also develops in late childhood or adolescence. Some people with Usher syndrome type III develop vestibular abnormalities that cause problems with balance. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
Follow this link to review classifications for Usher syndrome in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Zaw K, Carvalho LS, Aung-Htut MT, Fletcher S, Wilton SD, Chen FK, McLenachan S
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) 2022 Jul-Aug 01;11(4):369-379. Epub 2022 Aug 17 doi: 10.1097/APO.0000000000000546. PMID: 36041150
Nisenbaum E, Thielhelm TP, Nourbakhsh A, Yan D, Blanton SH, Shu Y, Koehler KR, El-Amraoui A, Chen Z, Lam BL, Liu X
Ear Hear 2022 Jan/Feb;43(1):1-8. doi: 10.1097/AUD.0000000000001066. PMID: 34039936Free PMC Article
Dulla K, Slijkerman R, van Diepen HC, Albert S, Dona M, Beumer W, Turunen JJ, Chan HL, Schulkens IA, Vorthoren L, den Besten C, Buil L, Schmidt I, Miao J, Venselaar H, Zang J, Neuhauss SCF, Peters T, Broekman S, Pennings R, Kremer H, Platenburg G, Adamson P, de Vrieze E, van Wijk E
Mol Ther 2021 Aug 4;29(8):2441-2455. Epub 2021 Apr 23 doi: 10.1016/j.ymthe.2021.04.024. PMID: 33895329Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Colombo L, Maltese PE, Castori M, El Shamieh S, Zeitz C, Audo I, Zulian A, Marinelli C, Benedetti S, Costantini A, Bressan S, Percio M, Ferri P, Abeshi A, Bertelli M, Rossetti L
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Feb 1;62(2):13. doi: 10.1167/iovs.62.2.13. PMID: 33576794Free PMC Article
Zhu T, Chen DF, Wang L, Wu S, Wei X, Li H, Jin ZB, Sui R
Br J Ophthalmol 2021 May;105(5):694-703. Epub 2020 Jul 16 doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2019-315786. PMID: 32675063
Tsang SH, Aycinena ARP, Sharma T
Adv Exp Med Biol 2018;1085:167-170. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-95046-4_32. PMID: 30578505
Sun T, Xu K, Ren Y, Xie Y, Zhang X, Tian L, Li Y
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2018 Mar 1;59(3):1229-1237. doi: 10.1167/iovs.17-23312. PMID: 29625443
Le Quesne Stabej P, Saihan Z, Rangesh N, Steele-Stallard HB, Ambrose J, Coffey A, Emmerson J, Haralambous E, Hughes Y, Steel KP, Luxon LM, Webster AR, Bitner-Glindzicz M
J Med Genet 2012 Jan;49(1):27-36. Epub 2011 Dec 1 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2011-100468. PMID: 22135276Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Delmaghani S, El-Amraoui A
Hum Genet 2022 Apr;141(3-4):709-735. Epub 2022 Mar 30 doi: 10.1007/s00439-022-02448-7. PMID: 35353227Free PMC Article
Colombo L, Maltese PE, Castori M, El Shamieh S, Zeitz C, Audo I, Zulian A, Marinelli C, Benedetti S, Costantini A, Bressan S, Percio M, Ferri P, Abeshi A, Bertelli M, Rossetti L
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Feb 1;62(2):13. doi: 10.1167/iovs.62.2.13. PMID: 33576794Free PMC Article
Dan H, Huang X, Xing Y, Shen Y
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2020 Mar;8(3):e1131. Epub 2020 Jan 20 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.1131. PMID: 31960602Free PMC Article
Koyanagi Y, Akiyama M, Nishiguchi KM, Momozawa Y, Kamatani Y, Takata S, Inai C, Iwasaki Y, Kumano M, Murakami Y, Omodaka K, Abe T, Komori S, Gao D, Hirakata T, Kurata K, Hosono K, Ueno S, Hotta Y, Murakami A, Terasaki H, Wada Y, Nakazawa T, Ishibashi T, Ikeda Y, Kubo M, Sonoda KH
J Med Genet 2019 Oct;56(10):662-670. Epub 2019 Jun 17 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2018-105691. PMID: 31213501
Hamel C
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2006 Oct 11;1:40. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-1-40. PMID: 17032466Free PMC Article

