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Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 16 with or without polydactyly(SRTD16)

MedGen UID:
934685
Concept ID:
C4310718
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: SRTD16
 
Gene (location): IFT52 (20q13.12)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014915
OMIM®: 617102

Definition

Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia with or without polydactyly, see SRTD1 (208500). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Postaxial polydactyly
MedGen UID:
67394
Concept ID:
C0220697
Disease or Syndrome
Polydactyly refers to the occurrence of supernumerary digits and is the most frequent of congenital hand and foot deformities. Based on the location of the extra digits, polydactyly can be classified into preaxial, involving the thumb or great toe; postaxial, affecting the fifth digit; and central, involving the 3 central digits. Postaxial polydactyly (PAP) is further subclassified into 2 types: in type A, a well-formed extra digit articulates with the fifth or a sixth metacarpal, whereas in type B, a rudimentary, poorly developed extra digit is present (summary by Umm-e-Kalsoom et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Postaxial Polydactyly Other forms of postaxial polydactyly type A include PAPA2 (602085) on chromosome 13q21; PAPA3 (607324) on chromosome 19p13; PAPA4 (608562) on chromosome 7q22; PAPA5 (263450) on chromosome 13q13; PAPA6 (615226), caused by mutation in the ZNF141 gene (194648) on chromosome 4p16; PAPA7 (617642), caused by mutation in the IQCE gene (617631) on chromosome 7p22; PAPA8 (618123), caused by mutation in the GLI1 gene (165220) on chromosome 12q13; PAPA9 (618219), caused by mutation in the FAM98A gene (617273) on chromosome 8q22; and PAPA10 (618498), caused by mutation in the KIAA0825 gene (617266) on chromosome 5q15.
Brachydactyly
MedGen UID:
67454
Concept ID:
C0221357
Congenital Abnormality
Digits that appear disproportionately short compared to the hand/foot. The word brachydactyly is used here to describe a series distinct patterns of shortened digits (brachydactyly types A-E). This is the sense used here.
Limb undergrowth
MedGen UID:
116086
Concept ID:
C0239399
Finding
Limb shortening because of underdevelopment of one or more bones of the extremities.
Short phalanx of finger
MedGen UID:
163753
Concept ID:
C0877165
Finding
Short (hypoplastic) phalanx of finger, affecting one or more phalanges.
Short metacarpal
MedGen UID:
323064
Concept ID:
C1837084
Anatomical Abnormality
Diminished length of one or more metacarpal bones in relation to the others of the same hand or to the contralateral metacarpal.
Flat acetabular roof
MedGen UID:
373340
Concept ID:
C1837485
Finding
Flattening of the superior part of the acetabulum, which is a cup-shaped cavity at the base of the hipbone into which the ball-shaped head of the femur fits. The acetabular roof thereby appears horizontal rather than arched, as it normally does.
Short distal phalanx of finger
MedGen UID:
326590
Concept ID:
C1839829
Finding
Short distance from the end of the finger to the most distal interphalangeal crease or the distal interphalangeal joint flexion point. That is, hypoplasia of one or more of the distal phalanx of finger.
Sandal gap
MedGen UID:
374376
Concept ID:
C1840069
Finding
A widely spaced gap between the first toe (the great toe) and the second toe.
Angel-shaped phalanx
MedGen UID:
1686151
Concept ID:
C5139114
Anatomical Abnormality
A phalangeal malformation that is termed angel-shaped phalanx (ASP), because of its resemblance to the angels used for decoration of Christmas trees. The various components of an angel-shaped phalanx are
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Protuberant abdomen
MedGen UID:
340750
Concept ID:
C1854928
Finding
A thrusting or bulging out of the abdomen.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Dolichocephaly
MedGen UID:
65142
Concept ID:
C0221358
