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Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability 34(MRXS34)

MedGen UID:
902184
Concept ID:
C4225417
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Synonyms: INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER, X-LINKED, SYNDROMIC 34; MENTAL RETARDATION, X-LINKED, SYNDROMIC, MIRCSOF-LANGOUET TYPE; MRXS34
Modes of inheritance:
X-linked recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
375779
Concept ID:
C1845977
Finding
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for recessive traits related to a gene encoded on the X chromosome. In the context of medical genetics, X-linked recessive disorders manifest in males (who have one copy of the X chromosome and are thus hemizygotes), but generally not in female heterozygotes who have one mutant and one normal allele.
 
Gene (location): NONO (Xq13.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0010501
OMIM®: 300967
Orphanet: ORPHA466791

Definition

X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder-34 (MRXS34) is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability with poor speech, dysmorphic facial features, and mild structural brain abnormalities, including thickening of the corpus callosum (summary by Mircsof et al., 2015). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Pes planus
MedGen UID:
42034
Concept ID:
C0016202
Anatomical Abnormality
A foot where the longitudinal arch of the foot is in contact with the ground or floor when the individual is standing; or, in a patient lying supine, a foot where the arch is in contact with the surface of a flat board pressed against the sole of the foot by the examiner with a pressure similar to that expected from weight bearing; or, the height of the arch is reduced.
Hallux valgus
MedGen UID:
5416
Concept ID:
C0018536
Anatomical Abnormality
Lateral deviation of the great toe (i.e., in the direction of the little toe).
Synostosis of the proximal phalanx of the thumb with the 1st metacarpal
MedGen UID:
869831
Concept ID:
C4024262
Anatomical Abnormality
Fusion of the proximal phalanx of the thumb with the 1st metacarpal.
Patent ductus arteriosus
MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
In utero, the ductus arteriosus (DA) serves to divert ventricular output away from the lungs and toward the placenta by connecting the main pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the first 3 days of life is a physiologic shunt in healthy term and preterm newborn infants, and normally is substantially closed within about 24 hours after bith and completely closed after about three weeks. Failure of physiologcal closure is referred to a persistent or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Depending on the degree of left-to-right shunting, PDA can have clinical consequences.
Patent foramen ovale
MedGen UID:
8891
Concept ID:
C0016522
Congenital Abnormality
Failure of the foramen ovale to seal postnatally, leaving a potential conduit between the left and right cardiac atria.
Cardiomegaly
MedGen UID:
5459
Concept ID:
C0018800
Finding
Increased size of the heart, clinically defined as an increased transverse diameter of the cardiac silhouette that is greater than or equal to 50% of the transverse diameter of the chest (increased cardiothoracic ratio) on a posterior-anterior projection of a chest radiograph or a computed tomography.
Atrial septal defect
MedGen UID:
6753
Concept ID:
C0018817
Congenital Abnormality
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital abnormality of the interatrial septum that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Right ventricular hypertrophy
MedGen UID:
57981
Concept ID:
C0162770
Disease or Syndrome
In this case the right ventricle is more muscular than normal, causing a characteristic boot-shaped (coeur-en-sabot) appearance as seen on anterior- posterior chest x-rays. Right ventricular hypertrophy is commonly associated with any form of right ventricular outflow obstruction or pulmonary hypertension, which may in turn owe its origin to left-sided disease. The echocardiographic signs are thickening of the anterior right ventricular wall and the septum. Cavity size is usually normal, or slightly enlarged. In many cases there is associated volume overload present due to tricuspid regurgitation, in the absence of this, septal motion is normal.
Left ventricular noncompaction
MedGen UID:
450531
Concept ID:
C1960469
Disease or Syndrome
Left ventricular noncompaction is a heart (cardiac) muscle disorder that occurs when the lower left chamber of the heart (left ventricle), which helps the heart pump blood, does not develop correctly. Instead of the muscle being smooth and firm, the cardiac muscle in the left ventricle is thick and appears spongy. The abnormal cardiac muscle is weak and has an impaired ability to pump blood because it either cannot completely contract or it cannot completely relax. For the heart to pump blood normally, cardiac muscle must contract and relax fully.\n\nSome individuals with left ventricular noncompaction experience no symptoms at all; others have heart problems that can include sudden cardiac death. Additional signs and symptoms include abnormal blood clots, irregular heart rhythm (arrhythmia), a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations), extreme fatigue during exercise (exercise intolerance), shortness of breath (dyspnea), fainting (syncope), swelling of the legs (lymphedema), and trouble laying down flat. Some affected individuals have features of other heart defects. Left ventricular noncompaction can be diagnosed at any age, from birth to late adulthood. Approximately two-thirds of individuals with left ventricular noncompaction develop heart failure.