Therapy

Dulla K, Slijkerman R, van Diepen HC, Albert S, Dona M, Beumer W, Turunen JJ, Chan HL, Schulkens IA, Vorthoren L, den Besten C, Buil L, Schmidt I, Miao J, Venselaar H, Zang J, Neuhauss SCF, Peters T, Broekman S, Pennings R, Kremer H, Platenburg G, Adamson P, de Vrieze E, van Wijk E
Mol Ther 2021 Aug 4;29(8):2441-2455. Epub 2021 Apr 23 doi: 10.1016/j.ymthe.2021.04.024. PMID: 33895329Free PMC Article
Hastings ML, Jones TA
Neurotherapeutics 2019 Apr;16(2):348-359. doi: 10.1007/s13311-019-00729-0. PMID: 30972560Free PMC Article
Moore NA, Morral N, Ciulla TA, Bracha P
Expert Opin Biol Ther 2018 Jan;18(1):37-49. Epub 2017 Oct 23 doi: 10.1080/14712598.2018.1389886. PMID: 29057663
Lopes VS, Williams DS
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2015 Jan 20;5(6) doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a017319. PMID: 25605753Free PMC Article
Nagel-Wolfrum K, Baasov T, Wolfrum U
Adv Exp Med Biol 2014;801:741-7. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4614-3209-8_93. PMID: 24664766

Prognosis

Dulla K, Slijkerman R, van Diepen HC, Albert S, Dona M, Beumer W, Turunen JJ, Chan HL, Schulkens IA, Vorthoren L, den Besten C, Buil L, Schmidt I, Miao J, Venselaar H, Zang J, Neuhauss SCF, Peters T, Broekman S, Pennings R, Kremer H, Platenburg G, Adamson P, de Vrieze E, van Wijk E
Mol Ther 2021 Aug 4;29(8):2441-2455. Epub 2021 Apr 23 doi: 10.1016/j.ymthe.2021.04.024. PMID: 33895329Free PMC Article
Ma DJ, Lee HS, Kim K, Choi S, Jang I, Cho SH, Yoon CK, Lee EK, Yu HG
BMC Med Genomics 2021 Mar 10;14(1):74. doi: 10.1186/s12920-021-00874-6. PMID: 33691693Free PMC Article
Colombo L, Maltese PE, Castori M, El Shamieh S, Zeitz C, Audo I, Zulian A, Marinelli C, Benedetti S, Costantini A, Bressan S, Percio M, Ferri P, Abeshi A, Bertelli M, Rossetti L
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Feb 1;62(2):13. doi: 10.1167/iovs.62.2.13. PMID: 33576794Free PMC Article
Saihan Z, Webster AR, Luxon L, Bitner-Glindzicz M
Curr Opin Neurol 2009 Feb;22(1):19-27. doi: 10.1097/wco.0b013e3283218807. PMID: 19165952
Hamel C
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2006 Oct 11;1:40. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-1-40. PMID: 17032466Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Nisenbaum E, Thielhelm TP, Nourbakhsh A, Yan D, Blanton SH, Shu Y, Koehler KR, El-Amraoui A, Chen Z, Lam BL, Liu X
Ear Hear 2022 Jan/Feb;43(1):1-8. doi: 10.1097/AUD.0000000000001066. PMID: 34039936Free PMC Article
Dulla K, Slijkerman R, van Diepen HC, Albert S, Dona M, Beumer W, Turunen JJ, Chan HL, Schulkens IA, Vorthoren L, den Besten C, Buil L, Schmidt I, Miao J, Venselaar H, Zang J, Neuhauss SCF, Peters T, Broekman S, Pennings R, Kremer H, Platenburg G, Adamson P, de Vrieze E, van Wijk E
Mol Ther 2021 Aug 4;29(8):2441-2455. Epub 2021 Apr 23 doi: 10.1016/j.ymthe.2021.04.024. PMID: 33895329Free PMC Article
Ma DJ, Lee HS, Kim K, Choi S, Jang I, Cho SH, Yoon CK, Lee EK, Yu HG
BMC Med Genomics 2021 Mar 10;14(1):74. doi: 10.1186/s12920-021-00874-6. PMID: 33691693Free PMC Article
Mathur P, Yang J
Biochim Biophys Acta 2015 Mar;1852(3):406-20. Epub 2014 Dec 4 doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2014.11.020. PMID: 25481835Free PMC Article
Le Quesne Stabej P, Saihan Z, Rangesh N, Steele-Stallard HB, Ambrose J, Coffey A, Emmerson J, Haralambous E, Hughes Y, Steel KP, Luxon LM, Webster AR, Bitner-Glindzicz M
J Med Genet 2012 Jan;49(1):27-36. Epub 2011 Dec 1 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2011-100468. PMID: 22135276Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Manyisa N, Adadey SM, Wonkam-Tingang E, Yalcouye A, Wonkam A
OMICS 2022 Jan;26(1):2-18. doi: 10.1089/omi.2021.0181. PMID: 35041532Free PMC Article
Jouret G, Poirsier C, Spodenkiewicz M, Jaquin C, Gouy E, Arndt C, Labrousse M, Gaillard D, Doco-Fenzy M, Lebre AS
Otol Neurotol 2019 Jan;40(1):121-129. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000002054. PMID: 30531642
Nishio SY, Usami SI
Acta Otolaryngol 2017 Jul;137(7):730-742. Epub 2017 Feb 24 doi: 10.1080/00016489.2016.1276303. PMID: 28498079

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