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a increased anterior-posterior diameter, i.e., an increased antero-posterior dimension of the skull. Cephalic index less than 76%. Alternatively, an apparently increased antero-posterior length of the head compared to width. Often due to premature closure of the sagittal suture.
Short thorax
MedGen UID:
140876
Concept ID:
C0426789
Finding
Reduced inferior to superior extent of the thorax.
Narrow chest
MedGen UID:
96528
Concept ID:
C0426790
Finding
Reduced width of the chest from side to side, associated with a reduced distance from the sternal notch to the tip of the shoulder.
Short metatarsal
MedGen UID:
341358
Concept ID:
C1849020
Finding
Diminished length of a metatarsal bone, with resultant proximal displacement of the associated toe.
Cone-shaped epiphyses of the phalanges of the hand
MedGen UID:
347156
Concept ID:
C1859480
Finding
A cone-shaped appearance of the epiphyses of the fingers of the hand, producing a 'ball-in-a-socket' appearance. The related entity 'angel-shaped' epiphysis refers to a pronounced cone-shaped epiphysis in combination with a pseudoepiphysis at the distal end of a phalanx.
Respiratory distress
MedGen UID:
96907
Concept ID:
C0476273
Sign or Symptom
Respiratory distress is objectively observable as the physical or emotional consequences from the experience of dyspnea. The physical presentation of respiratory distress is generally referred to as labored breathing, while the sensation of respiratory distress is called shortness of breath or dyspnea.
Carious teeth
MedGen UID:
8288
Concept ID:
C0011334
Disease or Syndrome
Caries is a multifactorial bacterial infection affecting the structure of the tooth. This term has been used to describe the presence of more than expected dental caries.
High forehead
MedGen UID:
65991
Concept ID:
C0239676
Finding
An abnormally increased height of the forehead.
Telecanthus
MedGen UID:
140836
Concept ID:
C0423113
Finding
Distance between the inner canthi more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparently increased distance between the inner canthi.
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
Thick vermilion border
MedGen UID:
332232
Concept ID:
C1836543
Finding
Increased width of the skin of vermilion border region of upper lip.
Widely spaced teeth
MedGen UID:
337093
Concept ID:
C1844813
Finding
Increased spaces (diastemata) between most of the teeth in the same dental arch.
Wide nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
341441
Concept ID:
C1849367
Finding
Increased breadth of the nasal bridge (and with it, the nasal root).
Midface retrusion
MedGen UID:
339938
Concept ID:
C1853242
Anatomical Abnormality
Posterior positions and/or vertical shortening of the infraorbital and perialar regions, or increased concavity of the face and/or reduced nasolabial angle.
Full cheeks
MedGen UID:
355661
Concept ID:
C1866231
Finding
Increased prominence or roundness of soft tissues between zygomata and mandible.
Hypermetropia
MedGen UID:
43780
Concept ID:
C0020490
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of refraction characterized by the ability to see objects in the distance clearly, while objects nearby appear blurry.
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Retinal pigment epithelial mottling
MedGen UID:
347513
Concept ID:
C1857644
Finding
Mottling (spots or blotches with different shades) of the retinal pigment epithelium, i.e., localized or generalized fundal pigment granularity associated with processes at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Tang X, Liu C, Liu X, Chen J, Fan X, Liu J, Ma D, Cao G, Chen Z, Xu D, Zhu Y, Jiang X, Cheng L, Wu Y, Hou L, Li Y, Shao X, Zheng S, Zhang A, Zheng B, Jian S, Rong Z, Su Q, Gao X, Rao J, Shen Q, Xu H; Chinese Children Genetic Kidney Disease Database (CCGKDD); “Internet Plus” Nephrology Alliance of the National Center for Children’s Care
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Florea L, Caba L, Gorduza EV
Genes (Basel) 2021 Aug 29;12(9) doi: 10.3390/genes12091353. PMID: 34573333Free PMC Article
Chueh J
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2017 Apr;29(2):71-72. doi: 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000352. PMID: 28253207