Left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy
MedGen UID:
866782
Concept ID:
C4021133
Disease or Syndrome
Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is characterized by prominent left ventricular trabeculae and deep inter-trabecular recesses. The myocardial wall is often thickened with a thin, compacted epicardial layer and a thickened endocardial layer. In some patients, LVNC is associated with left ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction, which can be transient in neonates.
Slender build
MedGen UID:
376828
Concept ID:
C1850573
Finding
Asthenic habitus refers to a slender build with long limbs, an angular profile, and prominent muscles or bones.
Gastroesophageal reflux
MedGen UID:
1368658
Concept ID:
C4317146
Finding
A condition in which the stomach contents leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus through the lower esophageal sphincter.
Aggressive behavior
MedGen UID:
1375
Concept ID:
C0001807
Individual Behavior
Aggressive behavior can denote verbal aggression, physical aggression against objects, physical aggression against people, and may also include aggression towards oneself.
Autism
MedGen UID:
13966
Concept ID:
C0004352
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autism, the prototypic pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), is usually apparent by 3 years of age. It is characterized by a triad of limited or absent verbal communication, a lack of reciprocal social interaction or responsiveness, and restricted, stereotypic, and ritualized patterns of interests and behavior (Bailey et al., 1996; Risch et al., 1999). 'Autism spectrum disorder,' sometimes referred to as ASD, is a broader phenotype encompassing the less severe disorders Asperger syndrome (see ASPG1; 608638) and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). 'Broad autism phenotype' includes individuals with some symptoms of autism, but who do not meet the full criteria for autism or other disorders. Mental retardation coexists in approximately two-thirds of individuals with ASD, except for Asperger syndrome, in which mental retardation is conspicuously absent (Jones et al., 2008). Genetic studies in autism often include family members with these less stringent diagnoses (Schellenberg et al., 2006). Levy et al. (2009) provided a general review of autism and autism spectrum disorder, including epidemiology, characteristics of the disorder, diagnosis, neurobiologic hypotheses for the etiology, genetics, and treatment options. Genetic Heterogeneity of Autism Autism is considered to be a complex multifactorial disorder involving many genes. Accordingly, several loci have been identified, some or all of which may contribute to the phenotype. Included in this entry is AUTS1, which has been mapped to chromosome 7q22. Other susceptibility loci include AUTS3 (608049), which maps to chromosome 13q14; AUTS4 (608636), which maps to chromosome 15q11; AUTS6 (609378), which maps to chromosome 17q11; AUTS7 (610676), which maps to chromosome 17q21; AUTS8 (607373), which maps to chromosome 3q25-q27; AUTS9 (611015), which maps to chromosome 7q31; AUTS10 (611016), which maps to chromosome 7q36; AUTS11 (610836), which maps to chromosome 1q41; AUTS12 (610838), which maps to chromosome 21p13-q11; AUTS13 (610908), which maps to chromosome 12q14; AUTS14A (611913), which has been found in patients with a deletion of a region of 16p11.2; AUTS14B (614671), which has been found in patients with a duplication of a region of 16p11.2; AUTS15 (612100), associated with mutation in the CNTNAP2 gene (604569) on chromosome 7q35-q36; AUTS16 (613410), associated with mutation in the SLC9A9 gene (608396) on chromosome 3q24; AUTS17 (613436), associated with mutation in the SHANK2 gene (603290) on chromosome 11q13; AUTS18 (615032), associated with mutation in the CHD8 gene (610528) on chromosome 14q11; AUTS19 (615091), associated with mutation in the EIF4E gene (133440) on chromosome 4q23; and AUTS20 (618830), associated with mutation in the NLGN1 gene (600568) on chromosome 3q26. (NOTE: the symbol 'AUTS2' has been used to refer to a gene on chromosome 7q11 (KIAA0442; 607270) and therefore is not used as a part of this autism locus series.) There are several X-linked forms of autism susceptibility: AUTSX1 (300425), associated with mutations in the NLGN3 gene (300336); AUTSX2 (300495), associated with mutations in NLGN4 (300427); AUTSX3 (300496), associated with mutations in MECP2 (300005); AUTSX4 (300830), associated with variation in the region on chromosome Xp22.11 containing the PTCHD1 gene (300828); AUTSX5 (300847), associated with mutations in the RPL10 gene (312173); and AUTSX6 (300872), associated with mutation in the TMLHE gene (300777). A locus on chromosome 2q (606053) associated with a phenotype including intellectual disability and speech deficits was formerly designated AUTS5. Folstein and Rosen-Sheidley (2001) reviewed the genetics of autism.
Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- or overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Impulsivity
MedGen UID:
43850
Concept ID:
C0021125
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Acting on the spur of the moment in response to immediate stimuli; acting on a momentary basis without a plan or consideration of outcomes; difficulty establishing or following plans; a sense of urgency and self-harming behavior under emotional distress.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Tremor
MedGen UID:
21635
Concept ID:
C0040822
Sign or Symptom
An unintentional, oscillating to-and-fro muscle movement about a joint axis.
Manifestations of perseverative thought or action
MedGen UID:
66686
Concept ID:
C0233651
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Perseveration can be defined as the contextually inappropriate and unintentional repetition of a response or behavioral unit. In other words, the observed repetitiveness does not meet the demands of the situation, is not the product of deliberation, and may even unfold despite counterintention. Perseveration can therefore be differentiated from goal-directed and intentional forms of repetition, such as linguistic redundancies designed to enhance communicative or poetic impact.
Delayed ability to walk
MedGen UID:
66034
Concept ID:
C0241726
Finding
A failure to achieve the ability to walk at an appropriate developmental stage. Most children learn to walk in a series of stages, and learn to walk short distances independently between 12 and 15 months.
Speech apraxia
MedGen UID:
78112
Concept ID:
C0264611
Disease or Syndrome
A type of apraxia that is characterized by difficulty or inability to execute speech movements because of problems with coordination and motor problems, leading to incorrect articulation. An increase of errors with increasing word and phrase length may occur.
Cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120578
Concept ID:
C0266470
Congenital Abnormality
Cerebellar hypoplasia is a descriptive term implying a cerebellum with a reduced volume, but a normal shape and is stable over time.
Dysplastic corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
98128
Concept ID:
C0431369
Congenital Abnormality
Dysplasia and dysgenesis of the corpus callosum are nonspecific descriptions that imply defective development of the corpus callosum. The term dysplasia is applied when the morphology of the corpus callosum is altered as a congenital trait. For instance, the corpus callosum may be hump-shaped, kinked, or a striped corpus callosum that lacks an anatomically distinct genu and splenium.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Persistent head lag
MedGen UID:
256151
Concept ID:
C1141883
Finding
The Premie-Neuro and the Dubowitz Neurological Examination score head lag in the same manner. Scoring for both is as follows
Thick corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
371993
Concept ID:
C1835194
Finding
Increased vertical dimension of the corpus callosum. This feature can be visualized by sagittal sections on magnetic resonance tomography imaging of the brain.
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, has been defined as an IQ score below 70.
Mild global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
861405
Concept ID:
C4012968
Finding
A mild delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child.
Kyphosis
MedGen UID:
44042
Concept ID:
C0022821
Anatomical Abnormality
Exaggerated anterior convexity of the thoracic vertebral column.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Joint laxity
MedGen UID:
39439
Concept ID:
C0086437
Finding
Lack of stability of a joint.
Frontal bossing
MedGen UID:
67453
Concept ID:
C0221354
Congenital Abnormality
Bilateral bulging of the lateral frontal bone prominences with relative sparing of the midline.
Kyphoscoliosis
MedGen UID:
154361
Concept ID:
C0575158
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormal curvature of the spine in both a coronal (lateral) and sagittal (back-to-front) plane.
Relative macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
338607
Concept ID:
C1849075
Congenital Abnormality
A relatively mild degree of macrocephaly in which the head circumference is not above two standard deviations from the mean, but appears dysproportionately large when other factors such as body stature are taken into account.
Axial hypotonia
MedGen UID:
342959
Concept ID:
C1853743
Finding
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) affecting the musculature of the trunk.
Malar flattening
MedGen UID:
347616
Concept ID:
C1858085
Finding
Underdevelopment of the malar prominence of the jugal bone (zygomatic bone in mammals), appreciated in profile, frontal view, and/or by palpation.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Thickened calvaria
MedGen UID:
346823
Concept ID:
C1858452
Finding
The presence of an abnormally thick calvaria.
Macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
745757
Concept ID:
C2243051
Finding
Occipitofrontal (head) circumference greater than 97th centile compared to appropriate, age matched, sex-matched normal standards. Alternatively, a apparently increased size of the cranium.
Neonatal hypotonia
MedGen UID:
412209
Concept ID:
C2267233
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) manifesting in the neonatal period.
Increased head circumference
MedGen UID:
909477
Concept ID:
C4083076
Finding
An abnormally increased head circumference in a growing child. Head circumference is measured with a nonelastic tape and comprises the distance from above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head. The measured HC is then plotted on an appropriate growth chart.
