U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Increased intervertebral space

MedGen UID:
868122
Concept ID:
C4022513
Finding
HPO: HP:0030320

Definition

An increase in the vertical distance between adjacent vertebral bodies, observed as an increase in the intervertebral disk space. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Dysosteosclerosis
MedGen UID:
98150
Concept ID:
C0432262
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic primary bone dysplasia disease characterized by progressive osteosclerosis and platyspondyly.
Spondyloenchondrodysplasia with immune dysregulation
MedGen UID:
375009
Concept ID:
C1842763
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloenchondrodysplasia with immune dysregulation (SPENCDI) is an immunoosseous dysplasia combining the typical metaphyseal and vertebral bone lesions of spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SPENCD) with immune dysfunction and neurologic involvement. The skeletal dysplasia is characterized by radiolucent and irregular spondylar and metaphyseal lesions that represent islands of chondroid tissue within bone. The vertebral bodies show dorsally accentuated platyspondyly with disturbance of ossification. Clinical abnormalities such as short stature, rhizomelic micromelia, increased lumbar lordosis, barrel chest, facial anomalies, and clumsy movements may be present (Menger et al., 1989). Central nervous system involvement includes spasticity, mental retardation, and cerebral calcifications, and immune dysregulation ranges from autoimmunity to immunodeficiency. Neurologic and autoimmune manifestations have been observed in different combinations within a single family, suggesting that this disorder may be defined by specific radiographic features but has remarkably pleiotropic manifestations (Renella et al., 2006). Briggs et al. (2016) also noted variability in skeletal, neurologic, and immune phenotypes, which was sometimes marked between members of the same family. Classification of the Enchondromatoses In their classification of the enchondromatoses, Spranger et al. (1978) called Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome types I and II enchondromatosis, respectively; metachondromatosis (156250), type III; and spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SPENCD), also called spondyloenchondromatosis, type IV; enchondromatosis with irregular vertebral lesions, type V; and generalized enchondromatosis, type VI. Halal and Azouz (1991) added 3 tentative categories to the 6 in the classification of Spranger et al. (1978). Pansuriya et al. (2010) suggested a new classification of enchondromatosis (multiple enchondromas).
Atelosteogenesis type II
MedGen UID:
338072
Concept ID:
C1850554
Disease or Syndrome
Clinical features of atelosteogenesis type 2 (AO2) include rhizomelic limb shortening with normal-sized skull, hitchhiker thumbs, small chest, protuberant abdomen, cleft palate, and distinctive facial features (midface retrusion, depressed nasal bridge, epicanthus, micrognathia). Other typical findings are ulnar deviation of the fingers, gap between the first and second toes, and clubfoot. AO2 is usually lethal at birth or shortly thereafter due to pulmonary hypoplasia and tracheobronchomalacia. However, it exists in a continuous phenotypic spectrum with diastrophic dysplasia, and long-term survivors have been reported.
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with corneal dystrophy
MedGen UID:
1714019
Concept ID:
C5394555
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with corneal dystrophy (SMDCD) is characterized by short stature due to short proximal and distal long bones. Affected individuals also exhibit narrow thorax with pulmonary hypoplasia and respiratory failure, as well as corneal dystrophy. Severe developmental delay has been observed (Ben-Salem et al., 2018).
Craniotubular dysplasia, Ikegawa type
MedGen UID:
1806238
Concept ID:
C5575335
Disease or Syndrome
Craniotubular dysplasia, Ikegawa type (CTDI) is characterized by childhood-onset short stature in association with macrocephaly, dolichocephaly, or prominent forehead. Radiography shows hyperostosis of the calvaria and skull base, with metadiaphyseal undermodeling of the long tubular bones and mild shortening and diaphyseal broadening of the short tubular bones. Affected individuals experience progressive vision loss in the first decade of life due to optic nerve compression, and deafness may develop in the second decade of life (Guo et al., 2021).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Sobański D, Staszkiewicz R, Stachura M, Gadzieliński M, Grabarek BO
Med Sci Monit 2023 Feb 23;29:e939237. doi: 10.12659/MSM.939237. PMID: 36814366Free PMC Article
Sobol GL, Hilibrand A, Davis A, Millhouse P, Koerner J, Kepler C, Schroeder GD, Krystal JD, Olsson EC, Rihn J, Anderson DG, Vaccaro A, Radcliff K
Clin Spine Surg 2018 Feb;31(1):E69-E73. doi: 10.1097/BSD.0000000000000571. PMID: 28719453
Borenstein D
Curr Opin Rheumatol 1992 Apr;4(2):226-32. doi: 10.1097/00002281-199204000-00016. PMID: 1533776