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Rampal V, Giuliano F
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2020 Feb;106(1S):S115-S123. Epub 2019 Oct 21 doi: 10.1016/j.otsr.2019.03.021. PMID: 31648997
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Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Jun 4;2:27. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-27. PMID: 17547743Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Brucato MP, Lin DY
Clin Podiatr Med Surg 2022 Jan;39(1):73-87. doi: 10.1016/j.cpm.2021.08.002. PMID: 34809796
Florea L, Caba L, Gorduza EV
Genes (Basel) 2021 Aug 29;12(9) doi: 10.3390/genes12091353. PMID: 34573333Free PMC Article
Kelly DM, Mahmoud K, Mauck BM
J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2021 May 1;29(9):361-369. doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-D-20-00983. PMID: 33443388
Chueh J
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2017 Apr;29(2):71-72. doi: 10.1097/GCO.0000000000000352. PMID: 28253207
Malik S
Clin Genet 2014 Mar;85(3):203-12. Epub 2013 Oct 18 doi: 10.1111/cge.12276. PMID: 24020795

Therapy

Soper JR, Bonar SF, O'Sullivan DJ, McCredie J, Willert HG
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Am J Med Genet 2002 Oct 15;112(3):297-303. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.10781. PMID: 12357474

Prognosis

Rampal V, Giuliano F
Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2020 Feb;106(1S):S115-S123. Epub 2019 Oct 21 doi: 10.1016/j.otsr.2019.03.021. PMID: 31648997
Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Rac MWF, McKinney J, Gandhi M
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2019 Dec;221(6):B13-B15. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2019.09.023. PMID: 31787158
Stoll C, Dott B, Alembik Y, Roth MP
Eur J Med Genet 2015 Dec;58(12):674-80. Epub 2015 Nov 11 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2015.11.003. PMID: 26578241
Temtamy SA, Aglan MS
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2008 Jun 13;3:15. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-3-15. PMID: 18554391Free PMC Article
Baujat G, Le Merrer M
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Jun 4;2:27. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-27. PMID: 17547743Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Palencia-Campos A, Aoto PC, Machal EMF, Rivera-Barahona A, Soto-Bielicka P, Bertinetti D, Baker B, Vu L, Piceci-Sparascio F, Torrente I, Boudin E, Peeters S, Van Hul W, Huber C, Bonneau D, Hildebrand MS, Coleman M, Bahlo M, Bennett MF, Schneider AL, Scheffer IE, Kibæk M, Kristiansen BS, Issa MY, Mehrez MI, Ismail S, Tenorio J, Li G, Skålhegg BS, Otaify GA, Temtamy S, Aglan M, Jønch AE, De Luca A, Mortier G, Cormier-Daire V, Ziegler A, Wallis M, Lapunzina P, Herberg FW, Taylor SS, Ruiz-Perez VL
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Zhang LX, Lemire G, Gonzaga-Jauregui C, Molidperee S, Galaz-Montoya C, Liu DS, Verloes A, Shillington AG, Izumi K, Ritter AL, Keena B, Zackai E, Li D, Bhoj E, Tarpinian JM, Bedoukian E, Kukolich MK, Innes AM, Ediae GU, Sawyer SL, Nair KM, Soumya PC, Subbaraman KR, Probst FJ, Bassetti JA, Sutton RV, Gibbs RA, Brown C, Boone PM, Holm IA, Tartaglia M, Ferrero GB, Niceta M, Dentici ML, Radio FC, Keren B, Wells CF, Coubes C, Laquerrière A, Aziza J, Dubucs C, Nampoothiri S, Mowat D, Patel MS, Bracho A, Cammarata-Scalisi F, Gezdirici A, Fernandez-Jaen A, Hauser N, Zarate YA, Bosanko KA, Dieterich K, Carey JC, Chong JX, Nickerson DA, Bamshad MJ, Lee BH, Yang XJ, Lupski JR, Campeau PM
Genet Med 2020 Aug;22(8):1338-1347. Epub 2020 May 19 doi: 10.1038/s41436-020-0811-8. PMID: 32424177Free PMC Article
Soper JR, Bonar SF, O'Sullivan DJ, McCredie J, Willert HG
Skeletal Radiol 2019 Apr;48(4):517-525. Epub 2018 Oct 19 doi: 10.1007/s00256-018-3086-2. PMID: 30341712Free PMC Article
Forsythe E, Beales PL
Eur J Hum Genet 2013 Jan;21(1):8-13. Epub 2012 Jun 20 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2012.115. PMID: 22713813Free PMC Article
Ogino T
Hand Clin 1990 Nov;6(4):661-71. PMID: 2176655

Recent systematic reviews

Ahmad S, Ali MZ, Muzammal M, Mir FA, Khan MA
Mol Genet Genomics 2022 Sep;297(5):1195-1214. Epub 2022 Jul 30 doi: 10.1007/s00438-022-01930-1. PMID: 35907958
Lopez-Leon S, Geissbühler Y, Sabidó M, Turkson M, Wahlich C, Morris JK
J Neurol 2020 Sep;267(9):2721-2731. Epub 2020 May 22 doi: 10.1007/s00415-020-09913-1. PMID: 32444984Free PMC Article
Chopan M, Sayadi L, Chim H, Buchanan PJ
Hand (N Y) 2020 May;15(3):303-310. Epub 2018 Nov 12 doi: 10.1177/1558944718810885. PMID: 30417703Free PMC Article
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Am J Med Genet A 2018 Oct;176(10):2104-2120. Epub 2017 Nov 21 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38545. PMID: 29159873
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Br J Clin Pharmacol 2014 Jan;77(1):96-101. doi: 10.1111/bcp.12138. PMID: 23593966Free PMC Article

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