Hypernasal speech
MedGen UID:
107884
Concept ID:
C0566620
Finding
A type of speech characterized by the presence of an abnormally increased nasal airflow during speech.
Drooling
MedGen UID:
8484
Concept ID:
C0013132
Finding
Habitual flow of saliva out of the mouth.
Wide mouth
MedGen UID:
44238
Concept ID:
C0024433
Congenital Abnormality
Distance between the oral commissures more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased width of the oral aperture (subjective).
Narrow mouth
MedGen UID:
44435
Concept ID:
C0026034
Congenital Abnormality
Distance between the commissures of the mouth more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased width of the oral aperture (subjective).
Dental crowding
MedGen UID:
11850
Concept ID:
C0040433
Finding
Changes in alignment of teeth in the dental arch
Open mouth
MedGen UID:
116104
Concept ID:
C0240379
Finding
A facial appearance characterized by a permanently or nearly permanently opened mouth.
Upslanted palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
98390
Concept ID:
C0423109
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, the inclination of the palpebral fissure is greater than typical for age.
Prominent nose
MedGen UID:
98423
Concept ID:
C0426415
Finding
Distance between subnasale and pronasale more than two standard deviations above the mean, or alternatively, an apparently increased anterior protrusion of the nasal tip.
Deviated nasal septum
MedGen UID:
154288
Concept ID:
C0549397
Finding
Positioning of the nasal septum to the right or left in contrast to the normal midline position of the nasal septum.
Long face
MedGen UID:
324419
Concept ID:
C1836047
Finding
Facial height (length) is more than 2 standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, an apparent increase in the height (length) of the face (subjective).
High, narrow palate
MedGen UID:
324787
Concept ID:
C1837404
Finding
The presence of a high and narrow palate.
Widely spaced teeth
MedGen UID:
337093
Concept ID:
C1844813
Finding
Increased spaces (diastemata) between most of the teeth in the same dental arch.
Short philtrum
MedGen UID:
350006
Concept ID:
C1861324
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Submucous cleft soft palate
MedGen UID:
868770
Concept ID:
C4023175
Congenital Abnormality
A cleft of the muscular (soft) portion of the palate that is covered by mucous membrane. Soft-palate submucous clefts are characterized by a midline deficiency or lack of muscle tissue.
Narrow nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
1641596
Concept ID:
C4551564
Finding
Decreased width of the bony bridge of the nose.
Delayed puberty
MedGen UID:
46203
Concept ID:
C0034012
Pathologic Function
Passing the age when puberty normally occurs with no physical or hormonal signs of the onset of puberty.
Pineal cyst
MedGen UID:
235476
Concept ID:
C1335411
Finding
A glial uniloculated or multiloculated fluid-filled sac that either reside within or completely replace the pineal gland.
Myopia
MedGen UID:
44558
Concept ID:
C0027092
Disease or Syndrome
Nearsightedness, also known as myopia, is an eye condition that causes blurry distance vision. People who are nearsighted have more trouble seeing things that are far away (such as when driving) than things that are close up (such as when reading or using a computer). If it is not treated with corrective lenses or surgery, nearsightedness can lead to squinting, eyestrain, headaches, and significant visual impairment.\n\nNearsightedness usually begins in childhood or adolescence. It tends to worsen with age until adulthood, when it may stop getting worse (stabilize). In some people, nearsightedness improves in later adulthood.\n\nFor normal vision, light passes through the clear cornea at the front of the eye and is focused by the lens onto the surface of the retina, which is the lining of the back of the eye that contains light-sensing cells. People who are nearsighted typically have eyeballs that are too long from front to back. As a result, light entering the eye is focused too far forward, in front of the retina instead of on its surface. It is this change that causes distant objects to appear blurry. The longer the eyeball is, the farther forward light rays will be focused and the more severely nearsighted a person will be.\n\nNearsightedness is measured by how powerful a lens must be to correct it. The standard unit of lens power is called a diopter. Negative (minus) powered lenses are used to correct nearsightedness. The more severe a person's nearsightedness, the larger the number of diopters required for correction. In an individual with nearsightedness, one eye may be more nearsighted than the other.