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Yuan H, Xie Y, Zheng J, Yang Y
Medicine (Baltimore) 2023 Jan 20;102(3):e32445. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000032445. PMID: 36701724Free PMC Article
Smith K, Mercuri J
Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2021 May 1;92(5):342-352. doi: 10.3357/AMHP.5713.2021. PMID: 33875067
Calleja-Agius J, Muscat-Baron Y, Brincat MP
Menopause Int 2009 Sep;15(3):127-30. doi: 10.1258/mi.2009.009016. PMID: 19723683
Shen W, Punyanitya M, Wang Z, Gallagher D, St-Onge MP, Albu J, Heymsfield SB, Heshka S
J Appl Physiol (1985) 2004 Dec;97(6):2333-8. Epub 2004 Aug 13 doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00744.2004. PMID: 15310748
Stäbler A, Reiser MF
Radiol Clin North Am 2001 Jan;39(1):115-35. doi: 10.1016/s0033-8389(05)70266-9. PMID: 11221503

Diagnosis

Martins D, Tonon CR, Pacca RL, Matchil NL, Junior LAJ, Queiroz DS, Pereira FWL, Silva AM, Padovese V, Padovani de Toledo Moraes M, Luiz da Silva D, Cardoso Nóbrega V, Curcelli EC, Okoshi MP
Am J Case Rep 2021 Sep 20;22:e932683. doi: 10.12659/AJCR.932683. PMID: 34855717Free PMC Article
Penchev R, Scheuring RA, Soto AT, Miletich DM, Kerstman E, Cohen SP
Anesthesiology 2021 Sep 1;135(3):384-395. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000003812. PMID: 33979426
Panesar SS, Fernandez-Miranda JC, Kliot M, Ashkan K
Neurosurgery 2020 Mar 1;86(3):317-324. doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyy531. PMID: 30407580
Yanagawa Y, Ohsaka H, Jitsuiki K, Yoshizawa T, Takeuchi I, Omori K, Oode Y, Ishikawa K
Emerg Radiol 2016 Aug;23(4):377-82. Epub 2016 May 4 doi: 10.1007/s10140-016-1401-6. PMID: 27147527
Shen W, Punyanitya M, Wang Z, Gallagher D, St-Onge MP, Albu J, Heymsfield SB, Heshka S
J Appl Physiol (1985) 2004 Dec;97(6):2333-8. Epub 2004 Aug 13 doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00744.2004. PMID: 15310748

Therapy

Martins D, Tonon CR, Pacca RL, Matchil NL, Junior LAJ, Queiroz DS, Pereira FWL, Silva AM, Padovese V, Padovani de Toledo Moraes M, Luiz da Silva D, Cardoso Nóbrega V, Curcelli EC, Okoshi MP
Am J Case Rep 2021 Sep 20;22:e932683. doi: 10.12659/AJCR.932683. PMID: 34855717Free PMC Article
Penchev R, Scheuring RA, Soto AT, Miletich DM, Kerstman E, Cohen SP
Anesthesiology 2021 Sep 1;135(3):384-395. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000003812. PMID: 33979426
Smith K, Mercuri J
Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2021 May 1;92(5):342-352. doi: 10.3357/AMHP.5713.2021. PMID: 33875067
Panesar SS, Fernandez-Miranda JC, Kliot M, Ashkan K
Neurosurgery 2020 Mar 1;86(3):317-324. doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyy531. PMID: 30407580
Marchionni E, Marconi L, Ruinato D, Zamparini E, Gasbarrini A, Viale P
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2019 Apr;23(2 Suppl):201-209. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_201904_17494. PMID: 30977887

Prognosis

Mills ES, Talehakimi A, Urness M, Wang JC, Piple AS, Chung BC, Tezuka T, Heckmann ND
Bone Joint J 2023 May 1;105-B(5):496-503. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.105B5.BJJ-2022-0945.R1. PMID: 37121593
Sobański D, Staszkiewicz R, Stachura M, Gadzieliński M, Grabarek BO
Med Sci Monit 2023 Feb 23;29:e939237. doi: 10.12659/MSM.939237. PMID: 36814366Free PMC Article
Perlas A, Chaparro LE, Chin KJ
Reg Anesth Pain Med 2016 Mar-Apr;41(2):251-60. doi: 10.1097/AAP.0000000000000184. PMID: 25493689
Garg RK, Somvanshi DS
J Spinal Cord Med 2011;34(5):440-54. doi: 10.1179/2045772311Y.0000000023. PMID: 22118251Free PMC Article
Shen W, Punyanitya M, Wang Z, Gallagher D, St-Onge MP, Albu J, Heymsfield SB, Heshka S
J Appl Physiol (1985) 2004 Dec;97(6):2333-8. Epub 2004 Aug 13 doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00744.2004. PMID: 15310748

Clinical prediction guides

Mills ES, Talehakimi A, Urness M, Wang JC, Piple AS, Chung BC, Tezuka T, Heckmann ND
Bone Joint J 2023 May 1;105-B(5):496-503. doi: 10.1302/0301-620X.105B5.BJJ-2022-0945.R1. PMID: 37121593
Yuan H, Xie Y, Zheng J, Yang Y
Medicine (Baltimore) 2023 Jan 20;102(3):e32445. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000032445. PMID: 36701724Free PMC Article
Yanagawa Y, Ohsaka H, Jitsuiki K, Yoshizawa T, Takeuchi I, Omori K, Oode Y, Ishikawa K
Emerg Radiol 2016 Aug;23(4):377-82. Epub 2016 May 4 doi: 10.1007/s10140-016-1401-6. PMID: 27147527
Galbusera F, van Rijsbergen M, Ito K, Huyghe JM, Brayda-Bruno M, Wilke HJ
Eur Spine J 2014 Jun;23 Suppl 3:S324-32. Epub 2014 Jan 31 doi: 10.1007/s00586-014-3203-4. PMID: 24482074
Shen W, Punyanitya M, Wang Z, Gallagher D, St-Onge MP, Albu J, Heymsfield SB, Heshka S
J Appl Physiol (1985) 2004 Dec;97(6):2333-8. Epub 2004 Aug 13 doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00744.2004. PMID: 15310748

Recent systematic reviews

Patel MR, Jacob KC, Parsons AW, Chavez FA, Ribot MA, Munim MA, Vanjani NN, Pawlowski H, Prabhu MC, Singh K
World Neurosurg 2022 Aug;164:e45-e58. Epub 2022 Mar 6 doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2022.02.130. PMID: 35259500
Garg K, Dash A, Aggarwal A, Duetzmann S
World Neurosurg 2021 Jul;151:77-86. Epub 2021 Apr 29 doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2021.04.092. PMID: 33933696
Giang G, Mobbs R, Phan S, Tran TM, Phan K
World Neurosurg 2017 Aug;104:259-271. Epub 2017 May 11 doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2017.05.011. PMID: 28502688
Perlas A, Chaparro LE, Chin KJ
Reg Anesth Pain Med 2016 Mar-Apr;41(2):251-60. doi: 10.1097/AAP.0000000000000184. PMID: 25493689
Fakouri B, Shetty NR, White TC
Clin Orthop Relat Res 2015 Jun;473(6):1957-62. doi: 10.1007/s11999-014-3904-3. PMID: 25183219Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Consumer resources

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...