\n\nEye doctors often refer to nearsightedness less than -5 or -6 diopters as "common myopia." Nearsightedness of -6 diopters or more is commonly called "high myopia." This distinction is important because high myopia increases a person's risk of developing other eye problems that can lead to permanent vision loss or blindness. These problems include tearing and detachment of the retina, clouding of the lens (cataract), and an eye disease called glaucoma that is usually related to increased pressure within the eye. The risk of these other eye problems increases with the severity of the nearsightedness. The term "pathological myopia" is used to describe cases in which high myopia leads to tissue damage within the eye.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVSyndromic X-linked intellectual disability 34

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Faundes V, Goh S, Akilapa R, Bezuidenhout H, Bjornsson HT, Bradley L, Brady AF, Brischoux-Boucher E, Brunner H, Bulk S, Canham N, Cody D, Dentici ML, Digilio MC, Elmslie F, Fry AE, Gill H, Hurst J, Johnson D, Julia S, Lachlan K, Lebel RR, Byler M, Gershon E, Lemire E, Gnazzo M, Lepri FR, Marchese A, McEntagart M, McGaughran J, Mizuno S, Okamoto N, Rieubland C, Rodgers J, Sasaki E, Scalais E, Scurr I, Suri M, van der Burgt I, Matsumoto N, Miyake N, Benoit V, Lederer D, Banka S
Genet Med 2021 Jul;23(7):1202-1210. Epub 2021 Mar 5 doi: 10.1038/s41436-021-01119-8. PMID: 33674768Free PMC Article
Goldstein DS, Holmes CS, Kaler SG
Neurochem Res 2009 Aug;34(8):1464-8. Epub 2009 Feb 21 doi: 10.1007/s11064-009-9933-8. PMID: 19234788Free PMC Article
Losekoot M, Hoogendoorn E, Olmer R, Jansen CC, Oosterwijk JC, van den Ouweland AM, Halley DJ, Warren ST, Willemsen R, Oostra BA, Bakker E
J Med Genet 1997 Nov;34(11):924-6. doi: 10.1136/jmg.34.11.924. PMID: 9391887Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Pearson TS, Pons R, Ghaoui R, Sue CM
Mov Disord 2019 May;34(5):625-636. Epub 2019 Mar 26 doi: 10.1002/mds.27655. PMID: 30913345
Kim MY, Kim JH, Cho MH, Choi YH, Kim SH, Im YJ, Park K, Kang HG, Chae JH, Cheong HI
J Korean Med Sci 2019 Jan 7;34(1):e4. Epub 2018 Dec 26 doi: 10.3346/jkms.2019.34.e4. PMID: 30618512Free PMC Article
Storey E
Semin Neurol 2014 Jul;34(3):280-92. Epub 2014 Sep 5 doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1386766. PMID: 25192506
Jorge P, Oliveira B, Marques I, Santos R
BMC Med Genet 2013 Aug 5;14:80. doi: 10.1186/1471-2350-14-80. PMID: 23914978Free PMC Article
Wada T, Ban H, Matsufuji M, Okamoto N, Enomoto K, Kurosawa K, Aida N
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2013 Oct;34(10):2034-8. Epub 2013 May 16 doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A3560. PMID: 23681356Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Pearson TS, Pons R, Ghaoui R, Sue CM
Mov Disord 2019 May;34(5):625-636. Epub 2019 Mar 26 doi: 10.1002/mds.27655. PMID: 30913345
Storey E
Semin Neurol 2014 Jul;34(3):280-92. Epub 2014 Sep 5 doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1386766. PMID: 25192506
Jorge P, Oliveira B, Marques I, Santos R
BMC Med Genet 2013 Aug 5;14:80. doi: 10.1186/1471-2350-14-80. PMID: 23914978Free PMC Article
Wada T, Ban H, Matsufuji M, Okamoto N, Enomoto K, Kurosawa K, Aida N
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2013 Oct;34(10):2034-8. Epub 2013 May 16 doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A3560. PMID: 23681356Free PMC Article
Tümer Z
Hum Mutat 2013 Mar;34(3):417-29. doi: 10.1002/humu.22266. PMID: 23281160

Therapy

Lee J, Jung SM, Jeon S
Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Aug 21;99(34):e21847. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000021847. PMID: 32846834Free PMC Article
Cutri-French C, Armstrong D, Saby J, Gorman C, Lane J, Fu C, Peters SU, Percy A, Neul JL, Marsh ED
Ann Neurol 2020 Aug;88(2):396-406. Epub 2020 Jun 29 doi: 10.1002/ana.25797. PMID: 32472944Free PMC Article
Schulze-Frenking G, Jones SA, Roberts J, Beck M, Wraith JE
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Recent systematic reviews

Inuzuka LM, Guerra-Peixe M, Macedo-Souza LI, Pedreira CC, Gurgel-Giannetti J, Monteiro FP, Ramos L, Costa LA, Crippa ACS, Lourenco CM, Pachito DV, Sukys-Claudino L, Gaspar LS, Antoniuk SA, Dutra LPS, Diniz SSL, Pires RB, Garzon E, Kok F
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